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Ịmụ ọtụtụ ihe

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Imu otutu umu bu culmination nke otutu ime, be nwaanyi na amu umu abuo maobu Karia. Aha nke ana akokari vertebrate species, imu otutu umu n'aputa Kari ihe n'umuanumanu. Ana ako ya ha dika ole umu ahu di nke gunyere umuejima na umu ato. N'ebe ihe na bughi mmadu ana akpo ya litter, imu otutu umu na di Karia imu otu. Nwaanyi imu otutu umu na adi iche nakwa n'ebe ihe Nile na amu NWA no.

Ime ọtụtụ nwere ike ịbụ nsonaazụ nke Imeju nke otu àkwá nke na-ekewa iji mepụta otu nwa e bu n'afọ, ma ọ bụ ọ nwere ike ịbụ n'ihi imeju nke ọtụtụ àkwá nke mepụtara ụmụnne ("na-abụghị otu"), ma ọ bụ nwere ike ịbụ ngwakọta nke ihe ndị a. A na-akpọ ọtụtụ afọ ime site na otu zygote Monozygotic, site na zygotes abụọ a na-akpọ dizygotic. N'otu aka ahụ, a pụrụ ịkpọ ụmụnne n'onwe ha site na ọmụmụ ọtụtụ dị ka monozygotic ma ọ bụrụ na ha bụ otu ma ọ bụ dị ka dizygotic (n'ihe gbasara ejima) ma ọ bụ polyzygotic.

àkwá ọ bụla a mịrị amị (zygote) nwere ike ịmepụta otu embryo, ma ọ bụ ọ nwere ike kewaa n'ime embryo abụọ ma ọ bụ karịa, nke ọ bụla na-ebu otu ihe nketa ahụ. A na-akpọ ụmụ e bu n'afọ sitere na zygotes dị iche iche fraternal ma na-ekerịta naanị 50% nke ihe nketa ha, dị ka ụmụnne zuru oke sitere na ọmụmụ dị iche iche na-eme. Ụmụ ọhụrụ ndị sitere n'otu zygote na-ekere òkè 100% nke ihe nketa ha ma ya mere a na-akpọ ha otu.[1] Ụmụ ejima yiri ibe ha bụ otu nwoke ma ọ bụ nwanyị mgbe niile.

Ịmụ ọtụtụ ụmụ mmadụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'ime ime mmadụ, nkezi ogologo ime (2 izu ole na ole karịa ime) bụ izu 38 na otu nwa e bu n'afọ. Nkezi a na-ebelata maka nwa ọ bụla ọzọ: ruo izu 36 maka ọmụmụ ejima, izu 32 maka ụmụ atọ, na izu 30 maka ụmụ anọ.[2] Ka oge ime na-ebelata, ihe ize ndụ sitere na ntozu okè na ọmụmụ na-esote na-abawanye na nha nke ìgwè nwanne. Naanị ka ọ na-erule na narị afọ nke iri abụọ ka ihe karịrị anọ niile dị ndụ site na nwa ọhụrụ.

Akụkọ ihe mere eme n'oge na-adịbeghị anya ahụwokwa ọnụ ọgụgụ na-arịwanye elu nke ịmụ ọtụtụ nwa. Na United States, e mere atụmatụ na ka ọ na-erule afọ 2011, 36% nke ọmụmụ ejima, na 78% nke ọmụmụ atọ na nke dị elu sitere na ime site na teknụzụ ịmụ nwa.[3]

Ụmụ ejima[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ụmụ ejima bụ ụdị ọmụmụ ọtụtụ ụmụ mmadụ. Ụlọ ọrụ U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention na-akọ ihe karịrị ụmụ ejima 132,000 n'ime nde ọmụmụ 3.9 nke ụdị ọ bụla kwa afọ, ihe dị ka 3.4%, ma ọ bụ 1 n'ime 30.[4] E jiri ya tụnyere ọtụtụ ọmụmụ ndị ọzọ, ọmụmụ ejima mejupụtara 97% n'ime ha na US. Na-enweghị ọgwụgwọ ọmụmụ, ohere ahụ bụ ihe dịka 1 n'ime 60; na ọgwụgwọ ọmụmụ ahụ, ọ nwere ike ịdị elu dị ka 20-25%.[5]

Ụmụ atọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

 

Ụmụ atọ yiri ibe ha dị ka ụmụnne nwanyị atọ a na-eme mgbe otu àkwá e ji eme nke ọma kewara abụọ ma otu n'ime zygotes abụọ na-esi na ya pụta kewara ọzọ.
Mkpụrụ atọ nke monoamniotic dị ka a hụrụ na ultrasound [6]

Triplets nwere ike ịbụ ma ọ bụ fraternal, otu, ma ọ bụ ngwakọta nke abụọ. Ndị a na-ahụkarị bụ ụmụnne atọ, nke sitere na ime ime polyzygotic nke àkwá atọ. Ihe a na-adịghị ahụkebe bụ ụmụ atọ sitere na ime dizygotic, ebe otu zygote kewara n'ime ụmụ abụọ yiri ibe ha, nke ọzọ anaghị. Ihe a na-ahụkarị bụ ụmụ atọ yiri ibe ha, ụmụ atọ sitere n'otu àkwá. N'okwu a, mgbe ụfọdụ zygote mbụ na-ekewa n'ime abụọ ma otu n'ime zygotes abụọ ahụ na-eke ọzọ mana nke ọzọ anaghị, ma ọ bụ zygote nke mbụ na- kewaa n'ime atọ.[7]

Ụmụ anọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ụmụ ejima anọ dị obere karịa ụmụ ejima ma ọ bụ ụmụ atọ. Ka ọ na-erule afọ 2007, e nwere ihe dịka 3,556 set edere n'ụwa niile. Ịmụ nwa anọ na-aghọwanye ihe a na-ahụkarị n'ihi Ọgwụgwọ ọmụmụ. E nwere ihe dị ka 70 set nke ụmụ anọ yiri ibe ha n'ụwa niile. Ọtụtụ ìgwè ụmụ anọ nwere ngwakọta nke ụmụnne nwoke na ụmụnne nwanyị, dị ka atọ yiri ibe ha na otu nwanne nwanyị, abụọ yiri ibe ha ma ọ bụ abụọ nwanne nwanyị, ma ọ bụ ụzọ abụọ yiri ibe ya. Otu ìgwè a ma ama nke otu ụmụ anọ bụ ụmụ anọ Genain, ha niile nwere schizophrenia.[8] A na-akpọ ụmụ anọ "quads" mgbe ụfọdụ na Britain.

Ụmụ ise[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ụmụ ise na-apụta n'ụzọ okike na 1 n'ime ọmụmụ 55,000,000.[9] Ụmụ ise mbụ a maara na ha lanarịrị nwa ọhụrụ bụ ụmụ nwanyị Canada Dionne quintuplets, amụrụ na 1934. A na-akpọ quintuplets mgbe ụfọdụ "quins" na UK na "quints" na North America. Otu ìgwè a ma ama nke ụmụ agbọghọ ise niile bụ Busby quints site na usoro TV OutDaughtered .

Ụmụ nwoke isii[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A mụrụ ya na Liverpool, England, na Nọvemba 18, 1983, Walton sextuplets bụ ụmụ nwanyị mbụ na-adị ndụ sextuplet, na nke anọ a maara n'ụwa nke sextuplett. Otu ọzọ a ma ama nke sextuplets bụ Gosselin sextupleits, amụrụ na Mee 10, 2004, na Hershey, Pennsylvania.[10] Ihe ngosi telivishọn Jon & Kate Plus 8 na mgbe e mesịrị Kate Plus 8 kọrọ akụkọ ndụ nke ụmụ nwoke isii a. Ihe ngosi ndị ọzọ nke ọdịdị a gụnyere Table for 12 na Sweet Home Sextuplets.

  1. Coefficient of relationship - ISOGG Wiki. isogg.org. Retrieved on 2021-04-03.
  2. Multiple Pregnancy and Birth: Twins, Triplets, and High Order Multiples (booklet). www.reproductivefacts.org. Retrieved on 2021-04-03.
  3. (2013) "Fertility Treatments and Multiple Births in the United States". New England Journal of Medicine 369 (23): 2218–2225. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1301467. PMID 24304051. 
  4. Cohn. "Rare identical triplets born to Baltimore couple", The Baltimore Sun, October 23, 2015. Retrieved on October 23, 2015.
  5. Twin Statistics - What is your chance of having twins?. keepkidshealthy.com. Archived from the original on 7 February 2008. Retrieved on 13 May 2016.
  6. UOTW #19 - Ultrasound of the Week. Ultrasound of the Week (23 September 2014). Archived from the original on 9 May 2017. Retrieved on 27 May 2017.
  7. Identical Triplets - What You Need to Know - Huggies AU (en). www.huggies.com.au. Retrieved on 2023-04-13.
  8. Mirsky (1984). "The Genain Quadruplets: Psychological studies". Psychiatry Research 13 (1): 77–93. DOI:10.1016/0165-1781(84)90120-3. PMID 6151205. 
  9. Multiples in pregnancy - twins triplets quads identical and fraternal. Baby2see.com (2006). Archived from the original on 2015-02-04. Retrieved on 2015-04-15.
  10. The day after Mother's Day, the Gosselin sextuplets arrive. Penn State University (10 May 2004). Archived from the original on 2016-10-23.