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Achuar

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Achuar
Pwanchir Pitu, Shaman et chef spirituel du peuple Achuar.jpg
Achuar head ring, NMAI, ca. 1925
Total population
Regions with significant populations
Àtụ:Country data Ecuador: 7k,[1] Àtụ:Country data Peru: 12k
Language(s)
Shuar language, Achuar Chicham
Religion(s)
Christian, Shamanism, Animism[2]
Related ethnic groups
Japanese people, Shuar, Aguarunas

Ndị Achuar bụ ụmụ amaala Amerịka sitere n'ezinụlọ Jivaraan, n'akụkụ Shuar, Shiwiar, Awajun, na Wampis (Peru). Ha bi n'akụkụ Osimiri Pastaza, Huasaga, na n'ókè dị n'etiti Ecuador na Peru. Okwu "Achuar" sitere na aha nnukwu nkwụ a na-akpọ "Achu" (Mauritia flexuosa) nke jupụtara n'ọzara dị n'ókèala ha.

N'oge gara aga, ndị Achuar bụ ndị agha Shuar na-atụ egwu, ndị a maara maka ịchụso ndị iro n'akwụsịghị akwụsị. N'oge Agha Cenepa, ndị Achuar si Ecuador na Peru jikọtara aka ma nọgide na-anọpụ iche.[3][4][5]

Ụzọ ndụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ezinụlọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ndụ Achuar na-elekwasị anya n'ezinụlọ, nke nwere otu ezinụlọ dị mkpa na-agụnyekarị ndị ikwu ya. Ọ bụ ezie na echiche Achuar bụ nnwere onwe ezinụlọ na nnwere onwe n'ihe gbasara akụ na ụba, a na-enwekarị ihe dị ka ezinụlọ iri na ise n'ime ọha mmadụ gbasasịrị n'ógbè ahụ ma ka dị nso na ibe ha.[6] Nke ọ bụla n'ime ìgwè ndị a na-abụkarị uxorilocal. Alụmdi na nwunye na-abụkarị polygynous, na ndị mmekọ nwere njikọ, ma ọ bụ n'ọnọdụ ụfọdụ, a na-ewepụ ụmụ nwanyị n'ìgwè ndị dị nso n'oge mwakpo. Ndị nwunye ibe ha na-abụkarị ụmụnne nwanyị (lee polygyny sororal).[7]

A na-ebi n'ụlọ Achuar n'akụkụ osimiri ma ọ bụ ọdọ mmiri, mana n'ebe dị anya site na nnukwu ụzọ mmiri n'ihi anwụnta na iji chebe ezinụlọ ahụ pụọ na mwakpo ụgbọ mmiri.[8] A na-ahazi ya dị ka nnukwu oghere, na-enweghị mgbidi mpụga iji kwe ka ikuku na-abanye, yana elu ụlọ dị elu nwere akụkụ kwụ ọtọ. A na-ejikarị ahịhịa nkwụ eme ụlọ ahụ ebe a na-eji ụdị nkwụ abụọ eme ụlọ. A na-eji nnukwu nkwụ eme mgbidi nwa oge mgbe ihe ize ndụ yiri ka ọ dị nso. Nnukwu ogige na ogige gbara ụlọ ahụ gburugburu n'èzí. Ọnụ ọgụgụ ụlọ na-ekere òkè dị mkpa na ego nke nwoke Achuar. Ka ụlọ ahụ buru ibu ka ọ daba ọtụtụ ndị nwunye na ụmụ, o yikarịrị ka a ga-ewere nwoke ahụ dị ka nwa okorobịa, ma ọ bụ "nwoke ukwu".

Esemokwu dị n'ime obodo Achuar pere mpe.  Ọgụ a na-alụ mgbe niile bụ n'etiti ebo ndị agbata obi na mgbe esemokwu na-abawanye, ndị Achuar na-enweta ebe mgbaba na nnukwu ụlọ echedoro nke nwere ezinụlọ isii ruo asaa.

Ọrụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

na ndị nwoke na-arụ ọrụ dị iche iche kwa ụbọchị nke bara uru maka nlanarị ezinụlọ.  Ndị inyom na-agbakọta ma buru egwuregwu ahụ, mgbe ụfọdụ na ụmụ ha, na-esikwa nri.  Ha nwekwara ohere iji nkata ma ọ bụ ahịrị azụ azụ mana n'ozuzu ọrụ ha metụtara ọrụ ụlọ.  N'aka nke ọzọ, ụmụ nwoke na-arụ ọrụ n'ime ọhịa na-achụ nta.  Ha na-etinyekwa aka n’ịme ngwá ọrụ ha na-eji achụ nta, dị ka ogbunigwe na ọnyà, na-ejikwa usoro ikpochasị ihe maka ịgbasa ubi ndị di na nwunye ha.

Asụsụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Edensibia[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Amazon Defense Coalition. "Ndị agbụrụ dị na Peru-Colombia-Ecuador Border Fear Death by Oil"
  • [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] Na Society of Nature: A native ecology in Amazonia, nke Nora Scott sụgharịrị site na French. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. [1986]
  • [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] The Spears of Twilight: Life and Death in the Amazon Jungle, nke Janet Lloyd sụgharịrị site na French. London: Harper Collins Publishers. [1993]
  • [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] "Mkpụrụ Obi na steeti ya: Echiche Amazonian banyere ọdịdị nke ịbụ mmadụ. " The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute", 2 (2): 201-215.

Njikọ mpụga[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. "Location of the Achuar People." Àtụ:Webarchive Los Achuar de la Amazonía Peruana. (retrieved 10 Oct 2011)
  2. "Achuar: Culture." BBC: Peruvian Jungle. (retrieved 4 July 2011)
  3. 11. Achuar | Territorio Indígena y Gobernanza (es). Retrieved on 2023-07-10.
  4. Indígenas Achuar. web.archive.org (2017-05-12). Archived from the original on 2017-05-12. Retrieved on 2023-07-10.
  5. Se elegirá a las diosas shuar y achuar en Macas (es). El Universo (2014-10-25). Retrieved on 2023-07-10.
  6. Descola 1994: 108
  7. Descola 1994: 9
  8. Descola 1994: 111