Ọmụmụ

Shí Wikipedia, njikotá édémédé nke onyobulạ
birth
obere ụdị nkebidoro, process Dezie
Akụkụ nkelife Dezie
na-esochiomụmụ nwa Dezie
ihe kpatara yagestation Dezie
nwere mmetụtaborn Dezie
megidere nkeọnwụ Dezie

ike bụ omume ma ọ bụ usoro ihe nwa ma ọ bụ ipi nwa, [1] na-ezokwa aka n'ọrụ aka dịka nkebi.  Na mammals, usoro a na-amalite site na hormones nke na-eme ka akara muscular nke akpanwa na-agbakọta, na-Pụpụ nwa ebu n'afọ na ọkwa hel mgbe ọ dị mama inye nri na iku ume.

N'ụdị ụfọdụ, mkpụrụ ahụ na-amụba nwa ma nwee ike ịgagharị na nso nso a ozugbo amuchara nwa mana n'ebe ndị ọzọ ọ na-adabere kpamkpam na ịzụ nwa.

Ọ bụghị naanị ụmụ anụmanụ na-amụ nwa.  Ụfọdụ ihe na-akpụ akpụ, ndị amphibians, azụ na invertebrates na-ebu ụmụ ha na-etolite n'ime ha.  Ụfọdụ n’ime ha bụ ovoviviparous, nke a na-amịpụta àkwá n’ime ahụ nne, ndị ọzọ na-adịkwa ndụ, ebe ẹmbrayo na-etolite n’ime ahụ ha, dị ka ọ dị n’ihe gbasara ụmụ anụmanụ.

Nnukwu mammals, dị ka primates, ehi, ịnyịnya, ụfọdụ antelopes, giraffes, hippopotamuses, rhinoceroses, enyí, akàrà, whales, dolphins, na porpoises, n'ozuzu ha nwere otu nwa n'otu oge, n'agbanyeghị na ha nwere ike inwe ejima ma ọ bụ ọtụtụ ọmụmụ na.  oge.

.[1]N'ime anụmanụ ndị a buru ibu, usoro ọmụmụ yiri nke mmadụ, ọ bụ ezie na n'ime ọtụtụ ụmụ bụ ndị mbụ.  Nke a pụtara na a mụrụ ya na ọnọdụ dị elu karịa nwa mmadụ ma nwee ike iguzo ọtọ, ije ije na ịgba ọsọ (ma ọ bụ igwu mmiri n'ihe gbasara anụ mmiri) obere oge ka a mụchara ya.

N'ihe banyere whales, dolphins na porpoises, otu nwa ehi na-ebu ụzọ mụọ ọdụ nke na-ebelata ihe ize ndụ nke mmiri mmiri. [2] Nne na-agba nwa ehi amụrụ ọhụrụ ume ka ọ rịgoro n'elu mmiri ka o kue ume. [3]

Ọtụtụ ụmụ anụmanụ ndị dị nta na-amụba ọtụtụ ọmụmụ, na-amịpụta mkpụrụ ụmụaka nke nwere ike ịgụta iri na abụọ ma ọ bụ karịa. N'ime anụmanụ ndị a, nwa ebu n'afọ nke ọ bụla nwere akpa mmiri nke ya gbara ya gburugburu ma nwee placenta dị iche. Nke a na-ekewapụ na mgbidi nke akpanwa n'oge ọrụ na nwa ebu n'afọ na-arụ ọrụ ya n'ụzọ ọwara ọmụmụ. </link>[ a chọrọ nkọwa ]

Nnukwu anụ mamma nke na-amụ ejima na-adịkarị ụkọ, mana ọ na-eme mgbe ụfọdụ ọbụna maka anụmanụ ndị buru ibu dịka enyí. N'April 2018, ahụrụ ihe dị ka ejima enyí dị ọnwa 8 ka ha na-esonye n'ìgwè nne ha na ogige Tarangire National Park nke Tanzania, nke e chere na a mụrụ n'August 2017. [4]

. [5]Ụmụ mmadụ na-amụkarị otu nwa n'otu oge.  A na-akwado ahụ nne maka ọkụ site na nke pituitary gland na-ahụ, ovary na placenta .  [1] Ngụkọta oge ime site na fatịlaịza ruo n'afọ na-afọ ihe dị ka izu iri atọ na nchekwa ( id na- nhọrọ izu 40 ka oge ịhụ nsasị ikpeazụ).  Usoro ụzọ nwa na-ewe ọtụtụ awa ma nwee usoro atọ.  Ogbo nke mbụ na-amalite site n' icon aka ike nke edemede muscular nke akpanwa na mgbasa nke cervix nke nta nke nta.  Usoro nke na-arụ ọrụ nke ogbo nke mbụ na-malite mgbe cervix gbasarụ ihe dị ka 4 cm na dayameta na bụ mgbe mgbe na-esiwanye ike na mgbe niile.  A na-akpa isi (ma ọ bụ n'úkwù mgbe a jụrụ nwa ) na cervix, nke na-eji esi na-agbasa ruo mgbe ọ gbasasịrị nke ọma na 10. cm dayameta.  Mgbe ụfọdụ, akpa amniotic na-agbawa na mmiri ọkụ na-agbapụ (nke a dị ka mgbawa nke akpụkpọ ahụ ma ọ bụ ịgbaji mmiri).  [2] Na ogbo abụọ, asụsụ mgbe cervix zuru ezu dilated, ike contractions nke akpanwa na-arụsi ọrụ ike pushing site na nne na- pụpụ nwa si site ikpu, nke n'oge a ogbo nke ọrụ a na-akpọ a ọkụ canal.  dị ka arọ a nwere nwa ọhụrụ, na a na-amụ nwa na eriri afọ .  [3] N'ọkwa nke atọ, nke na-amalite mgbe amuchara nwa, mmechi ọzọ na-pụpụ placenta, akpa amniotic, na ego nke nsogbu n'ime eriri nwa na-emekarị n'ime nsogbu ole na ole.

). [6]Mgbanwe dị ukwuu na-ewere ọnọdụ na mgbasa nke nwa alụ ọhụrụ iji mee ka iku ume ikuku.  N'ime akpanwa, nwa ebu n'afọ na-adabere na mgbasa nke oku site na placenta maka nri nri gas na eze nwa e bu n'afọ na-agafe na ngụgụ site na-agafe na foramen ovale, nke bụ oghere dị.  na septum na-ekewa atrium aka nri na atrium ekpe aka .  Mgbe amuchara eriri nwa ahụ na-akụchi ma bepụ ya, nwa ahụ na-amalite iku ume, na ịdị sitere na ventricle aka nri na-amalite ike na ngụgụ maka inye gas na-enye oxygenated na--arụ na atrium aka ekpe, nke a na  -akpa n'ime ventricle ekpe, na wee ike ya n'ime usoro akwaa ozi.  N'ihi ndị ọrịa a, ahọpụta elu na atrium aka ekpe ụkpụrụ dị na atrium aka nri, na akwụkwọ a na-amanye foramen ovale imechi nkewa aka ekpe na aka nri nke obi.  Adịghị mkpa akwa umbilical, akwa akwa umbilical, ductus venosus na ductus arteriosus maka ndụ n'ikuku na ka oge na-aga, arịka ndị a na-aghọ njikọ (embryonic remnants).

. [7] [8]ụgbọ nwa n'ime ehi bụ ụdị anụ anụmanụ buru ibu.  Ehi na-aga n'ụzọ atọ nke ime nwa mgbe ọ na-amụ nwa ehi.  N'oge ọkwa nke mbụ, anụmanụ ahụ na-achọ ebe dị ike n'ebe m ehi ndị ọzọ nọ.  Mgbanwe nke ụdị na-eme ka anụ ahụ dị nro nke ọwara ọkụ na-agbake ka ahụ nne na-akwado maka ọnwụ.  Mgbagwoju anya nke akpanwa vaskụla ihe doro anya na akụkụ, mana ehi nwere ike ghara izu ike.  Ọ nwere ike ịpụta na ọ na-ama jijiji, na-akpa n'etiti iguzo ɔtɔ na ịdina ala, na-ebuli ọdụ ya dị ụgbọ ma gbachie azụ ya.  A na-akwagharị nwa ebu n'afọ na-aga n'ụdị ebe ịgba site na mkpirisi nke ọ blla na cervix ehi ya ji nkwado ịgba ịgbasa.  Nkeji nke mbụ ike nwalere ọtụtụ awa, ma nna cervix gbasachara nke ọma.  Enwere ike ịhụ ọkwa nke abụọ ka ọ na-aga n'ihu mgbe pụtara mpụta nke akpa amniotic site na vulva, na-esote ya na-ahụ ihu nwa ehi n'ihu ụkwụ na isi n'ihu ngwọrọ (ma ọ bụ mgbe ahụ).  ọdụ na azụ nwa ehi na enyo azụ na azụ).  ).  [1] N'ime oge nke abụọ, ehi na-edina nwa n'ụdị ya ka ọ na-akwagharị ma nwa ehi na-aga n'ihu site n'ọwa ọkụ.  Nnyefe zuru oke nke nwa ehi (ma ọ bụ nwa ehi n'agba ọkụ) na-egosi njedebe nke ogbo abụọ.  Ehi ahụ na-agbago n'ụkwụ ya (ọ bụrụ na ọ dinara ala n'oge a), Ọkpara wee malite ịracha nwa ehi ahụ ike.  Nwa ehi na-eku ume mbụ ya ma n'ime ntaramahụhụ ole na ole ọ na-agbasi mbọ ike ibili ụkwụ ya.  Oge nke atọ na nke ikpeazụ nke ọrụ bụ ụzọ nke placenta, nke a na-ịpụpụ n'ime awa ole na ole ma ehi na-eke na-eri ya.

A na-akpọ ọmụmụ nwa na nkịta. [9] N'etiti nkịta, ka nwa na-eru nso, contractions na-aghọwanye ugboro ugboro. Enwere ike kewaa ọrụ n'ime anụ ọhịa n'ime usoro 3. Oge mbụ bụ mgbe cervix na-agbasa, na-akpata ahụ erughị ala na enweghị nchekasị na nkịta. Ihe ịrịba ama a na-ahụkarị na ọkwa a bụ ịma jijiji, ibu ọnụ, na/ma ọ bụ vomiting. Nke a nwere ike ịdịru ihe ruru awa iri na abụọ. [9] Nkeji nke abụọ bụ ngafe nke mkpụrụ. [9] Akpa amniotic dị ka balloon na-acha ntụ ntụ na-egbukepụ egbukepụ, nke nwere nwa nkita dị n'ime, na-esi na vulva kpụpụ ya. Mgbe mkparịta ụka ndị ọzọ gasịrị, a na-achụpụ akpa ahụ, anụ ọhịa ahụ na-agbajikwa akpụkpọ ahụ, na-ahapụ mmiri doro anya ma kpughee nwa nkita ahụ. Nne na-ata eriri afọ wee rachaa nwa nkita nke ọma, nke na-akpali ya iku ume. Ọ bụrụ na nwa nkita enwebeghị ume nke mbụ n'ime ihe dị ka nkeji isii, ọ nwere ike ịnwụ. Nkịta ndị ọzọ na-esokwa otu otu n'otu n'otu na-enwekarị nsogbu karịa nke mbụ na-adịkarị na nkeji 15-60. Ọ bụrụ na agafebeghị nwa n'ime awa 2, a ga-akpọtụrụ dọkịta anụmanụ. [9] Nkeji nke atọ bụ ngafe nke placentas. Nke a na-emekarị na njikọ nke abụọ na ngafe nke nwa ọ bụla. [9] Nne ga na-erikarị mgbe amuchara nwa. [10] Nke a bụ mmegharị ahụ iji mee ka oghere ahụ dị ọcha ma gbochie ịchọpụta ya site n'aka ndị na-eri anụ. [9]

Ọtụtụ ihe na-akpụ akpụ na ọnụ ọgụgụ ka ukwuu nke invertebrates, ọtụtụ azụ, amphibians na nnụnụ niile bụ oviparous, ya bụ, ha na-edina akwa na obere ma ọ bụ enweghị mmepe embrayo na-ewere ọnọdụ n'ime nne. N'ime ihe ndị dị n'ime mmiri, ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ mgbe niile ka njikọta spam nwoke na nwanyị na-apụ apụ na spam na akwa na-atọhapụ n'ime mmiri (ihe dị iche bụ shark na ụzarị, nke nwere njikọ ime ime ). A pụrụ imepụta ọtụtụ nde àkwá n’enweghị ihe ndị nne na nna na-etinye aka na ya, n’atụ anya na ọnụ ọgụgụ dị nta pụrụ ịdị ndụ ịghọ ndị tozuru okè. Invertebrates terrestrial nwekwara ike ịmịpụta ọnụ ọgụgụ dị ukwuu nke àkwá, ole na ole n'ime ha nwere ike zere anụ anụ ma na-aga n'ihu. Ụfọdụ azụ̀, ihe na-akpụ akpụ, na ndị amphibians ewerela ụzọ dị iche iche ma tinye mgbalị ha n'ịmepụta ọnụ ọgụgụ dị nta nke ndị na-eto eto na ọkwa dị elu nke nwere ike ịdị ndụ ruo n'oge. Nnụnụ na-elekọta ụmụ ha na akwu na-enye ha mkpa mgbe hatching na ọ bụ eleghị anya na-atụghị anya na esịtidem mmepe adịghị eme na nnụnụ, nyere ha mkpa ofufe. [11]

Ovoviviparity bụ ụdị ọmụmụ nke embrayo na-etolite n'ime akwa nke na-anọgide n'ime ahụ nne ruo mgbe ha dị njikere ịmalite. Ovoviviparous anụmanụ yiri viviparous umu na e nwere esịtidem Fertilization na-eto eto a mụrụ na elu ala, ma dị iche na na ọ dịghị placental njikọ na e bu n'afọ na-eto eto na-azụ site egg nkochi ime akwa . Ahụ nne na-enye mgbanwe gas (ume iku ume), mana nke ahụ dịkwa mkpa maka anụmanụ oviparous kwa. [11] N'ọtụtụ shark, àkwá na-apụta n'ime oviduct dị n'ime ahụ nne, a na-azụkwa embrayo site na nkochi ime akwa na mmiri mmiri nke glands zoro n'ime mgbidi nke oviduct. [12] Shark Lamniforme na-eme oophagy, ebe embrayo mbụ ga-amụ na-eri akwa ndị fọdụrụ na agụ shark aja na-eri anụ embrayo gbara agbata obi . Ndị shark requiem na-ejigide njikọ placental na ndị na-eto eto na-eto eto, a maara omume a dị ka viviparity . Nke a dị ka afọ ime anụ mammali karịa nke azụ ndị ọzọ. N'okwu ndị a niile, ndị na-eto eto na-amụ ndụ ma na-arụ ọrụ nke ọma. [13] Ọtụtụ n'ime caecilians bụ ovoviviparous ma mụọ ụmụ torolarị. Mgbe ndị na-eto eto mechachara akpa nkochi ime akwa ha, ha na-eri nri na-edozi ahụ nke mkpụrụ ndụ zoro ezo na oviduct na ọbụna mkpụrụ ndụ n'onwe ha nke ha na-eri site na ọkachamara na-ehichapụ ezé. [14] The Alpine salamander ( Salamandra atra ) na ọtụtụ ụdị Tanzanian toad na genus Nectophrynoides bụ ovoviviparous, na-emepe emepe site larval ogbo n'ime nne oviduct na-emecha apụta dị ka n'ụzọ zuru ezu guzobere na-eto eto. [15]

Ụdị viviparity mepere emepe nke a na-akpọ placental viviparity bụ ụdị ụfọdụ nke akpị [16] na ọchịcha, [17] ụfọdụ mkpụrụ ndụ shark, agwọ na velvet ikpuru . N'ime ndị a, embrayo na-eto eto na-eji ụdị nhazi placental ụfọdụ na-azụ ya. A chọtara placenta mbụ a ma ama n'oge na-adịbeghị anya n'ime otu azụ ekpochapụla nke a na-akpọ placoderms . Fossil sitere na Gogo Formation nke Australia, nke edobere na oge Devonian, 380 nde afọ gara aga, a hụrụ na embrayo n'ime ya jikọtara eriri nwa na akpa nkochi ime akwa . Nchọta ahụ kwadoro echiche ahụ bụ na otu sub-otu placoderms, nke a na-akpọ ptyctodontids, fatịlaịza àkwá ha n'ime. Ụfọdụ azụ̀ ndị na-amụba àkwá ha n’ime na-amụkwa ndị na-eto eto, dị ka a na-ahụ ebe a. Nchọpụta a mere ka anyị mata ihe gbasara ọmụmụ dị ndụ azụ afọ 200 nde afọ. [18] Achọtara fosil nke ụdị ọzọ nwere embrayo atọ nọ n'otu ọnọdụ. [19] Placoderms bụ otu nwanne nwanyị nke nna nna nke azụ azụ niile dị ndụ ( Gnathostomata ), gụnyere ma chondrichthyans, shark & rays, na Osteichthyes, azụ ọkpụkpụ.

N'etiti ngwere, ngwere viviparous Zootoca vivipara, the Jackson's chameleon, [20] ngwa ngwa ikpuru na ọtụtụ ụdị skink bụ viviparous, na-amụ nwa na-eto eto. Ụfọdụ bụ ovoviviparous ma ndị ọzọ dị ka ndị òtù nke genera Tiliqua na Corucia, na-amụ nwa na-eto eto na-etolite n'ime, na-enweta nri ha site na anụ mamịrị dị ka placenta na-ejikọta n'ime akpanwa nne. N'ihe atụ a kọwara n'oge na-adịbeghị anya, ụdị Africa, Trachylepis ivensi, ewepụtala placenta nke na-akpụ akpụ na-adị kpọmkwem na nhazi na ịrụ ọrụ na placenta mammalian. [21] Vivipary dị ụkọ na agwọ, ma boas na vipers bụ viviparous, na-amụ ndụ na-eto eto. [22]

Ihe ka ọtụtụ n'ime ụmụ ahụhụ na-akụ akwa mana ole na ole na-amụ nwa bụ obere ụdị nke ndị okenye. [11] Aphid nwere usoro ndụ mgbagwoju anya na n'oge ọnwa okpomọkụ na-enwe ike ịmụba na nnukwu ngwa ngwa. Mmeputakwa ya na-abụkarị parthenogenetic na viviparous na ụmụ nwanyị na-emepụta akwa na-enweghị fatịlaịza nke ha na-ejigide n'ime ahụ ha. [23] Embrayo na-etolite n'ime ovarioles nne ha na ụmụ bụ ihe okike nke nne ha. A na-amụ nymphs nke nwanyị nke na-eto ngwa ngwa ma na-amụba ọtụtụ ụmụ nwanyị n'onwe ha. [24] N'ụfọdụ oge, nymphs amụrụ ọhụrụ enweela embrayo na-etolite n'ime ha. [11]

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