Ọrịa na-adịghị akwụsị akwụsị

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Ọrịa na-adịghị akwụsị akwụsị
learning disability, reading disability, class of disease
obere ụdị nkereading disorder and écrites disorder, language disorder, learning disability, disease Dezie
ihu nkedyslexic Dezie
ihe kpatara yagenetic disease Dezie
health specialtyneuropsychology, pediatrics Dezie
mgbaàmà na akarareading disorder and écrites disorder Dezie
nyocha ahụikefunctional magnetic resonance imaging Dezie
genetic associationPCSK6 Dezie
megidere nkeHyperlexia Dezie
WordLift URLhttp://data.medicalrecords.com/medicalrecords/healthwise/dyslexia Dezie
ICPC 2 IDP24 Dezie
NCI Thesaurus IDC96410, C96410 Dezie

. [1] [2]Dyslexia, nke a na-akpọbu okwu ịsị, bụ nhọrọ ('ịmụ ihe siri ike' na UK [1] ) nke na-emetụta ma ọ bụ ịgụ ma ọ bụ ide ihe.  [2] [3] Ndị dị iche iche na-emetụta ogo dị iche iche.  [4] Nsogbu nwere ike ike ihe isi ike n'ịssụpe okwu, ịgụ ngwa, ide okwu, "ịkpọpụta" okwu n'isi, ihe okwu mgbe ị na-agụpụta ihe na-agụ ihe na- labarin.  [4] [5] Ọtụtụ mgbe, a na-ahụta ihe isi ike ndị a n'ibu akwụkwọ.  [6] Ihe isi ike ndị a bụ nke a na-ama ụma, ndị nwere nsogbu a na-enwekwa ozi ozi.  [4] Ndị nwere dyslexia nwere ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị nlebara anya dị elu nke nsogbu hyperactivity hyperactivity (ADHD), nsogbu, na ihe isi ike na ọnụọgụgụ

. [1]Ekwenyere na ọ bụ ndị nke mmetụta ndụ ihe nketa na gburugburu ebe obibi osisi dyslexia.  [1] ụfọdụ ikpe na-agba na mpaghara.  [2] Dyslexia nke na-etolite n'ihi nkọwa ahụ nke ọma, ọrịa strok, ma ọ bụ dementia mgbe ụfọdụ a na-akpọ "dyslexia enwetara" [3] ma ọ bụ alexia .  [2] Usoro akpata dyslexia na-esite na ndịiche dị na aha nna nke ezi.  [2] Ebe nchekwa dyslexia n'ọtụtụ ule nke ebe nchekwa, nchekwa, mkpoputa, na nkatọ.  [4] Dyslexia dị iche na ihe isi ike nke nsogbu ntĩ ma ọ bụ na-akpata ma ọ bụ site na nkuzi zuru oke ma ọ bụ ngwá ọrụ.

[3]Ọgwụgwọ egwu egwu ụzọ nkuzi iji gboo mkpa onye ahụ.  [1] Ọ bụ ebe na ọ na-ahụta nsogbu dị n'okpuru, ọ nwere ike ibelata ogo ma ọ bụ m nkerị.  [2] Ọgwụgwọ ezubere maka ịrụ ọrụ.  [3] Dyslexia bụ ọrụ a na-ama ma na-eme n'ụdị niile nke ụwa.  [4] Ọ na-emetụta 3-7% nke ndị mmadụ;  [5] [6] Otú ọ dị, ihe ruru 20% nke ndị mmadụ n'ozuzu nwere ike inwe ụfọdụ akara ike.  [7] Ọ bụ ebe na a na-karị dyslexia n'ime ụmụ nwoke, nke a na-achọta nke ọma site na nhụsianya na- emeju onwe ya n'etiti ndị nkuzi na ndị na-eso.  [5].  [4] ụfọdụ ọrịa na a na-ewere dyslexia dị ka ụzọ dị iche, na-enwe ma uru ma ọ dị njọ.

 

Nhazi[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

[4]Dyslexia na-ekewa n'ime ụdị na nke enwetara.  [1] Dyslexia enwetara na-esote mkparị akwa akwa ozi, dị ka akara ahụ ma ọ bụ ọrịa strok .  Ndị nwere ike dyslexia na- nọmba ụfọdụ akara ma ọ bụ ihe dị iche nke ike, mana ụzọ ntule dị iche iche na ụzọ ụzọ.  [2] Alexia dị ọcha, nke a asụsụ dị ka agnosic alexia ma ọ bụ okwu kpuru ìsì dị ọcha, bụ otu ụdị alexia nke mebere "otu dyslexia peripheral".

Ihe ịrịba ama na mgbaàmà[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

. [5]N'oge nwata, ihe dị iche na-azụ ya na ike nke dyslexia emechara eme okwu okwu n'egbughị oge na ihe mmata ụkwụ .  [1] Akụkọ ifo a na-ama na-akpata dyslexia na ide enyo na akwụkwọ akwụkwọ ozi ma ọ bụ okwu azụ.  [2] A na-ahụhụ ndị a n'ebe nseka ka ha na- ịgụ na ide, na-ewere ya dị ka ike nke dyslexia.

. [6]Aha ndị n'iche nwere akwụkwọ nwere dyslexia ike ike ike ihe isi ike n'ịchọpụta ma ọ bụ ike okwu ndị na-ada, ma ọ bụ na-agụta ọnụ ọgụgụ nkeokwu n'okwu-ha abụọ dabere na mmata mgbalị.  [1] Ha mmetụta ike igosi ihe isi ike n'ịkewa okwu n'ime ụkwụ onye mgba ( , ike pụta ihie atọ nke k, a, na t na pusi ) ma ọ bụ enwe ike ịgbakọta ịgwakọta, na-egosi mbelata mmetụta.  atụ

[5]Ihe isi ike na iweghachi okwu ma ọ bụ ihe na-akpata ya na dyslexia.  [1] : 647 Ndị na-arrịa ọrịa dyslexia na- ndị na-asụrụ dara ogbenye, ihe a na-akpọ mgbe ụfọdụ dysorthographia ma ọ bụ dysgraphia, nke dabere na nka nke ike koodu n'asụsụ .

. [7]Nsogbu na-aga n'ihu n'oge uto na-eso okenye, ọ jagora ihe isi ike n'ịchịkọta , n'isi, PIAPPE, ma ọ bụ ụgbọ e nyere mba ọzọ.  Ndị okenye nwere dyslexia nwere ike iji ike dị mma na-agụkarị ihe, ọ bụ ebe na ha na-eji ntụziaka na-agụ ihe ụfọdụ ndị ọzọ n'iche ihe isi ike ma na-eme nke ka njọ n'ule mkpoputa.  ma ọ bụ mgbe ha na-agụ okwu ndị na- ike isi-ihe e ji mara ike olu

Ọnọdụ emetụtara[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Dyslexia na-ebutekarị nsogbu mmụta ndị ọzọ, mana akọwapụtabeghị ihe kpatara nsogbu a. [8] Ọlụsị ndị a metụtara gụnyere:

Dysgraphia
Ọgba aghara na-agụnye ihe isi ike na ide ma ọ bụ dee ihe, mgbe ụfọdụ n'ihi nsogbu na nchikota anya-aka ; ọ nwekwara ike igbochi ntụzịaka- ma ọ bụ usoro dabere n'usoro, dị ka ijikọ eriri ma ọ bụ ịrụ ọrụ ugboro ugboro. [9] Na dyslexia, dysgraphia na-abụkarị multifactorial, n'ihi enweghị ike ide akwụkwọ ozi- akpaghị aka, nhazi nhazi na nkọwa okwu, na enweghị ike ịmepụta okwu anya, nke na-eme ka ọ sie ike iweghachite foto a na-ahụ anya nke okwu achọrọ maka mkpoputa. [9]
Nsogbu hyperactivity nlebara anya (ADHD)
Ọgba aghara nke nwere nsogbu na-edobe nlebara anya, ime ihe ike ma ọ bụ ime ihe n'echeghị echiche. [10] Dyslexia na ADHD na-emekarị ọnụ. [11] [12] [13] Ihe dị ka 15% [5] ma ọ bụ 12-24% nke ndị nwere dyslexia nwere ADHD; [14] na ihe ruru 35% nke ndị nwere ADHD nwere dyslexia. [5]
Ọgba aghara nhazi ihe
Nsogbu ige ntị nke na-emetụta ikike ịhazi ozi anụ ahụ. [15] [16] Nke a nwere ike bute nsogbu na ebe nchekwa ihe na usoro ihe nkiri. Ọtụtụ ndị nwere dyslexia nwere nsogbu nhazi nke ịnụ ihe, ma nwee ike ịmepụta akara ngosi nke ha iji kwụọ ụgwọ maka ụdị mperi a. Ụfọdụ nnyocha na-egosi na nkà nhazi nke ịnụ ntị nwere ike ịbụ isi ụkọ na dyslexia. [17] [18]
Nsogbu nhazi mmepe
Ọnọdụ akwara ozi nke siri ike na-arụ ọrụ oge niile gụnyere nguzozi, njikwa mma na nhazi kinesthetic ; ike n'iji ụda okwu eme ihe; na nsogbu na ncheta oge dị mkpirikpi na nhazi. [19]

Ndị nchọpụta na-agbalị ịchọta ndabere neurobiological nke dyslexia ebe ọ bụ na a chọpụtara ọnọdụ ahụ na 1881. [20] [21] Dịka ọmụmaatụ, ụfọdụ agbalịwo ijikọ nsogbu nkịtị nke ndị nwere dyslexia nke enweghị ike ịhụ akwụkwọ ozi nke ọma na mmepe na-adịghị mma nke mkpụrụ ndụ akwara ha na-ahụ anya. [22]

[23] [24]Usoro neuroimaging, dị ka ihe na-arụ ọrụ magnetik resonance imaging ( fMRI ) na positron emission tomography (PET), egosila njikọ dị n'etiti ma ọrụ na nhazi dị iche iche na jide nwere ikike ihe.  [1] ụfọdụ ndị nwere dyslexia na-egosi obere ịgbalite n'akwụkwọlụ nke aka ekpe nke ikpe akwụkwọ akwụkwọ, dị ka gyrus n'ihu nke dị ala, lobule dị ala, na etiti na ventral temporal cortex .  [2] N'ime awụ iri gara aga, ịgba ịgbalite site na iji PET na-amụ akwụkwọ akwụkwọ ozi n'ịghọta ntọala ozi nke akwụkwọ.  Atụpụtala ntọala akwaabọ maka lexicon anya na maka ngwa ngwa nchekwa nchekwa okwu dị ike, [3] na-egosi na egosi akwa ahụ nke dyslexia ike bụ nke nchoputa (ya bụ, na-arụ ọrụ nhazi).  fMRI nke ndị nwere dyslexia na-egosi ọrụ ndị nke cerebellum na cerebral cortex yana ngwá ndị ọzọ n'ịgụ ihe.

Genetics[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

. [25]ihe n'ime ihe nwere ike arata mgbanaka ndụ ihe nketa dyslexia gbanyere ọgwụ na-achọpụta nke mbụ nke ndị nwere dyslexia gachara.  [1] Ndịiche anatomical nke a na-ahụ anya na mpaghara nhọrọ nke ọma ndị dị ndị dị otú ahụ ndị microscopic cortical malformations nke a mara dị ka ectopias, na erughị, vaskụla micro-malformations, na microgyrus - nke dị diẹ ẹka ọ na  -adị maka gyrus.  [2] Ihe ndị kpatara a aha na mbụ na ndị ọzọ [3] na-atụ aro na ntọ cortical na-adịghị mma, nke e chere na ọ ga-eme tupu ma ọ bụ n'ime ụnwa nke isii nke nwa  ebu n'afọ, nwere ike iketa nsogbu ahụ.  A kọwokwa usoro ndị ndụ na-adịghị mma n'ime ndị nwere dyslexia n' Maris na-azụ na ngwaahịa na dhaawac.  [4] Ejikọtala ọtụtụ ndụ ihe nketa na dyslexia, ndị DCDC2 [5] na KIAA0319 [6] na chromosome 6, na DYX1C1 na chromosome 15

Ntinye aka nke mmekọrịta nke gburugburu ebe obibi n'ịgụ nkwarụ ka enyochala nke ukwuu site na iji ọmụmụ ejima, bụ nke na-eme atụmatụ nha mgbanwe dị na gburugburu mmadụ na oke metụtara mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa ha. Ma ihe gbasara gburugburu ebe obibi na mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa yiri ka ọ na-enye aka na mmepe ịgụ akwụkwọ. Nnyocha na-enyocha mmetụta nke ihe gburugburu ebe obibi dị ka agụmakwụkwọ nne na nna [26] na àgwà nkuzi [27] ekpebiwo na mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa nwere mmetụta dị ukwuu na nkwado, kama ịbụ ndị na-adịghị mma, gburugburu. [28] Agbanyeghị, ọnọdụ kachasị mma nwere ike ikwe ka ihe egwu mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa ahụ nweta ọtụtụ ọdịiche dị na nsonaazụ ya n'ihi na ebelatala ihe egwu gburugburu ebe obibi. [28]

. [29]Ịdị ụdị anya nke na-emetụta kpọmkwem otú o si esi ike ịgụ ya.  [1] : 26 Asụsụ bekee na French nwere ụdị ụfọdụ olu “miri miri emi” n'ime usoro edemede ahụ Latin, nwere usoro dị eserese anya na-eji usoro mkpọpụta n'ọtụtụ ụzọ: ngwaọrụ, ahụ, na morphemes .  [2] : 421 Asụsụ ndị dị ka Spanish, Ịtali na Finnish na-eke akwụkwọ ozi na-ada anọ-nke a na-akpọ "ndị na-emighị eme ihe" - nke na-eme ka ọ dị mfe ọrụ maka ndị nwe  dyslexia.  [1] : 26 Sistemụ ederede logographic, dị ka ihe China, nwere nnukwu akara akara;  na ndị a na-ebutekwa nsogbu nye ndị agha dyslexic

. [30]Ịdị ụdị anya nke na-emetụta kpọmkwem otú o si esi ike ịgụ ya.  [1] : 26 Asụsụ bekee na French nwere ụdị ụfọdụ olu “miri miri emi” n'ime usoro edemede ahụ Latin, nwere usoro dị eserese anya na-eji usoro mkpọpụta n'ọtụtụ ụzọ: ngwaọrụ, ahụ, na morphemes .  [2] : 421 Asụsụ ndị dị ka Spanish, Ịtali na Finnish na-eke akwụkwọ ozi na-ada anọ-nke a na-akpọ "ndị na-emighị eme ihe" - nke na-eme ka ọ dị mfe ọrụ maka ndị nwe  dyslexia.  [1] : 26 Sistemụ ederede logographic, dị ka ihe China, nwere nnukwu akara akara;  na ndị a na-ebutekwa nsogbu nye ndị agha dyslexic

. [31]Ozizi ụzọ nke abụọ pụtara ihe ka akọwara na ịbụ 1970s.  [1] Ozizi a na-enye echiche na echiche abụọ dị iche iche, ma ọ bụ ụzọ abụọ na-etinye aka n'ịgụ ihe n'olu dara ụzọ.  [2] Otu ụzọ bụ ụzọ okwu, nke bụ usoro nke ndị na-agụ akwụkwọ nwere nkà nwere ike okwu ndị a ma ama site na anya, site na usoro "akwụkwọ ọkọwa okwu".  [3] Usoro nke ọzọ bụ ụzọ na-azụ nke ma ọ bụ nke na-akpa uche, nke bụ usoro nke onye na-agụ nwere ike "ịkpọpụta" okwu edere.  [3] [4] A na-eme nke a site n'ịchọpụta nke okwu ahụ ( akwụkwọ ozi, fọ n'ìmen, graphemes ) na ekiri ihe pụtara otu onye na-eso ụzọ, dịka ọmụmaatụ, ka eriri nke agbataobi ha.  obi na-adakọ ọnụ.  [1] Usoro ụzọ abụọ nwere ike dị iche dị iche iche nke dyslexia na-eme n'etiti ụkpụrụ dị iche iche (ihe atụ, nkwekọ nke iwu arọ olu n'asụsụ Spanish nwere ike kwesịrị maka eziokwu bụ na-eme na-asụ asụsụ).  Spanish na-egosi ọkwa dị elu nke nwunye na-agụghị okwu, ma e jiri ya mere ndị na-asụ Bekee)

Dyslexia bụ nsogbu mmụta dị iche iche nke na-emebi agụ na mkpope okwu ziri ezi na nke ọma. [32] [33] Njirimara—ma ọbụghị nke zuru ụwa ọnụ — gụnyere ihe isi ike na mmata ụda olu; adịghị arụ ọrụ nke ọma na mgbe mgbe nhazi ụda na-ezighị ezi n'asụsụ ọnụ ( nhazi ụda olu ); na mbelata ebe nchekwa na-arụ ọrụ ọnụ. [34]

[35]Dyslexia bụ ọrịa neurodevelopmental ọrịa, nke subcategorized na mgbochi ndị dị ka ike ike nwere ike n'ịgụ ihe (ICD-11 prefixes "mmepe" na "nsogbu were"; DSM-5 na-eji"kpọmkwem").  [1] [2] [3] Dyslexia ndu nsogbu na mbụ isi .  nsogbu nsogbu uche na-ebilite nke abụọ n'ihe isi ike ike.  [4] Ndị ọrụ National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke na-enweta dyslexia dị ka "ihe isi ike na nhazi ọrụ (ịgbanwe mgbanwe), mkpọputa, na/ma ọ bụ nzaghachi ngwa ngwa anya-okwu"

. [36] [37]Otu British Dyslexia Association na-ihe dyslexia dị ka "ihe isi ike ike nke na-emetụta n'ụzọ bụ isi nkà ndị dị n'ịgụ akwụkwọ na mkpoputa okwu ziri ezi na nke ọma" ma e ji "ihe isi ike dị na mmata  ọgụ olu, ebe nchekwa okwu na ọsọ nhazi okwu".  [1] Mmata, olu na-enyere mmadụ aka akara, akara oke, icheta ( ebe nchekwa ọrụ), na n'uche na-achụ olu nke ahia — fọ nhụnanya, onsite-rime, syllables, na okwu.

Mụta ịmara nke ọma na afọ ndụ ụmụaka na-erute ọkwa mmepe dị iche iche n'ozuzu ha, yana ọkwa dị iche iche nke ngalaba, dị ka ịma ụda olu (ịmata okwu ndị na-ada ụda; ịmata ụda mbụ n'okwu). [38]

Atụkwasịla obi na ule naanị. Nleba anya nke ọma nke nwatakịrị n'ime ụlọ akwụkwọ na ebe obibi, na mmetụta dị nro, ajụjụ ọnụ nke nne na nna dị oke mkpa dị ka ule. [39] [40]

Leba anya na nzaghachi nke akwadoro maka ntinye aka (RTI), [41] nke "... gụnyere nyochaa ọganihu nke otu ụmụaka site na mmemme ntinye aka kama ịme nyocha nyocha nke nkà ha ugbu a. Ụmụaka nwere ọtụtụ ihe. mkpa bụ ndị na-anabataghị nkuzi dị irè, a na-achọpụtakwa ha ngwa ngwa site na iji usoro a." [42]

Enwere ule dịgasị iche iche nke a na-eji na ụlọ ọgwụ na ebe mmụta iji nyochaa ohere nke dyslexia. [43] Ọ bụrụ na nnwale mbụ na-egosi na mmadụ nwere ike ịnwe dyslexia, a na-agbasokarị ule ndị dị otú ahụ na nyocha nyocha zuru oke iji chọpụta oke na ụdị nsogbu ahụ. [44] Enwere ike ịme ụfọdụ ule site na onye nkuzi ma ọ bụ kọmputa; ndị ọzọ chọrọ ọzụzụ pụrụ iche ma ndị ọkà n'akparamàgwà mmadụ na-enye ya. [45] Ụfọdụ nsonaazụ ule na-egosi otu esi eme usoro nkuzi. [45] [46] N'ihi na ihe dị iche iche dị iche iche nke ọgụgụ isi, omume, mmetụta uche, na gburugburu ebe obibi nwere ike inye aka n'ịmụta ịgụ ihe siri ike, nyocha zuru oke kwesịrị ịtụle ohere ndị a dị iche iche. Nlele na nlebanya ndị a nwere ike ịgụnye: [47]

  • Usoro izugbe nke ikike ọgụgụ isi, dị ka Wechsler ọgụgụ isi Scale maka ụmụaka, Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities, ma ọ bụ Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale . Ikike ọgụgụ isi dị ala ga-eme ka ịgụ ihe sikwuo ike. Usoro ikike ọgụgụ isi na-agbalịkwa tụọ usoro ọgụgụ isi dị iche iche, dị ka ikike ikwu okwu, echiche okwu ọnụ na mbara ala, ebe nchekwa ọrụ, na nhazi ọsọ. Enwere ụdị ule dị iche iche maka ndị ọgbọ dị iche iche. Ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ ihe ndị a niile chọrọ ọzụzụ ọzọ iji nye na akara nke ọma, ndị ọkachamara n'akparamàgwà mmadụ na-eme ya. Dị ka Mather and Schneider (2015) si kwuo, achọpụtabeghị profaịlụ nkwenye na/ma ọ bụ ụkpụrụ nke akara na nyocha nyocha nke na-akwado ma ọ bụ na-achịkwa nsogbu ịgụ akwụkwọ. [48]
  • Nyochaa ma ọ bụ nyocha maka ọnọdụ ahụike uche: Nne na nna na ndị nkuzi nwere ike mejupụta ọkwa ọkwa ma ọ bụ ndepụta omume iji kpokọta ozi gbasara ọrụ mmetụta uche na omume maka ndị na-eto eto. Ọtụtụ ndebanye aha nwere ụdị nsụgharị maka ndị nne na nna, ndị nkuzi, na ndị na-eto eto tozuru oke ịgụ nke ọma (na-abụkarị afọ 11 na karịa) iji mechaa. Ọmụmaatụ gụnyere Sistemụ Nleba Omume Maka Ụmụaka, yana ajụjụ ajụjụ siri ike na ihe isi ike . Ihe ndị a niile nwere ụkpụrụ nnochite anya nke mba, na-eme ka o kwe omume iji ọkwa mgbaàmà tụnyere ihe ga-adị maka afọ onye na-eto eto na mmekọahụ. Ndepụta ndenye ndị ọzọ na-ejikọta kpọmkwem na nchọpụta ọrịa uche, dị ka Vanderbilt ADHD Rating Scales ma ọ bụ Ihuenyo maka Nsogbu Mmetụta Mmetụta Mmetụta Ụmụaka (SCARED) . Nyochaa na-eji ngwa dị nkenke emebere iji jide ndị nwere nsogbu, mana ha na-enwetakarị akara dị mma maka ndị na-enweghị nsogbu ahụ. Ndị nyocha kwesịrị ka a na-esochi ya site na nyocha ziri ezi ma ọ bụ ajụjụ ọnụ nyocha n'ihi nke a. Nsogbu ịda mbà n'obi na nsogbu nchekasị dị okpukpu abụọ na atọ karịa ndị nwere dyslexia, na nlebara anya-deficit / hyperactivity na-adịkarị, yana. [49] [50] [51] [52]
  • Nlebanya nke mmezu na nka agụmakwụkwọ: Nkezi mkpope/ikike ịgụ ihe maka onye dyslexic bụ ogo pasenti <16, nke dị n'okpuru nkịtị. Na mgbakwunye na inyocha akara ule na ndetu ndị nkuzi, nsonaazụ ule a haziri ahazi na-enye aka n'ịtụle ọganihu. Ndị a na-agụnye ule ndị a na-enye otu, dị ka ule Iowa nke Development Education, na onye nkụzi nwere ike inye otu ma ọ bụ klas dum nke ndị na-eto eto n'otu oge. Ha nwekwara ike ịgụnye ule nke mmezu nke onye ọ bụla na-enye, dị ka Wide Range Achievement Test, ma ọ bụ Woodcock-Johnson (nke gụnyekwara usoro nyocha nke mmezu). Nnwale ndị a na-eme n'otu n'otu chọkwara ọzụzụ pụrụ iche karịa. [53] [54] [55]

N'ihe gbasara ahụike, onye na-ahụ maka ahụike ụmụaka na ndị nọ n'afọ iri na ụma MS Thambirajah na-ekwusi ike na "[g] n'ihi oke nsogbu mmepe mmepe na ụmụaka na-eto eto, ụmụaka niile a na-ahụ n'ụlọ ọgwụ kwesịrị iji nlezianya nyochaa maka nsogbu mmepe n'agbanyeghị nsogbu/s na-egosi. " Thambirajah na-atụ aro nyocha maka nsogbu mmepe mmepe, gụnyere dyslexia, site n'ịme akụkọ mmepe dị nkenke, nyocha mmepe mmepe nke psychosocial mbụ, na ịnweta akụkọ ụlọ akwụkwọ gbasara agụmakwụkwọ na ọrụ mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya. [56]

This article was submitted to WikiJournal of Medicine for external academic peer review in 2018 (reviewer reports). The updated content was reintegrated into the Wikipedia page under a CC-BY-SA-3.0 license (2019). The version of record as reviewed is:

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Ọgụgụ ọzọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

 

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