History of China

Shí Wikipedia, njikotá édémédé nke onyobulạ
History of China
Territories of Dynasties in China.gif
history of a country or state
subclass nkehistory of East Asia Dezie
ihu nkeChina, Chinese civilization Dezie

Ihe ndekọ akụkọ ihe mere eme nke China mbụ amara ama ama sitere na mmalite dị ka 1250 BC, site na usoro ndị eze Shang (ihe dị ka 1600–1046 BC), n'oge ọchịchị eze Wu Ding, [1] [2] onye akpọrọ aha dị ka eze iri abụọ na otu nke Shang site n'otu aka ahụ. [3] [4] Ederede akụkọ ihe mere eme oge ochie dị ka Akwụkwọ nke Documents (isi mmalite, narị afọ nke 11 BC), Bamboo Annals (c. 296 BC) na Records of the Grand Historian (c. 91 BC) kwuru ma kọwaa usoro eze Xia (c. 2070). -1600 BC) tupu Shang, mana ọ nweghị ederede amataghị site na oge ahụ, na ihe odide Shang egosighi ịdị adị nke Xia. Shang chịrị na ndagwurugwu Yellow River, nke a na-ewerekarị dị ka ebe mmalite nke mmepeanya ndị China. Agbanyeghị, mmepeanya Neolithic sitere na ebe ọdịnala dị iche iche n'akụkụ Osimiri Yellow na Osimiri Yangtze . Ndị a Yellow River na Yangtze mmepeanya bilitere puku afọ tupu Shang. N'ime ọtụtụ puku afọ nke akụkọ ihe mere eme na-aga n'ihu, China so na mmepeanya kacha ochie n'ụwa, a na-ewerekwa ya dị ka otu n'ime mmalite mmepeanya . [5] [6]

Ndị eze Zhou (1046–256 BC) nọchiri Shang, ma webata echiche nke Iwu Eluigwe iji kwado ọchịchị ha. Gọọmenti etiti Zhou malitere ịda mba n'ihi nrụgide mpụga na nke ime na narị afọ nke asatọ BC, obodo ahụ mechara kewaa n'obere steeti n'oge opupu ihe ubi na oge mgbụsị akwụkwọ . Steeti ndị a nwere onwe ha wee lụso ibe ha ọgụ n'oge steeti Warring na-esote. Ọtụtụ omenala, akwụkwọ na nkà ihe ọmụma ndị China malitere n'oge nsogbu ahụ.

Homo erectus bi na China ugbu a ihe karịrị otu nde afọ gara aga. [7] Nnyocha e mere n'oge na-adịbeghị anya na-egosi na ngwá ọrụ nkume ndị a chọtara na saịtị Xiaochangliang bụ magnetostratigraphically ụbọchị 1.36. nde afọ gara aga. [8] Ebe ihe ochie nke Xihoudu dị na Shanxi Province nwere ihe akaebe nke Homo erectus ji ọkụ mee ihe, [9] nke dị na 1.27. nde afọ gara aga, [7] na fossils Homo erectus na China gụnyere nwoke Yuanmou, nwoke Lantian na onye Peking . Achọpụtara ezé fossilized Homo sapiens nke dị na 125,000–80,000 BC na Fuyan Cave na Dao County na Hunan . [10] Achọtala ihe akaebe nke teknụzụ Middle Palaeolithic Levallois n'ime mkpokọta lithic nke saịtị Guanyindong dị na ndịda ọdịda anyanwụ China, nke edere ihe dị ka 170,000–80,000 afọ gara aga. [11]

Neolithic
</img>
Ọkpụkpụ dị afọ 10,000, omenala Xianren Cave (18000-7000 BC)
</img>
Isi ụta ọkpụkpụ, omenala Peiligang (7000-5000 BC)
</img>
Ụgbọ ọdụ ọdụ nru ububa nwere ụdị nnụnụ abụọ chere anyanwụ ihu, omenala Hemudu (5500-3300 BC)
</img>
Ihe arịa ite sitere na omenala Hemudu (5500–3300 BC)
See also: List of Bronze Age sites in China

Bronze artifacts have been found at the Majiayao culture site (between 3100 and 2700 BC).[12][13] The Bronze Age is also represented at the Lower Xiajiadian culture (2200–1600 BC) site in northeast China. Sanxingdui located in what is now Sichuan province is believed to be the site of a major ancient city, of a previously unknown Bronze Age culture (between 2000 and 1200 BC). The site was first discovered in 1929 and then re-discovered in 1986. Chinese archaeologists have identified the Sanxingdui culture to be part of the ancient kingdom of Shu, linking the artifacts found at the site to its early legendary kings.[14]

Early China.gif

Ndị ọkọ akụkọ ihe mere eme nke China n'oge ikpeazụ maara echiche nke otu usoro eze ga-anọchi nke ọzọ, ma ọnọdụ ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na China n'oge mbụ siri ike karị. N'ihi ya, dị ka ụfọdụ ndị ọkà mmụta nke China na-atụ aro, ndị Xia na ndị Shang nwere ike na-ezo aka n'òtù ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị dị n'otu oge, dị ka Zhou mbụ dị n'otu oge ahụ na Shang. [15]

Ihe akaebe mgbe ochie, dị ka ọkpụkpụ ọnụ na ọla kọpa, na ihe odide ndị ebufetara na-egosi ịdị adị nke usoro eze Shang (c. 1600–1046 BC). Nchọpụta sitere na oge Shang mbụ sitere na ihe gwupụtara na Erligang, nke dị nso ugbu a Zhengzhou, na Shangcheng. Nchọpụta sitere na oge Shang ma ọ bụ Yin (殷) mechara, ka ahụrụ n'ọba ụba na Anyang, na Henan nke oge a, [29] nke ikpeazụ nke isi obodo itoolu nke Shang (c. 1300–1046 BC).  na Anyang gunyere ihe odide izizi nke ndi China choputara ugbu a: ihe odide nke igba afa na Chinese oge ochie na-ede n'ọkpụkpụ ma ọ bụ shei nke anụmanụ - " ọkpụkpụ okwu ", malitere na gburugburu 1250 BC. [1]

Ndị eze Zhou (otu puku na iri ana n'isi BC ruo ihe dịka nari abuo iriise nisi BC) bụ usoro eze kacha dịrị ogologo oge na akụkọ ntolite China. Ka ọ na-erule ngwụsị narị afọ nke abụọ BC, usoro ndị eze Zhou malitere ịpụta na ndagwurugwu Osimiri ocha, na-agafe ókèala Shang. Ọ dị ka ndị Zhou malitere ịchịisi ha n'okpuru ọchịchị ọkara feudal . Ndị Zhou bi na ọdịda anyanwụ nke Shang, ndị Shang họpụtara onye ndu Zhou Onye Nchebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ. Onye na-achị Zhou, Eze Wu, site n'enyemaka nke nwanne ya nwoke, Duke nke Zhou, dị ka onye ọchịchị, jisiri ike merie Shang na Agha Muye .

Isi ihe ndị mere na obere oge mbụ gụnyere njikọ Qin nke ndi China na ndị Han nọchiri ha, nkewa nke mbụ nke njikọ Jin sochiri, na mfu nke ugwu China. Oge obere oge etiti ka e ji njikota Sui akara yana mgbakwunye Tang, nke abụọ nke abụọ na njikọta nke egwu. Oge obere oge ikpeazụ gụnyere usoro ndị eze Yuan, Ming na Qing.

Ndị ọkọ akụkọ ihe mere eme na-ezokarị aka n'oge sitere na usoro Qin ruo na njedebe nke usoro ndị eze Qing dị ka Imperial China. Ọ bụ ezie na ọchịchị dị n'otu nke Emperor Qin Mbụ dị naanị afọ 12, o jisiri dị ukwuu nke ihe bụ isi nke ala nna Han China na ime ka ha dịrị n'otu n'okpuru ọchịchị ndị omebe iwu nke dị na Xianyang (nke dị nso na Xianyang). Xi'an nke oge a). Ozizi nke Legalism nke na-eduzi Qin kwusiri ike na a na-agbasosi ụkpụrụ iwu ike na ike zuru oke nke eze ukwu. Nkà ihe ọmụma a, ọ bụ ezie na ọ dị irè maka ịgbasa alaeze ukwu ahụ n'ụdị agha, enweghị ọrụ maka ịchịkwa ya n'oge udo. Eze Ukwu Qin bụ onye chịburu n'isi nchichi obi ọjọọ nke mmegide ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị, gụnyere ihe omume a maara dị ka ọkụ nke akwụkwọ Ma obu ule na olili nke ndị ọkà mmụta . Nke a ga-abụ mkpali dị n'azụ njikọ Han na-emesịa na-etinye ụlọ akwụkwọ na-adịghị mma nke ọchịchị ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị.

  1. 1.0 1.1 Boltz (February 1986). "Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology". Early Writing Systems 17 (3). 
  2. Keightley (Autumn 1996). "Art, Ancestors, and the Origins of Writing in China". Representations (56 Special Issue: The New Erudition): 68–95. DOI:10.2307/2928708. 
  3. The Shang Dynasty Rulers. China Knowledge. Retrieved on 7 August 2007.
  4. Shang Kingship And Shang Kinship. Indiana University. Archived from the original on 9 April 2008. Retrieved on 7 August 2007.
  5. "Ancient China", World History Encyclopedia, 18 December 2012.
  6. (1994) in Murowchick: Cradles of Civilization-China: Ancient Culture, Modern Land. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 Rixiang Zhu (June 2003). "Magnetostratigraphic dating of early humans of in China". Earth-Science Reviews 61 (3–4): 191–361. DOI:10.1016/S0012-8252(02)00132-0. 
  8. Earliest Presence of Humans in Northeast Asia. Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on 13 August 2007. Retrieved on 4 August 2007.
  9. Xihoudu Site. chinaculture.org. Archived from the original on 7 August 2007. Retrieved on 11 December 2018.
  10. "Fossil teeth place humans in Asia '20,000 years early'", BBC News. Retrieved on 14 October 2015.
  11. Hu (19 November 2018). "Late Middle Pleistocene Levallois stone-tool technology in southwest China". Nature 565 (7737): 82–85. DOI:10.1038/s41586-018-0710-1. PMID 30455423. 
  12. Martini, I. Peter (2010). Landscapes and Societies: Selected Cases. Springer. ISBN 978-90-481-9412-4. 
  13. Higham, Charles (2004). Encyclopedia of ancient Asian civilizations. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 0-8160-4640-9. 
  14. Michael Loewe, Edward L. Shaughnessy (1999). The Cambridge History of Ancient China: From the Origins of Civilization to 221 BC. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-47030-7. 
  15. Zhang (2016-03-29). Confucianism in Contemporary Chinese Politics: An Actionable Account of Authoritarian Political Culture (in en). Lexington Books. ISBN 978-0-7391-8240-6.