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Asụsụ Dangme

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Asụsụ Dangbe, nke a na-akpọkwa Dangbe ma ọ bụ Adaŋgbi, bụ asụsụ Kwa nke ndị Dangbe (Dangbeli) na-asụ na ndịda ọwụwa anyanwụ Ghana. Ndị Dangbeli so n'otu agbụrụ Ga-Dangbe buru ibu. Klogbi bụ ụdị dị iche, nke ndị Kloli (Klo ma ọ bụ Krobo People) na-asụ. Kropp Dakubu (1987) bụ ụtọ asụsụ zuru oke nke asụsụ ahụ.

Nchịkọta

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Dangme bụ asụsụ Kwa, akụkụ nke ezinụlọ Niger Congo. Ọ nwere njikọ chiri anya na Ga, ha jikọtara aka mepụta alaka GaʹDangme n'ime Kwa.

Ebe a na-ekesa ya

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Ihe karịrị mmadụ 800,000 na-asụ Dangme na Ghana ka ọ na-erule afọ 2004.

Ọ bụ asụsụ ndị Aborigine na-asụ na Ghana, Togo, Benin site n'aka ndị Ada, Osudoku, Manya Krobo, Yilo Krobo, Shai, Ningo, Prampram na Kpone. Dangme nwere ihe jikọrọ ya na Ga, na, n'ókè nke nta, Ewe. Ka o sina dị, ọtụtụ ndị Dangme na-asụkwa ma ọ bụ na-aghọta ma ọ dịkarịa ala otu n'ime asụsụ ndị a, na-ese njikọ dị ka asymmetric. A na-akụzi Dangme dịka isiokwu ụlọ akwụkwọ na mpaghara Dangme.

Ala nke agbụrụ ndị a metụtara sitere na Greater Accra Region ruo na mpaghara ọwụwa anyanwụ Ghana, n'ebe ugwu ruo ugwu Akwapim ma nwee Dangmeland niile dị n'akụkụ ọwụwa anyanwụ yana Ga n'ebe ọdịda anyanwụ ya. Bawaleshi, nke dị ihe dị ka kilomita 4.8 na ndịda ọdịda anyanwụ Dodowa, bụ obodo Dangme ikpeazụ nke dị nso na Akwapim na ókèala Ga. Olumba dị n'ụsọ osimiri bụ Ada, Ningo na Prampram (Gbugbla). Olumba olu ime obodo bụ Shai (Sɛ), Krobo (Klo) na Osudoku.

Ọmụmụ ụdaolu

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Mkpụrụ okwu

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Mkpụrụ okwu ndị na-esote ya [1]
Ọnụ Alveolar Palatal Velar Akpụkpọ ahụ
Ụgbọ imi m n ɲ ŋ ŋ͡m
Plosive/Affricate



voiceless p t t͡ʃ k k͡p
voiced b d d͡ʒ ɡ ɡ͡b
Ihe na-esiri ike voiceless f s
voiced v z
Ihe atụ l j w
  • /m, p, b/ are bilabial, whereas /f, v/ are labiodental.
  • /p, b, t, d, k, g/ are singly articulated plosives, /t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ/ are affricates (stops with a strong fricative release), whereas /k͡p, ɡ͡b/ are doubly articulated plosives.
  • /l/ varies between a lateral approximant [l] and a central trill [r]. 
  • /j/ has a fricative allophone [ʒ]. 
Monophthongs nke Dangme, site na Kropp Dakubu (1987:15)

Adangme nwere ụdaume ọnụ 7 na ụdaume imi 5.

N'ihu Nlaghachi
oral nasal oral nasal
N'akụkụ i ĩ u ũ
N'etiti etiti e   o  
Mepee n'etiti ɛ ɛ̃ ɔ ɔ̃
Emeghe a ã    
  • A naghị agba ụdaume ndị dị n'ihu gburugburu, ebe ụdaume ndị nke azụ gbara gburugburu.
  • /i, u/ are slightly more open than /ĩ, ũ/.[3]
  • /e, o/ are close-mid [[[:Àtụ:IPAplink]], Àtụ:IPAplink]. They do not have nasal counterparts.[3]
  • /ɛ̃, ɔ̃/ are open-mid [[[:Àtụ:IPAplink]], Àtụ:IPAplink], whereas /ɛ, ɔ/ are somewhat lower (near-open) [[[:Àtụ:IPAplink]], Àtụ:IPAplink].[3]
  • N'imi //ã// n/a/-emeghe n'ihu [ã], ebe ọnụ /a/ na-agbadata ntakịrị (n'akụkụ ihu) [a̠].

Ụda ụda

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Adangme nwere ụda atọ: elu, etiti na ala. Dị ka ọtụtụ asụsụ West Africa, ọ nwere ụda ụda.

Phonotactics

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Nhazi mkpụrụedemede enwere ike bụ V, CV, ma ọ bụ CCV ebe consonant nke abụọ bụ /l/.

Usoro ide ihe

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Akwụkwọ ozi otografik na phonemic gụnyere ndị a:

  • j - //dʒ//
  • ng - //ŋ//
  • ngm - //ŋm//
  • ny - //ɲ//
  • ts - //tʃ//
  • y - //j//
  • ɛ - //ɛ//
  • ɔ - //ɔ//

Edensibia

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Akwụkwọ

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Njikọ mpụga

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