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Ụlọ ọrụ Moto Ford

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Àtụ:Infobox company

Ụlọ ọrụ Moto Ford (nke a na-akpọkarị Ford) bụ onye nrụpụta ụgbọ ala mba America nke hiwere isi na Dearborn, Michigan, United States.  Ọ bụ Henry Ford tọrọ ntọala ya wee webata ya na June 16, 1903. Ụlọ ọrụ ahụ na-ere ụgbọ ala na ụgbọ ala azụmahịa n'okpuru akara Ford, yana ụgbọ ala okomoko n'okpuru akara Lincoln.  Ford nwekwara oke 32% na Jiangling Motors nke China.[1] Onwekwara njikọ aka na China (Changan Ford), Taiwan (Ford Lio Ho), Thailand (AutoAlliance Thailand), na Turkey (Ford Otosan).  Edepụtara ụlọ ọrụ ahụ na New York Stock Exchange ma ezinụlọ Ford na-achịkwa ya;  ha nwere obere ikike mana imirikiti ikike ịtụ vootu tu[2]

Ford webatara usoro maka imepụta ụgbọ ala buru ibu na njikwa buru ibu nke ndị ọrụ ụlọ ọrụ na-eji usoro nrụpụta arụpụtara nke ọma na-egosipụta site na ahịrị mgbakọ na-ebugharị;  site na 1914, a maara usoro ndị a gburugburu ụwa dị ka Fordism.  Ndị enyemaka Ford mbụ UK bụ Jaguar na Land Rover, ndị e nwetara na 1989 na 2000, n'otu n'otu, rere ya nye ndị na-emepụta ụgbọ ala India Tata Motors na March 2008. Ford nwere onye na-emepụta ụgbọ ala Sweden Volvo site na 1999 ruo 2010. N'afọ 2011, Ford kwụsịrị akara Mercury, nke ọ na-ere ụgbọ ala okomoko dị larịị na United States, Canada, Mexico, na Middle East kemgbe 1938

Ford bụ ụgbọ ala nke abụọ kachasị na US (n'azụ General Motors) yana nke isii kachasị n'ụwa (n'azụ Toyota, Volkswagen Group, Hyundai Motor Group, Stellantis na General Motors) dabere na mmepụta ụgbọ ala 2022.[3]Na njedebe nke 2010, Ford bụ ụgbọ ala nke ise kachasị na Europe.Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; refs with no name must have content.[4] Ụlọ ọrụ ahụ pụtara n'ihu ọha na 1956 mana ezinụlọ Ford, site na òkè pụrụ iche nke Class B, ka na-ejigide pasent 40 nke ikike ịtụ vootu.[5] N'oge nsogbu ego nke 2007-08, ụlọ ọrụ ahụ lụrụ ọgụ n'ụzọ ego mana gọọmentị etiti anaghị azọpụta , n'adịghị ka ndị isi abụọ ọzọ na-emepụta ụgbọala na US.[6][7] Ford Motors alaghachila na uru, ọ bụkwa ụlọ ọrụ nke iri na otu nke America na ndepụta Fortune 500 nke afọ 2018, dabere na ego zuru ụwa ọnụ na 2017 nke ijeri $ 156.7.[8][9] N'afọ 2008, Ford mepụtara nde ụgbọala 5.532 ma were ihe dị ka ndị ọrụ 213,000 n'ọrụ na ihe dị ka ụlọ ọrụ 90 n'ụwa niile.[10]

Akụkọ ihe mere eme[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Narị afọ nke 20[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Onye guzobere Henry Ford c. 1919

Ụlọ ọrụ Henry Ford bụ mgbalị mbụ Henry Ford mere na ụlọ ọrụ na-emepụta ụgbọ ala ma guzobe ya na Nọvemba 3, 1901. Nke a ghọrọ Cadillac Motor Company na August 22, 1902, mgbe Ford hapụrụ ikike nke aha ya.[11] A malitere ụlọ ọrụ Ford Motor na ụlọ ọrụ a gbanwere agbanwe na 1903 na $ 28,000 (nke ya na $ 912,000 ) na ego sitere n'aka ndị na-etinye ego iri na abụọ, ọkachasị John na Horace Dodge (onye ga-emesị chọta ụlọ ọrụ ụgbọ ala nke ha). Onye isi ala mbụ abụghị Ford, kama ọ bụ John S. Gray, onye a họpụtara iji belata egwu ndị na-etinye ego na Ford ga-ahapụ ụlọ ọrụ ọhụrụ ahụ dịka ọ hapụrụ onye bu ya ụzọ. N'ime afọ ndị mbụ ya, ụlọ ọrụ ahụ mepụtara naanị ụgbọala ole na ole n'ụbọchị na ụlọ ọrụ ya na Mack Avenue ma mesịa na ụlọ ọrụ mmepụta ihe ya na Piquette Avenue na Detroit, Michigan. Ìgwè mmadụ abụọ ma ọ bụ atọ rụrụ ọrụ na ụgbọ ala ọ bụla, na-achịkọta ya site na akụkụ ndị ụlọ ọrụ na-eweta Ford. N'ime afọ iri, ụlọ ọrụ ahụ duziri ụwa na mgbasawanye na imeziwanye echiche nke usoro mgbakọ, n'oge na-adịghị anya, Ford wetara ọtụtụ n'ime akụkụ mmepụta n'ime ụlọ (njikọta kwụ ọtọ).

Henry Ford dị afọ iri ato na itoolu,mgbe ọ tọrọ ntọala Ford Motor Company, nke ga-aga n'ihu na-aghọ otu n'ime ụlọ ọrụ kasị ukwuu na nke kasị baa uru n'ụwa.  Ọ nọwo na njikwa ezinụlọ na-aga n'ihu ruo ihe karịrị 100 afọ ma bụrụ otu n'ime nnukwu ụlọ ọrụ na-achịkwa ezinụlọ n'ụwa.

E mepụtara ụgbọala mbụ na-eji gasoline eme ihe na 1885 site n'aka onye Germany na-emepụta Karl Benz (Benz Patent-Motorwagen). A chọrọ usoro mmepụta dị irè karị iji mee ka ụgbọala dị ọnụ ala maka ndị nọ n'etiti, nke Ford nyere aka, dịka ọmụmaatụ, na-ewebata usoro mgbakọ mbụ na-agagharị na 1913 na ụlọ ọrụ Ford na Highland Park.

N'agbata 1903 na 1908, Ford mepụtara Models A, B, C, F, K, N, R, na S. A na-ere ọtụtụ narị narị ma ọ bụ puku ole na ole n'ime ọtụtụ n'ime ihe ndị a kwa afọ.  N'afọ 1908, Ford webatara Model T nke ọtụtụ nde mmadụ ree ihe karịrị afọ 20.  Na 1927, Ford dochie T na Model A, ụgbọ ala mbụ nwere enyo nchekwa na windshield.[12] Ford wepụtara ụgbọ ala mbụ dị ọnụ ala nke nwere injin V8 na 1932.

N'ịgbalị ịsọ mpi na General Motors 'Pontiac, Oldsmobile, na Buick dị ọnụ ala, Ford kere Mercury na 1939 dị ka ụgbọ ala enyi dị ọnụ ala maka Ford.  Henry Ford zụtara ụlọ ọrụ Lincoln Motor na 1922, ka o wee soro ụdịdị dị ka Cadillac na Packard maka akụkụ okomoko nke ahịa ụgbọ ala.

N'afọ 1929, gọọmentị Soviet Union nyere Ford nkwekọrịta ka o guzobe Gorky Automobile Plant na Russia na mbụ na-emepụta Ford Model A na AA si otú ahụ na-ekere òkè dị mkpa na mmepụta nke mba ahụ.[13]

N'oge Agha Ụwa nke Abụọ, Ngalaba Agha United States họpụtara Ford iji mepụta bọmbụ Consolidated B-24 Liberator na ụlọ ọrụ mgbakọ Willow Run.[14] Ford Werke na Ford SAF (ndị enyemaka Ford na Germany na France, n'otu n'otu) mepụtara ụgbọala ndị agha na ngwá ọrụ ndị ọzọ maka mbọ agha Nazi Germany. Ụfọdụ n'ime ọrụ Ford na Germany n'oge ahụ na-eji ọrụ mmanye arụ ọrụ.

Imepụta ụlọ nyocha sayensị na Dearborn, Michigan, na 1951, na-eme nchọpụta bụ isi nke na-enweghị njedebe, butere itinye aka na-atụghị anya Ford na nyocha nke superconductivity.  N'afọ 1964, Ford Research Labs mere isi ihe dị mkpa site n'ichepụta ngwaọrụ nnyonye anya quantum ma ọ bụ.SQUID.

Ford nyere ngwungwu nchekwa Lifeguard site na 1956, nke gụnyere ihe ọhụrụ dị ka ọkọlọtọ steering miri emi, n'ihu nhọrọ, na, na nke mbụ n'ime ụgbọ ala, n'azụ oche, na nhọrọ padded dash.[15] Ford webatara mkpọchi ọnụ ụzọ ụmụaka na ngwaahịa ya na 1957, ma, n'otu afọ ahụ, nyere hardtop mbụ nke nwere ike ịweghachi n'ụgbọ ala nwere oche isii.[16]

N'ọgwụgwụ 1955, Ford guzobere ngalaba nke Continental dị ka ngalaba ụgbọ ala okomoko dị iche.  Nkewa a bụ maka nrụpụta na ire nke Continental Mark II a ma ama.  N'otu oge ahụ, e mepụtara ngalaba Edsel iji chepụta na ịzụ ahịa ụgbọ ala ahụ malite na afọ 1958.  N'ihi oke ahịa nke Continental na ọdachi Edsel, Ford jikọtara Mercury, Edsel, na Lincoln n'ime "M-E-L," nke laghachiri na "Lincoln-Mercury" mgbe Edsel kwụsịrị na November 1959.[16]

E webatara Ford Mustang na Eprel 17, 1964, n'oge ngosi ngosi ụwa nke New York (ebe Ford nwere pavilion nke Walt Disney Company [18][19].Na 1965, Ford webatara ọkụ ncheta belt oche

Na 1980s, Ford webatara ọtụtụ ụgbọ ala na-aga nke ọma na gburugburu ụwa.  N'ime 1980s, Ford malitere iji okwu mgbasa ozi, "Ị chụpụrụ Ford, n'oge na-adịbeghị?"  ime ka ndị ahịa ọhụrụ webata akara ha ma mee ka ụgbọ ala ha yie ihe ọhụrụ.  Na 1990 na 1994, n'otu n'otu, Ford nwetakwara ụgbọ ala Jaguar na Aston Martin.[17] N'etiti afọ ndị 1990, Ford gara n'ihu na-ere ọtụtụ ụgbọala, na akụ na ụba America na-aga n'ihu nke nwere ahịa ahịa na Na 1980s, Ford webatara ọtụtụ ụgbọ ala na-aga nke ọma na gburugburu ụwa. 

Ka mmalite nke narị afọ ọhụrụ, ọnụ ahịa nlekọta ahụike ihe nketa, ọnụ ahịa mmanụ ọkụ dị elu, na akụ na ụba na-akụda mmụọ dugara n'ịdaba mbak ahịa, ibelata ahịa, na ibelata oke uru.  Ọtụtụ n'ime uru ụlọ ọrụ sitere n'ịkwanye ego mgbazinye ụgbọ ala ndị ahịa site na Ford Motor Credit Company.[18]

Ka ọ na-erule n'afọ 2005, a na-ebelata ụgwọ ụlọ ọrụ Ford na GM ka ọ bụrụ ihe mkpofu n'ihi ụgwọ nlekọta ahụike dị elu nke US maka ndị ọrụ na-eme agadi, ọnụahịa mmanụ ụgbọala na-arị elu, òkè ahịa na-emebi, na ịdabere na ahịa SUV na-ebeba.[19] Ọnụ ego uru na-ebelata na nnukwu ụgbọala n'ihi mmụba "mkpali" (n'ụdị nkwụghachi ụgwọ ma ọ bụ ego ọmụrụ nwa dị ala) iji gbochie ọchịchọ na-ebehla.[20] N'ime ọkara ikpeazụ nke afọ 2005, Onye isi oche Bill Ford gwara onye isi oche ọhụrụ nke Ford Americas Division Mark Fields ka ọ mepụta atụmatụ iji weghachite ụlọ ọrụ ahụ na uru. Fields gosipụtara atụmatụ ahụ, nke akpọrọ The Way Forward, na nzukọ ụlọ ọrụ ahụ na Disemba 7, 2005, a kpughere ya n'ihu ọha na Jenụwarị 23, 2006. "The Way Forward" gụnyere ịmegharị ụlọ ọrụ ahụ iji kwekọọ na eziokwu ahịa, ịhapụ ụfọdụ ụdị na-abaghị uru na ndị na-adịghị arụ ọrụ, ijikọ usoro mmepụta, imechi ụlọ ọrụ 14 ma belata ọrụ 30,000.[21]

Ford gara iwebata ọtụtụ ụgbọala ọhụrụ, gụnyere "Crossover SUVs" nke e wuru n'elu ikpo okwu ụgbọ ala unibody, kama karịa karịa chassis ahụ na-arụ ọrụ. N'ịmepụta teknụzụ eletrik hybrid maka Ford Escape Hybrid SUV, ụlọ ọrụ ahụ nyere ikikere teknụzụ Toyota hybrid yiri ya iji zere mmebi iwu.[22][23] Ford kwupụtara na ọ ga-ejikọ aka na ụlọ ọrụ na-enye ọkụ eletrik Southern California Edison (SCE) iji nyochaa ọdịnihu nke ngwakọta plug-in n'ihe gbasara otu ụlọ na usoro ike ụgbọ ala ga-esi rụọ ọrụ na grid eletrik. N'okpuru ọtụtụ nde dollar, ọtụtụ afọ, Ford ga-agbanwe ụgbọ mmiri ngosi nke Ford Escape Hybrids ka ọ bụrụ plug-in hybrids, SCE ga-enyocha otú ụgbọala ahụ nwere ike isi soro ụlọ na grid eletrik nke ụlọ ọrụ ahụ. A ga-enyocha ụfọdụ n'ime ụgbọala ndị ahụ "n'ọnọdụ ndị ahịa", dị ka Ford si kwuo.[24]

William Clay Ford Jr., nwa nwa Henry Ford (nke a maara nke ọma na aha ya bụ "Bill"), họpụtara onyeisi oche onye isi na 1998, ma bụrụkwa onye isi nchịkwa nke ụlọ ọrụ ahụ na 2001, na ọpụpụ nke Jacques Nasser.  ịghọ onye mbụ n'ime ezinụlọ Ford onye isi ụlọ ọrụ ahụ kemgbe ezumike nká nke nwanne nna ya, Henry Ford II, na 1982. Ford rere ụlọ ọrụ injinia motorsport Cosworth nye Gerald Forsythe na Kevin Kalkhoven na 2004, mmalite nke mbelata nke Ford's motorsport ntinye aka.  .  Mgbe onye isi ala na onye isi ọrụ Jim Padilla lara ezumike nká na Eprel 2006, Bill Ford weghaara ọrụ ya.  Ọnwa ise ka e mesịrị, na Septemba, Ford kpọrọ Alan Mully dị ka onyeisi oche na onye isi oche, na Ford na-aga n'ihu dị ka onyeisi oche.  Na Disemba 2006, ụlọ ọrụ ahụ welitere ikike ịgbazinye ego ya ruo ihe dị ka ijeri $25, na-etinye nnukwu akụ ụlọ ọrụ niile dị ka ihe nkwekọrịta.[25] Onye isi oche Bill Ford ekwuola na "ịgbaghara abụghị nhọrọ".[26] Ford na United Auto Workers, na-anọchite anya ihe dị ka ndị ọrụ 46,000 kwa awa na North America, kwetara na nkwekọrịta nkwekọrịta akụkọ ihe mere eme na Nọvemba 2007 na-enye ụlọ ọrụ ahụ ezumike nká dị ukwuu n'ihe gbasara ụgwọ nlekọta ahụike na-aga n'ihu na nsogbu akụ ụba ndị ọzọ. Nkwekọrịta ahụ gụnyere nguzobe nke ụlọ ọrụ na-akwụ ụgwọ, nke na-arụ ọrụ n'onwe ya (VEBA) iji wepụ ibu arọ nke nlekọta ahụike ndị lara ezumike nká site na akwụkwọ ụlọ ọrụ ahụ, si otú ahụ melite akwụkwọ ndekọ ego ya. Ndokwa a malitere na Jenụwarị 1, 2010. Dị ka ihe ịrịba ama nke ọnọdụ ego ya siri ike ugbu a, Ford nyere aka na ụgwọ ya niile ugbu a (nke e mere atụmatụ na ijeri US $ 5.5 ka ọ dị na Disemba 31, 2009) na VEBA na ego, yana ịkwụ ụgwọ US $ 500 nde nke ụgwọ ya n'ọdịnihu na ego ahụ. Nkwekọrịta ahụ nyekwara ndị ọrụ kwa awa nchekwa ọrụ ha na-achọ site n'ime ka ụlọ ọrụ ahụ tinye ego buru ibu na ọtụtụ ụlọ ọrụ ya.

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