Jump to content

Asụsụ Yao

Shí Wikipedia, njikotá édémédé nke onyobulạ

 

.mw-parser-output .infobox-subbox{padding:0;border:none;margin:-3px;width:auto;min-width:100%;font-size:100%;clear:none;float:none;background-color:transparent}.mw-parser-output .infobox-3cols-child{margin:auto}.mw-parser-output .infobox .navbar{font-size:100%}body.skin-minerva .mw-parser-output .infobox-header,body.skin-minerva .mw-parser-output .infobox-subheader,body.skin-minerva .mw-parser-output .infobox-above,body.skin-minerva .mw-parser-output .infobox-title,body.skin-minerva .mw-parser-output .infobox-image,body.skin-minerva .mw-parser-output .infobox-full-data,body.skin-minerva .mw-parser-output .infobox-below{text-align:center}

Person 'Myao
People WaYao
Language chiYao
Country Uyao[1]

Yao bụ asụsụ ndị Bantu dị na n'Afrịka nke nwere ihe dịka nde mmadụ abụọ na-asụ ya na Malawi, nakwa ọkara nde nke ndị na-asụ ya na Tanzania nakwa Mozambique. E nwekwara ụfọdụ ndị na-asụ ya na Zambia. Na Malawi, asụsụ bụ isi bụ Mangochi, nke a na-asụkarị na gburugburu Ọdọ Mmiri Malawi. Na Mozambique, asụsụ ndị bụ isi bụ Makale nakwa Massaninga. Ejirila ọtụtụ aha mara asụsụ a na Bekee, gụnyere chiYao ma ọ bụ ciYao (ụdị a na-akpọ), Achawa, Adsawa, Adsoa, Ajawa, Ayawa, Ayo, Ayao, Djao, Haiao, Hiao, Hyao, Jao, Veiao, nakwa waJao.

Na Malawi, ọtụtụ ndị na-asụ asụsụ Yao bi na mpaghara ndịda dị nso na nsọtụ ndịda ọwụwa anyanwụ nke Ọdọ Mmiri Malawi na ókè ala Mozambique n'ebe ọwụwa Anyanwụ. Na Mozambique, ọtụtụ ndị na-asụ ya bi na mpaghara Niassa site n'akụkụ ọwụwa anyanwụ nke Ọdọ Mmiri Malawi (Lago Niassa) ruo Osimiri Lugenda ruo ebe ọ zutere Osimiri Rovuma. Na Tanzania, ọtụtụ ndị na-asụ ya bi na ndịda etiti, mpaghara Mtwara, mpaghara Masasi nakwa mpaghara Ruvuma, mpaghara Tunduru, n'ebe ọwụwa anyanwụ nke Ọdọ Mmiri Malawi n'akụkụ ókè ala Mozambik.

Dị ka ọtụtụ asụsụ obodo dị n'Afrịka, ọ nwetụla obere nkwado nke gọọmentị n'akụkọ ihe megoro eme, nakwa ọrụ edemede na mpaghara ebe a na-asụ Yao emeela n'asụsụ ndị dị ka Arabic, Bekee, German nakwa Portuguese.

Ọmụmụ ụdaolu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mgbochiume[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ọnụ Alveolar Palatal Velar
Plosive/Affricate



enweghị olu p t t͡ʃ k
kwuru okwu b d d͡ʒ ɡ
Ihe na-esiri ike s
Ụgbọ imi m n ɲ ŋ
Ihe atụ Akụkọ banyere ya l j w

Ụdaume[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'ihu Central Nlaghachi
N'akụkụ i iː u uː
N'etiti e eː o oː
Emeghe a aː

Dị ka ọtụtụ asụsụ nke Bantu, ụda na-arụ ọrụ n'ụdaolu nakwa ọdịdị Yao. Lee Mtenje (1990) maka mkparịta ụka banyere ụda Yao nke Malawi. Lee Ngunga (1997) maka ngosi zuru ezu nke ụdaume nke Mozambican Yao.

Akwụkwọ Edemede[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Dị k'ọdị na Bekee, a na-achọ ụda olu nakwa ụda olu na-adịghị. Enwere naanị ụdaume ise 'dị ọcha', ya bụ, a, e, m, o, u, ọ bụ ezie na enwere ụfọdụ ọdịiche na ogologo ụdaume. Yao bụ asụsụ ụda olu, dịka ọ na-adịkarị n'asụsụ Bantu.

Na nke ọ bụla n'ime mba-atọ a nke na-asụ Yao, akwụkwọ edemede ha dị iche iche, enwekwara ọnụ ọgụgụ dị ala nke ịgụ na ide. Na Tanzania, akwụkwọ edemede ha dabeere na nke ndị Swahili, mana Malawi ọ dabeere na nke ndị Chewa. Ụdị Malawi nke n'eji mkpụrụedemede ndị a:

Enwere ike iji macrons mee ihe iji gbochie mgbagwoju anya nke g'ebilite n'ihi enweghị nnọchite anya nke ogologo ụdaume.[2][3]

Asụsụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Yao bụ asụsụ SVO. Dị ka asụsụ Bantu niile, Yao bụ aglutinative, na usoro mgbanwe okwu, n'aha ya etinye n'ụdị dịgasị iche iche nke prefixes gosipụtara, ndị a na-adaba n'ụdị ihe m'ọbụ ndị mmadụ. A na-ejikọta klas ọ bụla na njirimara, nke a na-eji emepụta nnọchiaha na njikọ nkwekọrịta, prefixes eji eme ihe tupu ngwaa na-achịkwa, na adjectives na-akọwa, aha nke klas enyere.

Ụdị aha[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Klas Okwu mbido Ihe e ji mara klas A na-eji ya eme ihe
1 m-, mu-, mw- ju ndị mmadụ otu
2 Ịnọgharị, ị, ịcha, ịcha. Ịnọ n'anya ọtụtụ ndị mmadụ
3 m-, mu-, mw- u ihe ndị dị ndụ
4 ọkara- ji ihe ndị dị ndụ n'ọtụtụ
5 li-, ly- li otu ihe dị iche iche
6 ma- ga ọnụọgụ nke klas 5
7 chi-, ch'- chi otu ihe dị iche iche
8 i-, y- i ọnụọgụ nke klas 7
9 n-, ny-, mb-, (nw-) ji otu ihe dị iche iche
10 n-, ny-, mb-, (nw-) ọ bụrụ na ọnụọgụ nke klas 9
11 lu- gụọ dị ka 9, nakwa otu nke klas 10
12 ka- ka obere okwu n'otu
13 ị- gị ọnụọgụ nke klas 13
14 u- u mkpokọta na abstract, enweghị ọtụtụ; yana ụfọdụ otu nke klas 6
15 ku, kw- ku infinitives
16 (pa-) pa obodo (na)
17 (ku-, kwa-) ku obodo (na)
18 (mu-, mwa-) mu obodo (n'ime)

Njikọ nkwekọrịta kwekọrọ na ya yiri nke aha aha ma e wezụga n'ọnọdụ nke klas 1 nakwa 2, nke nwere njikọ nkwekọrịta 'mb-' na 'a-' n'otu n'otu. Nzukọ nke ịgụnye klas 16, 17 nakwa 18 n'esi n'usoro ọdịnala Bantu, prefixes ha bụ ndị na-ekpebi okwu ma ọ bụ ikpe.

Ụdị okwu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Enyere ụdị onwe onye n'okpuru ebe a, nakwa ụdị ndị a n'enyeghị n'ụzọ nkịtị n'aka mgbodo.

Ụdị mbido onwe onye Nkwekọrịta Bekee (nkwekọrịta)
n-, ni- M
(u-) (gị)
a- ya, ya, ya na gị
ị- anyị
m-, mu-, mw-
Ịnọgharị, a- ha (ya, gị)

E nwere ụdị ngwaa n'akwado na nke na-adịghị mma, nke ọ bụla nwere ihe dịka nkewa ndị a:

Ọnọdụ na-egosi[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Dị ka ọ dị n'ọtụtụ asụsụ ndị Bantu, a n'eji njedebe 'a' mara nke a. A na-ekewapụta oge zuru oke ugbu a, ọdịnihu dị nso, oge zuru oke nke ugbu a, oge gara aga nakwa oge gara aga zuru oke, nke ikpeazụ bụ nke na-adịghị mma na nhazi.

Mmetụta nke njikọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ọnọdụ subjunctive yiri n'ụdị na nke na-egosi, mana dịka ọ dị n'ọtụtụ asụsụ ndị Bantu, a gbanwere 'a' ikpeazụ ka ọ bụrụ 'e'. Enwere ike iji ya mee ihe dị ka ihe dị mkpa, a na-ejikọkarị ya na ahịrịokwu ndị dị n'okpuru.

Ihe Dị Mkpa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Iji mepụta 'ihe nkịtị' (nke n'adịchaghị mma), enwere ike iji ogwe dị mfe, ma ọ bụ 'n' nwere ike ibute ihe ngosi, m'ọbụ enwere ike ịgbakwunye nsonaazụ '-ga' m'ọbụ '-je' .

Aha nnọchiaha[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ndị nnọchiaha onwe onye na-emetụta naanị klas 1 nakwa 2. A na-emepụta nnọchiaha ndị ọzọ site na njikọ klas. Ndị nnọchiaha ndị a, dị ka ihe a na-ahụkarị na Bantu, bụ ihe zuru oke, n'ihi na ha n'eguzo naanị ha site na ahịrịokwu ndị ọzọ: maka ụdị ebubo nakwa ụdị prepositional, a ghaghị iji affixes mee ihe. Ndị nnọchiaha nke atọ na-adabere na klas aha, dịka akọwapụtara n'elu.

Onye nnọchiaha zuru oke Nkwekọrịta Bekee (onye nnọchiaha isiokwu, onye nnọchiaha ihe)
otu Mụ onwe m
(ugwe) gị, gị
uwe anyị, anyị
Ọkpụkpụ afụ ọnụ

Enwere ike ijikọta ụdị ndị a dịka iwu ụfọdụ nke ndị Bantu nke ụdaume elision na prefixes dị ka 'na' (na, na).

E nwekwara ọtụtụ ngosipụta, ọtụtụ n'ime ha na-emepụta okpukpu atọ ('nke a', 'nke dị nso', nakwa 'nke dị anya')- ya bụ, a n'eji okpukpu atọ eme ihe.

Hụkwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Ndị Yao (Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ Afrịka)
  • Asụsụ Bantu

Edensibịa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. "The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland". Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 25 April 1872 – via Google Books.
  2. Sanderson, Meredith (1922).
  3. Ngunga, Armindo (2002).

Akwụkwọ Ọgụgụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Centre for Language Studies (Zomba, Malawi) "Mgbakwunye na / ma ọ bụ Iwu Mgbakwunye na Ciyawo Orthography 2010"
  • Dicks, Ian & Dollar, Shawn (2010) "A Practical Guide to Understanding Ciyawo"
  • Hetherwick, Alexander (1889), "Introductory Handbook of the Yao Language"
  • Hetherwick, Alexander (1902), "A Handbook of the Yao Language"
  • N'asụsụ atọ, David Jones (2006), "Ụzọ Chiyao n'asụsụ atọ", Montfort Media, Balaka, Malawi
  • Yusuf Jonas Msume (2017) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yao_people_(East_Africa)
  • Mtenje, Al (1990), Verb morphology na ụda olu na Chiyao. Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere (AAP) 22. 41-59.
  • Ngunga, Armindo (1997), Lexical Phonology na Morphology nke CiYao Verb Stem. Mahadum California, Berkeley, PhD dissertation. https://escholarship.org/content/qt3xw7j0c2/qt3xxw7c2_noSplash_5b3f6edf3cbb24dad546d3d22b4de150.pdf
  • Sanderson, George Meredith (1922), "A Yao Grammar"
  • Sanderson, George Meredith (1954), "A dictionary of the Yao language"
  • SIL Mozambique, "Asụsụ nke Mozambique Vocabulario de CIYAO E debere Wayback Machine"
  • Steere, Edward (1871) "Nchịkọta maka Akwụkwọ Aka nke Asụsụ Yao"
  • Akwụkwọ ntuziaka U.S. Peace Corps
  • Whiteley, Wilfred Howell (1966), "Nnyocha nke ahịrịokwu Yao"