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Ọrịa

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Àtụ:Infobox medical condition (new) Ọrịa n'éfè efe bụ mbufe ọrịa nje n'ebute anụ n'mwakpo nke anụ ahụ site na pathogens, mmụba ha, na mmeghachi omume nke anụ ahụ na-ebute ọrịa na nsí ha n'emepụta. 'ọrịa na-efe efe', nke a makwaara dị ka ọrịa n'efefe ma ọ bụ ọrịa a n'ebufe ebufe, bụ ọrịa n'ihi ọrịa.

Enwere ike ibute Ọrịa site na [1] pathogens dịgasị iche iche, ọkachasị nje bacteria na Nje virus. Ndị n'ebute ọrịa nwere ike ịlụso ọrịa ọgụ site na iji Usoro ahụike ha. Ndị n'enye nwa ara n'emeghachi omume na ọrịa site na mmeghachi omume ebumpụta ụwa, n'agụnyekarị ọzịza, n'esote mmeghachihachi omume mgbanwe.

ọgwụ ndị a kapịrị ọnụ eji agwọ ọrịa gụnyere ọgwụ nje, antivirals, anti-fungals, antiprotozoals, [2] na antihelminthics. Ọrịa n'efe efe[3] kpatara ọnwụ nde mmadụ 9.2 na 2013 (ihe dị ka 17% nke ọnwụ niile). [1] [4] n'akpọ ngalaba ọgwụ nke n'elekwasị anya na Ọrịa na-efe efe.

Ọrịa n'ebute ọrịa site na ihe n'efe efe (pathogens) gụnyere:

  • Bacteria (dịka Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Clostridium botulinum, na Salmonella spp.)
  • Nje virus na ihe ndị yiri ya dịka Viroids. (Dị ka HIV, Rhinovirus, Lyssaviruses dị ka Rabies virus, Ebolavirus na Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2)
  • Fungi, nke a n'ekewa n'ime:
    • [5]Ascomycota, gụnyere ihe iko achịcha dị ka <i id="mwWA">Candida</i> (Ọrịa fungal a n'ahụkarị); fungus filamentous dị ka Aspergillus; ụdị Pneumocystis; na dermatophytes, otu ihe ndị dị ndụ n'akpata ọrịa nke akpụkpọ ahụ na ihe ndị ọzọ dị n'elu mmadụ.
    • Basidiomycota, gụnyere ụdị ọrịa mmadụ Cryptococcus.
  • [6], nke a n'ekewapụkarị na: [1]
    • Unicellular organisms (e.g. ịba, Toxoplasma, Babesia)
    • Macroparasites[7] (worms ma ọ bụ helminths) gụnyere nematodes dị ka parasitic roundworms na pinworms, tapeworms (cestodes), na flukes (trematodes, dị ka schistosomes). A n'akpọ ọrịa ndị helminths kpatara mgbe ụfọdụ infestations, mana a n'akpọ ha mgbe ụfọdụ infections.
    • Arthropods dị ka akọrọ, ụmụ ahụhụ, ụkwara, na ikpuru, nwekwara ike ịkpata ọrịa mmadụ, nke yiri ọrịa, mana mwakpo nke mmadụ ma ọ bụ anụmanụ site na macroparasites ndị a na-akpọkarị infestation.
  • Prions (ọ bụ ezie na ha anaghị emepụta nsí)

Ihe ịrịba ama na mgbaàmà

[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

ihe ịrịba ama na mgbaàmà nke ọrịa n'adabere na ụdị ọrịa. Ihe ịrịba ama ụfọdụ nke ibute ọrịa n'emetụta ahụ dum n'ozuzu ya, dị ka Ike ọgwụgwụ, enweghị agụụ, ibu ibu, ahụ ọkụ, ọsụsọ abalị, oyi, ihe mgbu na ihe mgbu. Ndị ọzọ [8]-emetụta akụkụ ahụ ọ bụla, dị ka akpụkpọ ahụ, ụkwara, ma ọ bụ imi na-agba agba.

N'ọnọdụ ụfọdụ, ọrịa n'efe efe nwere ike ịbụ ihe na-enweghị mgbaàmà maka ọtụtụ ma ọ bụ ọbụna usoro ha niile n'ime onye nwe ya. N'ọnọdụ nke ikpeazụ, enwere ike ịkọwa ọrịa ahụ dị ka "ọrịa" (nke site na nkọwa pụtara ọrịa) n'ime ndị na-ebu ọrịa nke abụọ mgbe ha zutere onye na-enweghị mgbaàmà. Ọrịa a[9] egosi ọrịa n'efe efe, ebe ọ bụ na ụfọdụ ọrịa anaghị akpata ọrịa n'ime onye nwe ya.

Nje bacteria ma ọ bụ nje virus

[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

[10] ka nje bacteria na nje virus nwere ike ịkpata otu ụdị mgbaàmà ahụ, ọ nwere ike isi ike ịmata ihe kpatara otu nje. Ịmata Odiiche[11] dị n'etiti ha abụọ dị mkpa, ebe ọ bụ na enweghị ike ịgwọ ọrịa nje site na ọgwụ nje ebe ọrịa nje nwere ike.

Ntụnyere nke nje na nje bacteria
Ihe e ji mara ya Nje na-efe efe Nje bacteria na-ebute ọrịa
Mgbaàmà ndị a na-ahụkarị N'ozuzu, nje virus na-efe efe bụ usoro. Nke a pụtara na ha na-emetụta ọtụtụ akụkụ dị iche iche nke ahụ ma ọ bụ ihe karịrị otu usoro ahụ n'otu oge; ya bụ, imi na-agba ọsọ, mgbagwoju anya sinus, ụkwara, ihe mgbu ahụ wdg. Ha nwere ike ịbụ mpaghara mgbe ụfọdụ dịka na conjunctivitis nje ma ọ bụ "anya pinki" na herpes. Naanị nje virus ole na ole na-egbu mgbu, dị ka herpes. [10] na-akọwakarị ihe mgbu nke nje virus dị ka ọnya ma ọ bụ ọkụ. Mgbaàmà ndị a na-ahụkarị nke nje bacteria bụ ọbara ọbara, okpomọkụ, ọzịza na ihe mgbu. Otu n'ime ihe ịrịba ama nke nje bacteria bụ ihe mgbu mpaghara, ihe mgbu nke dị n'otu akụkụ ahụ. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, ọ bụrụ na ọkpụkpụ na-eme ma nwee nje bacteria, ihe mgbu na-eme n'ebe ọrịa ahụ dị. Ihe mgbu mgbu nke akpịrị na-ejikarị ihe mgbu karịa n'otu akụkụ akpịrị mara. [10] yikarịrị ka a ga-achọpụta ọrịa ntị dị ka nje bacteria ma ọ bụrụ na ihe mgbu ahụ na-eme naanị n'otu ntị. Ọkpụkpụ nke [12]-emepụta nsị na mmiri ara ehi nwere ike ibute ọrịa.
Ihe kpatara ya Nje ndị na-akpata ọrịa Nje bacteria na-akpata ọrịa

Ọrịa na ahụike

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  1. Sehgal (2020-12-01). "Trends in Epidemiology and Microbiology of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock in Children" (in en). Hospital Pediatrics 10 (12): 1021–1030. DOI:10.1542/hpeds.2020-0174. ISSN 2154-1663. PMID 33208389. Retrieved on 2021-03-26. 
  2. Antiprotozoal Drugs. TheFreeDictionary.com. Archived from the original on 2022-01-22. Retrieved on 2022-04-22.
  3. ((GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death Collaborators)) (17 December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study". Lancet 385 (9963): 117–71. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. PMID 25530442. 
  4. Infectious Disease, Internal Medicine. Association of American Medical Colleges. Archived from the original on 2015-02-06. Retrieved on 2015-08-20. “Infectious disease is the subspecialty of internal medicine dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of communicable diseases of all types, in all organs, and in all ages of patients.”
  5. Types of Fungal Diseases (en-us). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2019-06-27). Archived from the original on 2020-04-01. Retrieved on 2019-12-09.
  6. About Parasites (en-us). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2019-02-25). Archived from the original on 2019-12-25. Retrieved on 2019-12-09.
  7. Brown (1987). "Microparasites and Macroparasites". Cultural Anthropology 2 (1): 155–71. DOI:10.1525/can.1987.2.1.02a00120. 
  8. Runny Nose: Symptoms, Causes & Treatment. Cleveland Clinic. Archived from the original on 2022-05-10. Retrieved on 2022-04-22.
  9. (2004) Sherris Medical Microbiology, 4th, McGraw Hill. ISBN 978-0-8385-8529-0. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 NIPA - Bacteria - Bacterial vs. Viral infections. www.antibiotics-info.org. Archived from the original on 2023-11-10. Retrieved on 2023-11-10. Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; name "nipa" defined multiple times with different content
  11. Robert N. Golden (2009). The Truth About Illness and Disease. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-1438126371. 
  12. Infection. Rencare. Archived from the original on March 5, 2012. Retrieved on 4 July 2013.