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Asụsụ Dani

Shí Wikipedia, njikotá édémédé nke onyobulạ
Asụsụ Dani
language family, asụsụ
obere ụdị nkeWest Trans–New Guinea Dezie
mba/obodoIndonesia Dezie
ebePapua, Mamberamo Raya Dezie

Asụsụ Dani ma ọ bụ Baliem Valley bụ ezinụlọ nke Asụsụ Trans-New Guinea ndị Dani na ndị yiri ya na-asụ na Baliem Valley na Highland Papua, Indonesia. Foley (2003) na-ewere ọnọdụ asụsụ Trans-New Guinea ha ka e guzobe.  Ha nwere ike ịbụ ndị nwere njikọ chiri anya na asụsụ nke Ọdọ Mmiri Paniai, mana nke a edoghị anya. Capell (1962) [1] kwuru na ndị ikwu ha kacha nso bụ Asụsụ Kwerba, nke Ross (2005) jụrụ.

Asụsụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Larson (1977) [2] kewara ezinụlọ ahụ n'ime alaka atọ dabere na lexicostatistics, e mesịkwara tinye Nggem dị ka nke anọ. Asụsụ Ngalik enweghị ihe akaebe siri ike.

  • Ezinụlọ Dani
    • Wano
    • Nggem
    • Central Dani: Grand Valley Dani (elu, ala, na etiti), Hupla, Western Dani-Walak
    • Ngalik: Nduga, Silimo, Yali (ìgwè asụsụ)

[3] (2020) na-eweghachi ndepụta ụdaume dị ka ndị a: Nke a yiri nke nrụzigharị nke Bromley (1966-1967) [4] ma e wezụga ịgbakwunye ụdaume ndị a na-adịghị ahụkebe *pw, *mbw, na ụdaume ọzọ *ɐ.

Mkpụrụ okwu
Akpụkpọ ahụ Alveolar Palatal Velar
Ụgbọ imi *m *n
Kwụsị Enweghị olu *p *pw *t *k *kw
Tupu a mụọ ya *mb *mbw *nd * Mmetụta *ŋgw
Implosive *bi
Ihe atụ *w *l *j
Mkpụrụedemede
N'ihu Central Ịlaghachi azụ
N'akụkụ *i *u
Ihe dị nso
N'etiti *e [*ɐ] *o
Emeghe *a

Na diphthongs *ei, *ou, *ai, *au.

Aha nnọchiaha[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ross (1995) na-eweghachi nnọchiaha ndị nweere onwe ha na prefixes nke Central Dani dị ka: 

Ntụnyere nke okwu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Okwu ndị na-esonụ sitere na Bromley (1967) [4] na Voorhoeve (1975), [5] dị ka e depụtara na nchekwa data Trans-New Guinea: [6]

ịma mma Dani, Lower Grand Valley (asụsụ Hitigima) Dani, Lower Grand Valley (Tangma dialect) Dani, Lower Grand Valley Dani, Mid Grand Valley Dani, Upper Grand Valley Dani, Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ[7] Walak Silimo (Asụsụ Ndịda Ngalik) Silimo Yali, Angguruk Yali, Ndagwurugwu
isi mʊkkʊl-oak mʊkkʊl-oak nukul-oaq nʊgʊl-oak nanupah aneb; anobak nalupak N'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'oge ahụ ka a na-eme ya nagʊl nʊgʊl hou
ntutu isi Nisi Nisi Nisi Nisi Neeti eeɾuwak; neti Mmalite nenasu nke ya notuk hoŋ
ntị nesakko nesakko nasuk Nku [nařuk] aɾuk Nku [nařuk] Neso nɪsago
anya Niko-ken Niko-ken Nico-eken na-ejupụta neneken enegen; negen nil nələŋgen nɪlegen nɪl Ndị na-eme ihe nkiri
imi Nchịkọta namisaŋ nakouwak-oak nakapak ogobak nokopak Ọrụ nabijaŋ
ezé Naịkụ Naịkụ Naịkụ Naịkụ nɪk Neik Naịkụ N'ihi na ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-eme ihe nɪak; olu najek ọ bụrụ na
ire aha Naịl na∂i namɪlɪ amela natði nemake nabilikagen
ụkwụ Nesoq iyok; owak Yan saŋ
louse Nkwụsị Nkwụsị Ụgbọ mmiri Nkwụsị Nkwụsị Aṅụ Nkwụsị [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] am
nkịta Jọk Jọk Ọ bụ ya Ogwe osisi Ọ bụ onye N'ihi ya, onye ọ bụla Ọ bụ onye yeŋge Onye ndu Onye ndu kam
Ezì wam wam wam wam wa:n wam wam wam wam wam Mkpụrụ osisi
nnụnụ sʊe sʊe sue tʊe ị na-eme ihe ịnyịnya ibu; ụmụ irighiri ị na-eme ihe N'ihi ya sʊe June Ịnọ
àkwá sʊe-kken sʊe-kken Sue-ken tʊe-gen tewe-gen eko tewe-gen Ọmụmụ ihe sʊe-egen June- winaŋ meriri
ọbara mep mep mep mep mep amiya; muya mep mep gete; mep mmalite
ọkpụkpụ noak noak noaq noak nowakano Owak nowak Nʊak noak yok
akpụkpọ ahụ noat nakap naxap noatðo Mmanụ ala agabelo Ntinye aka nakap nakap pok
ara Neilak Neilak Niðak Nelak elak neðak nakamʊ nak
osisi o na na o Ọmụmụ ihe ebe ahụ o bene na na
nwoke ap ap ap ap ap ap ap ap Nymnya
nwanyị ya; hɪmɪ ya; hʊmɪ ya kwe kwe kwamɪ keap
Eluigwe mbogut
anyanwụ mo mo mo mʊlɪgɪ mo onegen; yawo Mo; o-il mo mo hin
ọnwa Ọkwọ ụgbọala Ọkwọ ụgbọala tʊt tʊt tut tʊt Ihe onwunwe Bikkalem
mmiri i i i i ji nke m; níu; nke m i; bụ ik ik tin
ọkụ hettouk ettu etu [hɪʊ] ɪd [ʊɪndʊ] endo; kani Ebe a na-aga enduk odʊk idok uk
nkume helep helep helep helegit [helekit] jʊkum yugum; yukum git [ŋgit] Kịlịp Kep Kep kirik
okporo ụzọ, ụzọ ke; kwe kwe holak-aðem tuwan tuwan epela pʊgalem
aha ettake ettake oge ochie edaka [etaga] edaka [Gena] oghere; oghere edaka onuk unuk Nymnya
Iri nri namen namen!; ne-; nengge Nənəm- emen namɪn (ɪs ?) (kwaniŋ) etiŋ
otu makke-at; pakke-at oppakke-at opake-at bagɪ-at Abɪ Uwe elu; ihe mgbaru ọsọ omagi-at ambui mesik mɪsɪk Ime ihe n'ụzọ dị mfe
abụọ mpempe akwụkwọ; pɪte peeji nke:ie Nna bete [peře] bete [mbeře] Ber; mbeɾe Bete Nna ịta ya ịta ya phenep

Ọdịdị[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mmetụta Dani nke proto-Trans-New Guinea (pTNG) etyma bụ: [8]

Asụsụ Grand Valley Dani:

Asụsụ Western Dani:

  • ap 'nwoke' < *ambi
  • (n) (n) ti < *iti[C]
  • meli 'asụsụ' < *me (l,n) e*m (l,n) na
  • nweta 'ihe ọhụrụ' < *kVndak
  • Okpu 'ụkwụ' < *k (a,o) gi[V]*k (a,o) ọdịda[V]
  • kat (lo) 'akpụkpọ ahụ' < * (ŋg,k) a (nd,t) apu
  • idu 'osisi' < *inda

Asụsụ Ngalik:

  • idu (k) etu 'osisi' < *inda
  • (nak) amu 'obi' < *amu
  • tokon 'jupụtara' < *tVkV[ti]
  • kopu 'smoke' < *kambu

Edensibia[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

aga, ụfọdụ ndị ọkà mmụta asụsụ abịala n'echiche na Meroitic oge ochie nwere akụkọ ihe mere eme na ọtụtụ asụsụ a ka na-asụ taa. Dị ka onye France na-amụ banyere ihe ochie

  1. Capell (1962). Linguistic Survey of the South-Western Pacific, New and revised, South Pacific Commission Technical Paper, Noumea: South Pacific Commission. 
  2. Larson (1977). "Reclassification of Some Irian Jaya Highlands Language Families: A Lexicostatical Cross-Family Subclassification with Historical Implications". Irian VI (2): 3–40. 
  3. Usher. Balim Valley. New Guinea World. Archived from the original on 2020-10-16.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Bromley (June 1967). "The Linguistic Relationships of Grand Valley Dani: A Lexico-statistical Classification". Oceania 37 (4): 286–305. DOI:10.1002/j.1834-4461.1967.tb00912.x. Bromley, Myron H. (June 1967). "The Linguistic Relationships of Grand Valley Dani: A Lexico-statistical Classification". Oceania. 37 (4): 286–305. doi:10.1002/j.1834-4461.1967.tb00912.x. JSTOR 40329608. Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Bromley-1967" defined multiple times with different content
  5. Voorhoeve (2015). Languages of Irian Jaya: Checklist. Preliminary classification, language maps, wordlists. Pacific Linguistics. DOI:10.15144/PL-B31. ISBN 978-0-85883-128-5. 
  6. Greenhill (2016). TransNewGuinea.org - database of the languages of New Guinea. Retrieved on 2020-11-05.
  7. Clouse (1997). "Towards a reconstruction and reclassification of the Lakes Plain languages of Irian Jaya", in Karl Franklin: Papers in Papuan linguistics no. 2. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, 133–236. ISBN 0858834421. 
  8. Pawley (2018). "The Trans New Guinea family", in Palmer: The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide, The World of Linguistics. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, 21–196. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7. 

Àtụ:West Trans–New Guinea languagesÀtụ:Trans–New Guinea languagesÀtụ:Papuan languages