Ụlọ mposi

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Ịse ụlọ mposi nwere afere itukwu ala yana ihe na eche ndo.[1]

Ụlọ mposi bụ ụdị nke ụlọ mposi na ekpokọta nsị mmadụ n’oghere dị n’ime ala. Ha anaghị eji mmiri ma ọ bụ jiri otu lita ma ọ bụ atọ kwa mgbacha n’ụlọ mposi na enweghị ihe mgbacha dị mma. [2] Mgbe arụrụ ma dowe ya nke ọma ha nwere ike ịwedata nkesa nke ọrịa site na ibelata ọnụ nke nsị mmadụ dị na gburugburu sitere na ịnyụ nsị na gburugburu.[3][4] Nke a na ewedata nnyefe nke ahụhụ n’etiti nsị yana nri si n’aka ijiji.[3] Ahụhụ ndị a bụ ihe ndị kachasị ebute afọ ọsịsa na efe efe yana ọrịa okpo nke mgbiri afọ.[4] Afọ ọsịsa na efe efe dapụtara n’ọnwụ nde 0.7 n’ụmụaka ndị na erughi afọ ise na 2011 yana nde 250 tufuru ụbọchị agụmakwụkwọ.[4][5] Ụlọ mposi bụ ụzọ kachasị ọnụ ala nke ịkewa ndị mmadụ na nsị.[3]

Ụlọ mposi nwere ụzọ atọ: oghere n’ime ala, nyiwe ma ọ bụ ala nwere obere oghere, yana ihe na eche ndo.[2] Oghere ahụ na abụkarị opekata mpe onuno mita 3 (10 feet) yana 1m (3.2 feet) n’obosara.[2] World Health Organisation na akwado na ha ruru ogologo dị mma pụọ n’ebe ụlọ dị, nke ga-ahakọ nsogbu ịnweta ya ọsọ ọsọ yana isi ya.[3] Ogologo dị n’etiti mmiri dị n’ala yana mmiri dị n’elu ala kwesịrị ibu nnukwu ibu iji wedata ihe egwu nke mmetọ okirikiri. Oghere dị na nyiwe ahụ ekwesịghị ịgafe centimita 25 (9.8 inches) iji gbochie ụmụaka na ịdakpu n’ime ya. Ekwesịrị igbochi ọkụ ịbata n’ime oghere ahụ iji belata ijiji. Nke a nwere ike ịchọ iji okwuchi iji kpuchie oghere dị n’ala ahụ mgbe anaghị eji ya.[3] Mgbe oghere ahụ kpojuru ruo 0.5 mita (1.6 feet), a ga-ekpocha ya ma ọ bụ arụpụta oghere ọhụrụ, ebugharịa ndo ahụ ma ọ bụ arụgharịa ya n’ebe ọhụrụ.[6] Ndị na ejikwa apịtị nsị wepuru n’oghere ahụ gbagwojuru anya. Enwere ihe egwu gburugburu na ahụike ma ọ bụrụ na emeghị ya nke ọma.

Enwere ike imelite ụlọ mposi n’ọtụtụ ụzọ. Otu gụnyere itinye okpoko ikuku si na oghere gaa n’elu ụlọ ahụ. Nke a na emelite nkugharị ikuku ma wedata isi nke ụlọ mposi ahụ. Ọ nwekwara ike ịbelata ijiji mgbe eji ntofo kpuchie elu nke okpoko ahụ (na abụkarị nke eji fiberglass mebe). N’ụdị nke ụlọ mposi ndị a ekwesịrị iji okwuchi iji kpuchie oghere dị n’ala ahụ.[6] Mmelite ndị ọzọ enwere ike gụnyere ala arụrụ ka mmiri na agbanye n’ime oghere yana nkwagide nke akụkụ elu nke oghere ahụ site na iji brik ma ọ bụ aja okirikiri simenti iji melite nhakọ.[2][6]

Ebe 2013 ekpebiri ndị na eji ụlọ mposi egburu oghere n’ala dị ihe dị ka ọnụọgụ ijeri ndị mmadụ 1.77.[7] Nke a bụkarịrị na ụwa na etolite etolie yanakwa mpaghara ime obodo yana ọzara. Na 2011 ihe dị ka ọnụọgụ ijeri 2.5 enweghị ụlọ mposi dị mma yana otu ijeri gbabanyere na ịnyụ nsị na gburugburu n’okirikiri ha.[8] Akụkụ Ndịda Ugwu nke Asia yana Akụkụ Ọzara Africa nwere ụlọ mposi kachasị njọ n’ụwa.[8] N’obodo ndị na etolite etolite ọnụego nke ụlọ mposi dị mma na abụkarị n’etiti 25 na 60 USD.[9] Ọnụego ndozi na aga bụ n’etiti 1.5 yana 4 USD kwa otu onye kwa afọ nke bụ ihe anaghị elebanyekarị anya.[10] N’ụfọdụ akụkụ nke ime obodo India ejirila nkwado “Ụlọ Mposi Adịghị, Nwunye Agaghị Adị” iji kwado ụlọ mposi site na ịkwado ụmụ nwanyị ịjụ ịlụ nwoke na enweghị ụlọ mposi.[11][12]

Nrụtụ aka[mèzi | mèzi mkpụrụ]

  1. Latrine slabs: an engineer’s guide, WEDC Guide 005. Water, Engineering and Development Centre The John Pickford Building School of Civil and Building Engineering Loughborough University, 22. ISBN 978 1 84380 143 6. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Tilley, E., Ulrich, L., Lüthi, C., Reymond, Ph. and Zurbrügg, C. (2014). Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies, 2, Dübendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag). ISBN 9783906484570. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Simple pit latrine (fact sheet 3.4) (1996). Retrieved on 15 August 2014.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Call to action on sanitation (pdf). Retrieved on 15 August 2014.
  5. (Apr 20, 2013) "Global burden of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea.". Lancet 381 (9875): 1405–16. DOI:10.1016/s0140-6736(13)60222-6. PMID 23582727. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 (2003) Linking technology choice with operation and maintenance in the context of community water supply and sanitation. World Health Organization. ISBN 9241562153. 
  7. (May 2013) "Pit latrines and their impacts on groundwater quality: a systematic review.". Environmental health perspectives 121 (5): 521–30. DOI:10.1289/ehp.1206028. PMID 23518813. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 (2014) Progress on sanitation and drinking-water - 2014 update. (pdf), WHO, 16–20. ISBN 9789241507240. 
  9. (2011) Water and sanitation-related diseases and the environment challenges, interventions, and preventive measures. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 9781118148600. 
  10. (2013) Sanitation and Hygiene in Africa Where Do We Stand?. Intl Water Assn. ISBN 9781780405414. 
  11. (2013) Global Problems, Smart Solutions: Costs and Benefits. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107435247. 
  12. Stopnitzky, Yaniv (12 December 2011). Haryana's scarce women tell potential suitors: "No loo, no I do". Blog of World Bank. Retrieved on 17 November 2014.