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 Page Àtụ:Contains special characters/styles.css has no content.Bambara (Arabic script), nke a makwaara dị ka Bamana (N'Ko script) ma ọ bụ Bamanankan (X), bụ asụsụ na asụsụ mba nke Mali nke nwere ike ịbụ nde mmadụ iri na ise na-asụ, nke nde mmadụ ise na Bambara na ihe dị ka nde mmadụ iri iri na-asụrụ asụsụ nke abụọ. A na-eme atụmatụ na ihe dị ka pasent 80 nke ndị Mali na-asụ Bambara dị ka asụsụ mbụ ma ọ bụ nke abụọ. Ọ nwere usoro ahịrịokwu isiokwu na ụda okwu abụọ. Aha obodo bamanankan pụtara "asụsụ (kan) nke ndị ọgọ mmụọ (bámànán), ndị jụrụ Islam", [nnyocha na-emezughị] ma e jiri ya tụnyere ndị na-asụ Dyula, ndị bụ ndị Alakụba.[1][2]

Nchịkọta[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Bamana bụ otu ndị otu dị iche iche nke a na-akpọ ndị a na-ejikọ ọnụ, nke ndị na-ekwu okwu ndị obodo ha na-achọpụta akụkọ ọdịnala na Mal Mal I Malyi. A na-atụle manditing na-atụle na-atụle (n'etiti ndị na-ekwu okwu ala) na-adabere na mkpughe ma ọ bụ nke na-ekwu okwu n'etiti ndị na-ekwu okwu - na 40 ruo 40 na mba .[3] Burkina Faso, Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Liberia, Ivory Coast na Gambia.[4] Manding bụ akụkụ nke nnukwu ezinụlọ Mandé nke asụsụ.

Ebe a na-ekesa ya[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A na-asụ Bambara na Mali niile dị ka asụsụ bu isi..A na-asụkarị asụsụ ahụ n'ebe ọwụwa anyanwụ, ndịda, na n'ebe ugwu nke Bamako, ebe ndị na-asụrụ ya na / ma ọ bụ ndị na-akọwa dị ka ndị otu agbụrụ Bambara kacha nwee ọnụ ọgụgụ mmadụ.

Mpaghara mpaghara ndị a na-ahụkarị na mpaghara ebe akụkọ ihe mere eme Bambara nke Bambo Somara nke Bambou, ọkachasị Ségou, mgbe ọ gbadaa site na ndị otu na-eme njem. [5]

Asụsụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Asụsụ bụ isi bụ Standard Bamara, nke nwere mmetụta dị ukwuu site na Maninkakan. [nkọwa dị mkpa] Bambara nwere ọtụtụ asụsụ obodo: Kaarta, Tambacounda (n'ebe ọdịda anyanwụ); Beledugu, Bananba, Mesekele (n' ugwu); Jitumu, Jamaladugu, Segu (n'etiti); Cakadugu, Keleyadugu, Jalakadougu, Kurulamini, Banim, Bankarkar, Shɛndugu, Ganadugu (n'Ebe ndịda); Kala, Kurk, Kurkthoroast).[5]

Ide ihe[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Peeji sitere na Grammaire et méthode Bambara nke Francis Delaforge (1949)

Kemgbe afọ 1967, a na-edekarị Bambara na edemede Latin, na-eji ụfọdụ mkpụrụedemede phonetic ndị ọzọ. Mkpụrụedemede bụ a, e, ɛ (nke bụbu è), i, o, ɔ (nke bụzi ò), u; enwere ike iji ụda olu mee ihe iji gosipụta ụda olu. A na-ede digraph ny mbụ ugbu a ɲ mgbe ọ na-akọwapụta palatal nasal glide; a na-edebe mkpụrụ okwu ny maka njikọta nke ụdaume imi na ọnụ palatal glide na-esote. N'ịgbaso mgbakọ mkpụrụedemede Bamako nke afọ 1966, a na-ede "ŋ" dị ka "ŋ", ọ bụ ezie na n'akwụkwọ ndị mbụ a na-edekarị ya dị ka ng ma ọ bụ nk.

Mkpụrụ akwụkwọ N'Ko bụ edemede nke Solomana Kante chepụtara na 1949 dị ka usoro ederede maka asụsụ Manding nke West Africa; M na-ekwu 'M na-ekwu' n'asụsụ Manding niile. Kante mepụtara Nīko na nzaghachi maka ihe o chere na ọ bụ nkwenye na ndị Afrịka bụ "ndị na-enweghị ọdịbendị" ebe ọ bụ na tupu oge a, enweghị usoro edemede ụmụ amaala Afrịka maka asụsụ ya. N'ko bu ụzọ nweta ndị ọrụ siri ike gburugburu ebe a na-asụ asụsụ Maninka nke obodo Kante nke Kankan, Guinea ma gbasaa site n'ebe ahụ gaa n'akụkụ ndị ọzọ na-asụrụ asụsụ Manding nke West Africa. N'ko na edemede Arabic ka na-eji maka Bambara, ọ bụ ezie na ọ bụ naanị orthography Latin ka a na-amata na Mali.

Tụkwasị na nke a, Woyo Couloubayi (c.1910-1982) nke Assatiémala mepụtara edemede a maara dị ka Masaba ma ọ bụ Ma-sa-ba maka asụsụ ahụ malite na 1930.[6] A na-akpọ ya maka ihe odide mbụ na usoro nchịkọta nke Couloubayi họọrọ, Masaba bụ syllabary nke na-eji diacritics egosi àgwà ụdaume dị ka ụdaume, ogologo, na nasalization. Ọ bụ ezie na ọ nweghị njikọ doro anya na usoro edemede ndị ọzọ, Masaba yiri ka ọ na-adabere na ihe oyiyi ọdịnala Bambara ma na-ekerịta ụfọdụ myirịta na Vai syllabary nke Liberia na mkpụrụedemede nzuzo nke Arabic nke a na-eji na Hodh (nke bụzi Hodh El Gharbi na Hodh Ech Chargui Regions nke Mauritania). Ka ọ na-erule n'afọ 1978, a na-ejikarị Masaba eme ihe n'ọtụtụ obodo dị na Nioro Cercle maka ndekọ ego, akwụkwọ ozi onwe onye, na ndekọ nke ekpere ndị Alakụba; a maghị ọnọdụ na mgbasa nke edemede ahụ ugbu a.[7][8]

Asụsụ Latịn[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ọ na-eji ụdaume asaa a, e, ɛ, i, o, ɔ na u, nke ọ bụla n'ime ha nwere ike ịpụta n'imi, pharyngealized ma na-atụ ụja, na-enye ngụkọta nke ụdaume 21 (mkpụrụedemede na-eru nso ha IPA). [citation needed] Ide ederede Latin malitere n'oge French colonization, a na-ewebata orthography mbụ na 1967. Ịgụ na ide dị oke, ọkachasị n'ime ime obodo. Ọ bụ ezie na akwụkwọ edemede na-eji nwayọọ nwayọọ na-agbanwe (n'ihi oke French dị ka "asụsụ nke ndị gụrụ akwụkwọ"), enwere ọtụtụ akwụkwọ a na-ekwu n'ọnụ, nke na-abụkarị akụkọ banyere ndị eze na ndị dike. Akwụkwọ a a na-ekwu okwu ọnụ bụ ndị griots (Jeliw na Bambara) bụ ndị ngwakọta nke ndị na-akọ akụkọ, ndị na-agụ egwu otuto, na akwụkwọ akụkọ ihe mere eme nke mmadụ bụ ndị mụrụ ọrụ nke ịbụ abụ na ịgụghachi ọtụtụ afọ. Ọtụtụ n'ime abụ ha dị nnọọ ochie ma a na-ekwu na ọ malitere na alaeze ochie nke Mali.

Mkpụrụ akwụkwọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • A na-akpọ ya
  • B B B B
  • C a na-akpọ [t͡ʃ]
  • N'ikwu ya n'ụzọ dị otú a
  • N'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'ihi ya ka a na-akpọ
  • Ọ bụ n'afọ iri na ụma
  • N'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'ihi ya ka a na-akpọ ya
  • Shia na-akpọ
  • Sụ a na-akpọ
  • N'ihi ya, a na-akpọ ya
  • __ibo__ N'ihi ya, a na-akpọ ya
  • Sọnk
  • Sụ A na-akpọ
  • N'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'ihi ya ka a na-akpọ "Chun"
  • N'ihi ya, ọ na-agụ
  • Йыara n'Anya
  • N'ihi ya, ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ ga-adị n'anya
  • O si otú ahụ
  • Ọ bụ otú ahụ ka a na-akọwa ya
  • N'ikwu ya n'ụzọ dị otú a
  • R R R R
  • Ọ bụ n'ihi ya ka a na-akpọ ya
  • A na-akpọ ya
  • A na-akpọ ya
  • N'ihi ya, a na-akpọ ya
  • Ya na ya na ya
  • Z Z Z Z

Akwụkwọ ozi ndị ọzọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Kh (nke a na-eji maka okwu ndị e si n'asụsụ ndị ọzọ si n'Afrịka nweta)
  • -n Akara ụdaume
  • Shia (ụdị mpaghara nke s)[9]

N'ko orthography[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mkpụrụedemede[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • A na-akpọ ya
  • A na-akpọ ya
  • Sị na-esote
  • A na-akpọ ya
  • A na-akpọ ya
  • Shia o [o]
  • A na-akpọ ya

Mkpụrụ okwu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Skọ na-ekwu maka ya
  • Akụkụ nke a na-akpọ
  • A na-akpọ ya
  • A na-akpọ ya
  • Akụkụ nke a [t͡ʃ]
  • A na-akpọ ya
  • A na-akpọ ya
  • Shia
  • A na-akpọ ya [g/ʀ/ɣ]
  • Akụkụ nke a na-akpọ [ɡ͡b]
  • Nke a bụ [f]
  • Akụkụ nke a
  • A na-akpọ ya
  • Nkọwa nke a
  • Akụkụ nke a na-akpọ "Anya"
  •  Ọ bụ n'ihi na ọ bụ n'afọ iri na ụma ka a na-akpọ
  • Nkọwa na-egosi na
  • A na-akpọ ya
  • N'ihi ya, ọ na-agụ ya
  • Shia Shia SHA
  • Akara ụdaume

Ụda ụda[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Akụkụ dị mkpirikpi
  • Akụkụ dị mkpirikpi
  • Ogologo oge dị elu
  • Ogologo ala[10][11]

Ọmụmụ ụdaolu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mkpụrụ okwu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ọnụ Alveolar Palatal Velar Ọkụ
Ụgbọ imi m n ɲ ŋ
Plosive p b t d t͡ʃ 'c' d͡ʒ ‹j› k ɡ
Ihe na-esiri ike f s z (ʃ) (ɣ) ‹kh› h
Ihe atụ w l j 'y'
Ihe na-atọ ụtọ r

Mkpụrụ okwu ọ bụla na-anọchite anya otu ụda ma e wezụga ụfọdụ:

  • A na-akpọ "W" dị ka n'asụsụ Bekee (dịka ichere) ma e wezụga na njedebe nke okwu, mgbe ọ bụ akara dị n'ọtụtụ ma na-akpọ ya dị ka [u].
  • A na-akpọkarị "S" dịka okwu Bekee "lee" mana a na-akpọ ya mgbe ụfọdụ dị ka "sh" [ʃ] dịka okwu "akpụkpọ ụkwụ" ma ọ bụ dị ka [z].
  • A na-akpọkarị "G" dịka okwu Bekee "go" mana n'etiti okwu, enwere ike ịkpọ ya dịka okwu Spanish "abogado" ([ɣ]) na mgbe ụfọdụ na mmalite nke okwu dị ka [gw].[12]

Mkpụrụedemede[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'ihu Central Nlaghachi
N'akụkụ i iː ĩ u uː ũ
N'etiti etiti e eː ẽ oː õ
Mepee n'etiti ɛ ɛː ɛ̃ ɔ ɔː ɔ̃
Emeghe a aː ã

Asụsụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Bambara bụ asụsụ aglutinative, nke pụtara na a na-agbakọta morphemes ọnụ iji mepụta okwu.

Ọdịdị ahịrịokwu bụ isi isiokwu-ihe-okwu (SOV). Were ahịrịokwu, n t'a lon (Amaghị m [ya]). n bụ isiokwu (M), a bụ ihe (ya), na [ta] lon bụ ngwaa ([ịmara). T' sitere na akara ngosi oge ugbu a na-adịghị mma té, bụ akara ngosi oge dị ugbu a (n b'a don ga-apụta "Amaara m ya"). Dị ka ọtụtụ asụsụ SOV, Bambara na-eji postpositions kama prepositions - ọrụ ha yiri prepositions Bekee mana etinye ya n'azụ aha.

Asụsụ ahụ nwere ụda abụọ (nke dị n'etiti / ọkọlọtọ na nke dị elu); dịka sa 'ọnwụ' vs. sá 'agwọ'. Ọdịdị arụmụka nke asụsụ ahụ nwere isiokwu, nke enyemaka aspectival sochiri, nke ihe na-esote, na n'ikpeazụ ngwaa na-agafe agafe.

Bambara anaghị agbanwe maka okike. Enwere ike ịkọwa okike maka aha site na ịgbakwunye adjective, - Turi ma ọ bụ -kɛ maka nwoke na -muso maka nwanyị. A na-emepụta ọnụọgụ site na itinye nsonaazụ ụdaolu -u, ọtụtụ mgbe na ụda dị ala (na orthography, -w) na aha ma ọ bụ adjectives.


Okwu mgbazinye[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'ime obodo ukwu, a gbanwere ọtụtụ njikọ Bamanankan n'iji ya eme ihe kwa ụbọchị site na mgbazinye ego French nke na-emekarị akara mgbanwe koodu. Asụsụ Bamako na-eji ahịrịokwu dị ka: N tara Kita ma ọ dịghị onye nọ ebe ahụ. : Agara m Kita [Bamanankan ] mana ọ dịghị onye nọ ebe ahụ [French]. Okwu ahụ na Bamanankan naanị ga-abụ, ọ ga-abụ "Oru Kita nka mɔkɔ si tun tɛ yen". A na-ejikwa okwu French "est-ce que" mee ihe na Bamanankan ; Otú ọ dị, a na-akpọ ya nke nta nke nta ma dị ka nkeji atọ, [ɛsikə].

Bamanankan na-eji ọtụtụ okwu mgbazinye French. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, ụfọdụ ndị mmadụ nwere ike ịsị: I ka kurusi ye jaun ye: "Kpu gị bụ odo" (iji okwu French maka odo, odo).)

Otú ọ dị, mmadụ nwekwara ike ịsị: I ka kulosi ye nɛrɛmukuman ye, nke pụtakwara "uwe gị bụ odo". Okwu Bamanankan mbụ maka odo sitere na "nɛrɛmuku," bụ ntụ ọka (muku) nke e ji néré (mịkụ ụgbụ mee), mkpụrụ sitere na ogologo mkpụrụ osisi. A na-ejikarị Nɛrɛmuku eme ofe na Southern Mali.

A na-ejikọta ọtụtụ okwu ndị a gbazinyere na French na ụda 'i'; nke a bụ ihe a na-ahụkarị mgbe ị na-eji okwu French nke nwere ihe a na'ụzọ ọdịnala na-adịghị ahụ na Mali. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, okwu Bamanankan maka snow bụ niegei, dabere na okwu French maka snow. Ebe ọ bụ na snow enwetụbeghị na Mali, ọ nweghị okwu pụrụ iche na Bamanankan iji kọwaa ya.

Ihe Nlereanya[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Àtụ:InterlinearÀtụ:InterlinearÀtụ:Interlinear

Egwú[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ndị na-ese ihe na Mali dị ka Oumou Sangaré, Sidiki Diabaté, Fatoumata Diawara, Rokia Traoré, Ali Farka Touré, Habib Koité na di na nwunye Amadou & Mariam na-abụkarị abụ na Bambara. Okwu na Bambara na-apụta na Stevie Wonder's Journey Through "The Secret Life of Plants".

Tụkwasị na nke a, n'afọ 2010, otu egwu rock Spanish Dover wepụtara abọm studio nke asaa ya I Ka Kené na ọtụtụ okwu n'asụsụ ahụ. Onye America na-eti egwu Nas weputara egwu akpọrọ "Sabali" na 2010, nke gosipụtara Damian Marley. Sabali bụ okwu Bambara nke pụtara ndidi.

Ọnọdụ iwu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

8Bambara bụ otu n'ime ọtụtụ asụsụ nke Mali họpụtara dị ka asụsụ mba.[13]

Ihe odide[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ihe e dere n'akwụkwọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. Donaldson (2019-03-01). "Linguistic and Civic Refinement in the N'ko Movement of Manding-Speaking West Africa". Signs and Society 7 (2). DOI:10.1086/702554. ISSN 2326-4489. 
  2. Vydrin (1999). Manding-English Dictionary : (Maninka, Bamana), 69. ISBN 9780993996931. OCLC 905517929. 
  3. Note on current use of Manding and Mande ethnonyms and linguonyms. Archived from the original on 2012-04-08. Retrieved on 2012-04-20.
  4. Mandé Language Family: Manding. www.sil.org. Archived from the original on 21 January 2013. Retrieved on 1 January 2018.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Mandé Language Family: Maps of Manding-East, North-Eastern Manding, Bamana, Urban koine. www.sil.org. Archived from the original on 22 January 2013. Retrieved on 1 January 2018.
  6. Brock-Utne (2009). Language and Power. The Implications of Language for Peace and Development: The Implications of Language for Peace and Development. Oxford: African Books Collective. ISBN 9789987081462. 
  7. Galtier (1987). "Un exemple d'écriture traditionnelle mandingue : le «masaba» des Bambara-Masasi du Mali". Journal des Africanistes 57 (1–2): 255–266. DOI:10.3406/jafr.1987.2174. Retrieved on 18 March 2020. 
  8. Kelly (2018). "Chapter 9: The Invention, Transmission, and Evolution of Writing: Insights from the New Scripts of West Africa", in Ferrara: STUDI MICENEI ED EGEO-ANATOLICI NUOVA SERIE SUPPLEMENTO 1 Paths into Script Formation in the Ancient Mediterranean. Rome: CNR – Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, 189-209. DOI:10.31235/osf.io/253vc. ISBN 978-88-7140-898-9. 
  9. Bambara alphabet, pronunciation, and language. Omniglot. Retrieved on 29 June 2021.
  10. Bambara alphabet, pronunciation, and language. Omniglot. Retrieved on 27 June 2021.
  11. Bambara Alphabet and Pronunciation (N'ko and Latin). An ka taa. Retrieved on 28 June 2021.
  12. Bailleul. Cours pratique de bambara, 3. 
  13. Skattum (2010). "L'introduction des langues nationales dans le système éducatif au Mali: objectifs et conséquences" (in fr). Journal of Language Contact 3 (1): 248. DOI:10.1163/19552629-90000013. Retrieved on February 17, 2017. 

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Nkọwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Akwụkwọ ọkọwa okwu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ihe mmụta[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ndị ọzọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

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