Asụsụ Yaeyama

Shí Wikipedia, njikotá édémédé nke onyobulạ
Asụsụ Yaeyama
asụsụ, modern language
obere ụdị nkeSouthern Ryukyuan Dezie
mba/obodoJapan Dezie
ụmụ amaala kaShiga Prefecture, Okinawa Prefecture Dezie
usoro ederedeJapanese writing system Dezie
Ọkwa asụsụ UNESCO4 severely endangered Dezie
Ọkwa asụsụ Ethnologue7 Shifting Dezie

 

Asụsụ Yaeyama (八重山物言/ヤイマムニ, Yaimamuni) bụ Asụsụ Southern Ryukyuan a na-asụ na Yaeyama Islands, agwaetiti ndịda kacha biri na Japan, nke nwere ọnụ ọgụgụ mmadụ dị ihe dị ka 53,000.[1] Agwaetiti Yaeyama dị na Southern Ryukyu Islands, ndịda ọdịda anyanwụ nke Agwaetiti Miyako na n'ebe ọwụwa anyanwụ Taiwan. Yaeyama (Yaimamunii) nwere njikọ chiri anya na Miyako. A maghị ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị na-asụ asụsụ ndị Japan; n'ihi iwu asụsụ ndị Japan nke na-ezo aka n'asụsụ ahụ dị ka Asụsụ Yaeyama , nke gosipụtara na usoro agụmakwụkwọ, ndị na-erubeghị afọ 60 anaghị eji asụsụ ahụ eme ihe ma e wezụga n'abụ na ememe, na ọgbọ ndị na-eto eto na-ejikwa Japanese dị ka asụsụ mbụ ha. [2] jiri ya tụnyere Japanese kokugo, ma ọ bụ Asụsụ mba Japan, a na-akpọkwa asụsụ Ryukyuan ndị ọzọ dị ka Okinawan na Amami dị ka olumba nke Japanese. [3] na-ekwu na Yaeyama nwere "ike asụsụ" dị ala n'etiti asụsụ Ryukyuan ndị agbata obi.

A na-asụ Yaeyama na Ishigaki, Taketomi, Kohama, Kuroshima, Hatoma, Aragusuku, Iriomote na Hateruma, yana mgbagwoju anya nke nghọta n'etiti olumba n'ihi nnukwu mpaghara Yaeyama Islands. A na-ewere okwu nke Yonaguni Island, mgbe ọ na-emetụta, dị ka asụsụ dị iche. Taketomi nwere ike ịbụ asụsụ Northern Ryukyuan nke a na-ahụkarị n'asụsụ Okinawan nke mechara jikọta ya na asụsụ Yaeyama ndị ọzọ.

Akụkọ ihe mere eme[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Asụsụ Ryukyuan kewara site Proto-Japonic mgbe ndị na-asụ ya kwagara n'àgwàetiti Ryukyu. [4] Ryukyuan kewara site [5] Proto-Japonic n'ime afọ 2,000 gara aga, ọ bụ ezie na atụmatụ na-enye oge dị iche iche nwere ike ịdị site na 2 BCE ruo 800 CE. [1] [2]

A na-ekewa asụsụ Yaeyaman n'okpuru alaka Macro-Yaeyama nke asụsụ Southern Ryukyuan. Ihe ọhụrụ na asụsụ Southern Ryukyuan, na-ekewa ezinụlọ asụsụ Macro-Yaeyama na Miyako, gụnyere "mgbanwe na-adịghị mma site na ụda B gaa na A na 'ọtụtụ' na ụdị pụrụ iche maka 'ubi'". [6] [7] ọhụrụ Macro-Yaeyama, ijikọ asụsụ Yaeyama na Dunan nwere "grammaticalization nke 'ihe ọmụma' dị ka ihe enyemaka nwere ike", myirịta dị n'etiti ọtụtụ ụdị pụrụ iche dị ka "bud", "happy", "fresh", na "dirt", yana njikọ okwu nke "nwa nwanne" iji pụta ma ọ bụ "nwa nwanne". [4] na-ekewa asụsụ Yaeyaman site na Dunan site na ihe ọhụrụ gbasara dochie ngwaa "ere" na ụdị "zụta", ụdị pụrụ iche nke "na-ede mmiri", yana mgbanwe na-adịghị mma nke "*g>n" na 'afụ ọnụ'.

Proto-Japonic Ndị Japan nke Oge A Yaeyama
"Afọ" *maka hara bipụtara
"Ụgbọ mmiri" *punay fune funi
"Iju abụọ" * Akpụkpọ anụ hato patu

Ọ bụ ezie na asụsụ Yaeyama bụ "nke na-agbaso omenala" n'akụkụ ụfọdụ, n'echiche nke ichekwa ụfọdụ ịkpọpụta okwu, n'akụkụ ndị ọzọ ọ bụ ihe ọhụrụ. Otu ihe atụ bụ usoro ụdaume. Ndị Japan oge ochie nwere ụdaume asatọ (ụfọdụ ma eleghị anya diphthongs); nke a belatara ruo ise na Japanese nke oge a, mana na Yaeyaman, mbelata ụdaume agafeela n'ihu, ruo ụdaume atọ. N'ozuzu, mgbe ndị Japan nke oge a nwere "e", onye Yaeyama ga-enwe "i" (a na-ahụ nke a na "funi" n'elu); na ebe ndị Japan nke ugbu a nwere "o", onye Yaayama ga-enwerịrị "u" (dị ka a hụrụ na "patu" n'ebe dị n'elu).

Proto-Japonic Ndị Japan nke Oge A Yaeyama
"Ihe" Ọ bụ n'oge na-adịghị anya enwe Nnukwu
"Mkpụrụ" *tanay Ntinye ọgba
"Malite" *pansimay Haji Pazïmi

Otú ọ dị, n'ọnọdụ ebe Proto-Japonic nwere *e, *əy, ma ọ bụ *o nke na-abụghị okwu ikpeazụ, Japanese abụghị onye na-agbaso omenala karịa Yaeyama n'ihe a, ebe ha abụọ nwere otu ụdaume na-ebuli elu na ọkwa dị iche iche, dịka egosiri n'okpuru ebe a:

Proto-Japonic Ndị Japan nke Oge A Yaeyama
"Mmiri" *mkpụrụ ego mizu Mizï
"Osisi" *Kee ki
"Mkpụrụ ọka wit" *Mọnki Ọchịchị mun

Dị ka asụsụ Southern Ryukyuan niile, Yaeyama na-egosi okwu "b" na mbụ ma e jiri ya tụnyere Japanese "w". A na-ekwere na nke a bụ ihe ọhụrụ sitere na "w" mbụ. Nke a gụnyekwara okwu ndị Japan nke nwere "w" mbụ mana e wepụrụ ya mgbe e mesịrị n'akụkọ ihe mere eme nke asụsụ ahụ, dị ka "wodori" > "odori".

Proto-Japonic Ndị Japan nke Oge A Yaeyama
"Ụra" *wata wata Bada
"Onye na-eto eto" *waka Wakai bagasan
"Ịgba" *wəntəri odori Nwa agbọghọ

A maara olumba Ishigaki maka inwe ngosipụta pụrụ iche nke ntụziaka ndị dị mkpa. A chọpụtara na mgbe ha na ndị ọzọ na-asụ asụsụ Ishigaki na-ekwu okwu, ndị na-asụrụ asụsụ Ishigaka na-eji usoro ntụaka "nke dị n'ime" na "nke dị iche iche" nke a na-egosipụta "ebe ugwu" na "ebe ndịda" dị ka ngwaa agaru ("gbago, rịgoro") na oriru (", gbadaa"), kama Standard Japanese kita (" ugwu") na minami ("ebe ndịda"). [8] [8] chọpụtara na ọtụtụ ndị na-ekwu okwu na-ekwupụta "ọwụwa anyanwụ" na "ọdịda anyanwụ" dị ka Standard Japanese hidari (" ekpe") na migi (" nri") n'usoro ntụaka.

Miyara[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A na-ekwu na Miyaran Yaeyama enweghị ụdị njirimara, n'adịghị ka Okinawan na Old Japanese. Otú [9] dị, e nwere ihe akaebe na ọnọdụ ụdaume, ya bụ akara -r epenthetic n'etiti akara -i ugbu a na akara -u ugbu a (iji zere usoro ụdaume na-esote), na-akpata akara njirimara na-abụghị nke doro anya.

Ajụjụ Ndị Dị Ndụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

[23] Yaeyama, a na-eji du aka wh-phrases, n'adịghị ka Standard Japanese ka.

Ajụjụ na azịza nke isiokwu Ajụjụ na azịza nke ihe:
   

A na-ewere iwepu du site na wh-phrase dị ka ụtọ asụsụ na-ezighi ezi. N'agbanyeghị nke ahụ, akara du bụ nhọrọ maka adverbial ma ọ bụ adjunct wh-phrases. [24]'ajụjụ ndị nwere ọtụtụ okwu wh, ọ bụ naanị otu nwere ike iji du akara. A chọrọ nyocha ọzọ iji mụtakwuo banyere Ajụjụ Wh na Yaeyama.

Ihe ize ndụ na ime ka ọ dịghachi ndụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A na-ekwu na ihe mere n'akụkọ ihe mere eme na nke gọọmentị kpatara ihe ize ndụ nke asụsụ Ryukyuan. Malite [10] 1872 nke njikọ nke Okinawan Islands na Japan na okike nke Okinawa Prefecture na 1879, kemgbe ahụ enwere otu mmegharị a na-akpọ "Japanization nke Luchuan Islands". Otu asụsụ mba a maara dị ka <i id="mwAnQ">kokugo</i> emeela n'ihi nke a. [10]kokugo na-agụnye mmejuputa iwu nke 1907 nke Ordinance of Dialect Regulation, na-eme ka asụsụ Ryukyuan dị iche iche bụrụ "asụsụ" (ebe obibi) ma na-akụda mmụọ ikwu asụsụ ndị a na usoro ụlọ akwụkwọ ndị Japan.

[11] na-eme atụmatụ na e nwere ndị na-asụ asụsụ Yaeyama 7,000-10,000 fọdụrụnụ, ọtụtụ n'ime ha na-asụrụ n'ụlọ. E nweela ọtụtụ òtù na òtù ndị na-eme ka mmadụ dịghachi ndụ iji chekwaa asụsụ na ọdịbendị Ryukyuan. [12] na-ewere mmeghachi omume asụsụ mbụ dị ka akụkụ nke Koza Society of Culture, nke e guzobere na 1955. [1] Otu nnukwu onye [12]-enyere aka ichekwa ma na-eme ka asụsụ Ryukyuan dịghachi ndụ bụ Society for Spreading Okinawan (Uchinaguchi fukyu kyogikai) , nke iwu ya raara onwe ya nye ịmalite klas asụsụ na mmemme ọzụzụ ndị nkuzi Okinawan, yana ịga n'ihu na orthography Okinawan. [1] Enwekw[12] obere ihe ndị a ma ama na asụsụ Ryukyuan dị na mgbasa ozi redio Okinawan, yana "ihe ngosi na egwuregwu" na klas asụsụ jikọtara na usoro agụmakwụkwọ ụlọ akwụkwọ Okinawan na mpaghara mpaghara.

Edensibia[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

orthography Okinawan. [1] Enwekw obere ihe ndị a ma ama na asụsụ Ryukyuan dị na mgbasa ozi redio Okinawan, yana "ihe ngosi na egwuregwu" na klas asụsụ jikọtara naorthography Okinawan. [1] Enwekw[13] obere ihe ndị a ma ama na asụsụ Ryukyuan dị na mgbasa ozi redio Okinawan, yana "ihe ngosi na egwuregwu" na klas asụsụ jikọtara na

  1. 八重山のデータ.
  2. Heinrich (9 May 2009). "The Ryukyus and the New, But Endangered, Languages of Japan". The Asia-Pacific Journal 7 (19). Retrieved on 9 February 2017. 
  3. Heinrich (9 May 2009). "The Ryukyus and the New, But Endangered, Languages of Japan". The Asia-Pacific Journal 7 (19). 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Heinrich (2015). Handbook of the Ryukyuan Languages: History, Structure, and Use. Germany: De Gruyter Mouton, 20. Heinrich, Patrick; Miyara, Shinsho; Shimoji, Michinori (2015). Handbook of the Ryukyuan Languages: History, Structure, and Use. Germany: De Gruyter Mouton. p. 20.
  5. Pellard (2011). "The historical position of the Ryukyuan Languages". Historical linguistics in the Asia-Pacific region and the position of Japanese: 55–64. 
  6. Heinrich (2015). Handbook of the Ryukyuan Languages: History, Structure, and Use. Germany: De Gruyter Mouton, 18. 
  7. Heinrich (2015). Handbook of the Ryukyuan Languages: History, Structure, and Use. Germany: De Gruyter Mouton, 19. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 Takekuro (2007). "Language and Gesture on Ishigaki Island". Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society 33: 417–419. DOI:10.3765/bls.v33i1.3544. 
  9. Lau (2014). "Phonological reduction and the (re)emergence of attributive forms in Ryukyuan", in Kenstowicz: Japanese/Korean Linguistics 23 (in en). 
  10. 10.0 10.1 Heinrich (2009). "The Ryukyus and the New, But Endangered, Languages of Japan". The Asia-Pacific Journal 7. 
  11. Heinrich (2015). Handbook of the Ryukyuan Languages: History, Structure, and Use. Germany: De Gruyter Mouton, 423–424. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 Heinrich (2005). "Language Loss and Revitalization in the Ryukyu Islands". The Asia-Pacific Journal 3. 
  13. Heinrich (2005). "Language Loss and Revitalization in the Ryukyu Islands". The Asia-Pacific Journal 3. 

Àtụ:Japonic languagesÀtụ:Japanese languageÀtụ:Languages of Japan