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Asụsụ Yeyi

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Yeyi
Shiyɛyi
Spoken in: Namibia, Botswana 
Region: along the Okavango River
Total speakers: 55,000
Language family: Nnijer–Kongo
 Atlantic–Congo
  Volta-Congo
   Benue–Congo
    Bantoid
     Southern Bantoid
      Bantu (Zone R)
       Yeyi
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2:
ISO 639-3: yey

Àtụ:Infobox Language/IPA

Yeyi (autoethnonym Shiyɛyi) bụ Asụsụ Bantu nke ọtụtụ n'ime ihe dị ka Ndị Yeyi 50,000 na-asụ n'akụkụ Osimiri Okavango na Namibia na Botswana. Yeyi, nke asụsụ Juu metụtara, bụ otu n'ime ọtụtụ asụsụ Bantu n'akụkụ Okavango nwere clicks. N'ezie, ọ nwere ndepụta kachasị ukwuu nke ịpị aka n'asụsụ Bantu ọ bụla, yana ezé, alveolar, palatal, na nkwonkwo n'akụkụ. Ọ bụ ezie na ọtụtụ n'ime ndị okenye na-ekwu okwu na-ahọrọ Yeyi na mkparịta ụka nkịtị, a na-eji nwayọọ nwayọọ na-ewepụ ya na Botswana site na njem a ma ama na Tswana, ebe ọ bụ naanị ụmụaka na-amụta Yeyi n'ime obodo ole na ole. Otú ọ dị, ndị na-asụ Yeyi na Caprivi Strip nke ugwu ọwụwa anyanwụ Namibia, na-ejigide Yeyi n'ime obodo (gụnyere Linyanti), mana ha nwekwara ike ịsụ asụsụ mpaghara, Lozi.

A na-akpọ asụsụ ahụ Shirwanga. Obere ihe ka ọtụtụ n'ime ndị BoTswana Yeyi na-asụ otu asụsụ n'asụsụ mba, Tswana, na ọtụtụ n'etiti ndị ọzọ na-asụrụ asụsụ abụọ.

Nchịkọta

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Yeyi yiri ọ bụ agbụrụ dị iche iche nke Bantu. A na-ahazi ya dịka onye otu asụsụ R Zone Bantu. Asụsụ Ju enweela mmetụta fonetically n'asụsụ ahụ, ọ bụ ezie na ya na ha anaghịzi enwe mmekọrịta.

Mkpụrụedemede

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Mkpụrụedemede Yeyi[4]
N'ihu Central Ịlaghachi azụ
N'akụkụ i u
N'etiti Ọ bụ Ọ bụ n'oge a ka a na-eme ya
Emeghe a

Ogologo ụdaume dịkwa iche.

  • A na-ahụ ụdaume /ɛ ɔ/ n'ụzọ fonetiki.
  • /ɔ/ nwekwara ike ịnụ dị ka [ʊ] na ọnọdụ ikpeazụ nke okwu. A pụkwara ịnụ /i/ dị ka [ə] na prefixes.
  • A na-anụ ụda /i u a/ dị ka nasalized [ĩ ũ ã] mgbe ọ na-ebute ụdaume imi. A pụkwara ịnụ ụda imi, mana ọ bụ naanị n'ọnọdụ dị n'ime.
  • Ụda /i u/ nwere ike ịbụ nke etiti dị ka [ɨ ʉ] na-esote ụda fricative na sibilant.

Mkpụrụ okwu

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Yeyi consonantsÀtụ:Sfnp
Bilabial Labio-<br id="mwbA"><br>dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
plain sibilant plain pal.
Plosive/

Affricate
voiceless Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink (Àtụ:IPAlink)
aspirated Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink
ejective Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink
voiced Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink
Fricative voiceless Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink
voiced (Àtụ:IPAlink) Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink
Nasal Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink
Liquid rhotic Àtụ:IPAlink ~ Àtụ:IPAlink
lateral Àtụ:IPAlink
Approximant Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink

Ụda ụda ndị ọzọ nwere ike ịpụta bụ /bʲ ⁿdʲ lʲ/.

  • A glottal stop sound [ʔ] nwekwara ike ịpụta, mana naanị n'etiti ụdaume.
  • A na-anụkarị ụdaume nkwụsị /kʲ kʰʲ kʲʼ ɡʲ/ dị ka ụdaume nkwụchi [c [c cʰ cʼ ɟ]].
  • Ụda na-eru nso n'ọnụ /βʹ/ nwere ike ịdị site na ụda na-eru n'ókè na ụda fricative [βʹ ~ β].
  • Enwere ike [ɽ] ụdaume alveolar rhotic /r/ dị ka tap ma ọ bụ trill, mana enwere ike ịnụ ya dị ka retroflex tap.
  • [4][ɭ] pụkwara ịnụ ụdaume dị n'akụkụ /l/ dị ka retroflex dị n'otu akụkụ.
Prenasal consonantsÀtụ:Sfnp
Bilabial Labio-<br id="mwAUM"><br>dental Alveolar Post-<br id="mwAUg"><br> alveolar Velar Glottal
plain pal.
Plosive voiceless Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink
<small id="mwAWc">aspirated</small> Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink
ejective Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink
<small id="mwAYI">voiced</small> Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink
Affricate voiceless Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink
<small id="mwAaA">aspirated</small> Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink
<small id="mwAa0">voiced</small> Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink
ejective Àtụ:IPAlink
Fricative voiceless Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink
<small id="mwAdY">voiced</small> Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink Àtụ:IPAlink
  • A na-anụkarị ụdaume nkwụsịtụ /ᵑkʲ ᵑɡʲ/ dị ka ụdaume nkwụsi ike [ᶮc ᶮɟ].
Pịa Nkọwa
ᵏǂʰ aspirated
ᵏǂ na-eme ihe nkiri
ᶢǂ kwuru okwu
ᵑǂ imi
ŋᶢǂ tupu ịlụ di ma ọlị
ᵏǂʼ Mgbasa ozi ọnụ
ᵑǂˀ oghere imi
ǂqχ Mkpịsị ugodi
ǂqʼ Uva ejective

Usoro uvular ejective ejighị n'aka n'ihi ụkọ.

Fulop et al. (2002) nyochara clicks nke obere okwu na ndị na-asụ Yeyi 13 ndị na-esoghị n'ógbè na-ekwu okwu. Usoro ha chọtara bụ:

Pịa Nkọwa
ᵏǂʰ aspirated
ᵏǂ na-eme ihe nkiri
ᶢǂ kwuru okwu
ᵑǂ imi
ᵏǂʼ Mgbasa ozi ọnụ
ǂqʼ Uva ejective

E nwere mgbakwunye na ụda ndị dị ka /ŋɡ́/ na /ŋ́/, mana Fulop et al. na-enyocha ndị a dị ka ụyọkọ ụdaume, ọ bụghị otu ụda. Na mgbakwunye, a kọrọ na ọ bụ n'ezie velar, na africation bụ ụdị ọchịchọ, ya mere etinyela ya n'okpuru kńh. E nwere ụdị nsogbu velar yiri nke ahụ na mkpịsị ezé n'etiti ụfọdụ ndị ọkà okwu. [1] doro anya na mkpọtụ ndị na-agbapụ bụ uvular.

Miller (2011), na nyocha iji tụnyere asụsụ ndị ọzọ, na-akọwa nsonaazụ ha dị ka ndị a: [2]

Pịa Nkọwa
ᵏǂʰ aspirated
ᵏǂ na-eme ihe nkiri
ᶢǂ kwuru okwu
ᵑǂ imi
ᵏǂʼ Mgbasa ozi ọnụ
ᵑ̊ǂˀ Ogwe imi na-agba agba
ǂ͡qχ asụsụ na akpa ume
ǂ͡qχʼ asụsụ na-agbasa


Pịa Nkọwa
ᵏǃʰ aspirated
ᵏǃ na-eme ihe nkiri
ᶢǃ kwuru okwu
ŋᵏǃʰ aspirated tupu a mụọ ya
ŋᵏǃ Tenuis a na-eme tupu ya
ŋᶢǃ a na-ekwupụta ya

A Yeyi Talking Dictionary bụ nke Living Tongues Institute for Endangered Languages mepụtara.

Edensibia

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site na njem a ma ama na Tswana, ebe ọ bụ naanị ụmụaka na-amụta Yeyi n'ime obodo ole na ole. Otú ọ dị, ndị na-asụ Yeyi na Caprivi Strip nke ugwu ọwụwa anyanwụ Namibia, na-ejigide

  1. Fulop, Speech Spectrum Analysis, 2011:160.
  2. Amanda Miller, 2011. "The Representation of Clicks". In Oostendorp et al. eds., The Blackwell Companion to Phonology.

Akwụkwọ

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  •  
  • Fulop (2002). Yeyi clicks: Acoustic description and analysis. 
  • Fulop (2007). The dying clicks of Yeyi.
  • Seidel (2008). A Grammar of Yeyi: A Bantu Language of Southern Africa. R. Köppe. 
  • Sommer (1995). Sozialer Wandel und Sprachverhalten bei den Yeyi (Botswana), Ethnographie des Sprachwechsels. 

Njikọ mpụga

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Àtụ:Languages of BotswanaÀtụ:Languages of NamibiaÀtụ:Narrow Bantu languages