Brassica oleracea

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Brassica oleracea
taxon
obere ụdị nkevegetable, vegetables and gourds (except potatoes) Dezie
nwere ojijimedicinal plant, nrị Dezie
aha mkpirisiB. oleracea Dezie
aha taxonBrassica oleracea Dezie
ọkwa taxonspecies Dezie
nne na nna taxonBrassica Dezie
has fruit typesilique Dezie
ọnọdụ nchekwa IUCNEnweghị ihe ọmụma Dezie
subject has rolebasionym Dezie
WikiProject na-elekọta yaWikiProject Invasion Biology Dezie
taxon rangeChina Dezie
GRIN URLhttps://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=7668 Dezie
sequenced genome URLhttps://plants.ensembl.org/Brassica_oleracea Dezie
Brassica oleracea
Wild cabbage plants
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Brassicales
Family: Brassicaceae
Genus: Brassica
Species:
B. oleracea
Binomial name
Brassica oleracea



Synonyms[2]
List
    • Brassica alboglabra L.H.Bailey
    • Brassica arborea Steud.
    • Brassica bullata Pasq.
    • Brassica capitala DC. ex H.Lév.
    • Brassica caulorapa (DC.) Pasq.
    • Brassica cephala DC. ex H.Lév.
    • Brassica fimbriata Steud.
    • Brassica gemmifera H.Lév.
    • Brassica laciniata Steud.
    • Brassica millecapitata H.Lév.
    • Brassica oleracea subsp. acephala (DC.) Metzg.
    • Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.
    • Brassica oleracea subsp. caulorapa (DC.) Metzg.
    • Brassica oleracea var. costata DC.
    • Brassica oleracea subsp. fruticosa Metzg.
    • Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera DC.
    • Brassica oleracea convar. gemmifera (DC.) Gladis ex Diederichsen
    • Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes L.
    • Brassica oleracea var. kashmiriana Naqshi & Javeid
    • Brassica oleracea var. laciniata L.
    • Brassica oleracea var. palmifolia DC.
    • Brassica oleracea var. rubra L.
    • Brassica oleracea var. sabauda L.
    • Brassica oleracea var. sabellica L.
    • Brassica oleracea var. viridis L.
    • Brassica quercifolia DC. ex H.Lév.
    • Brassica rubra Steud.
    • Brassica suttoniana H.Lév.
    • Brassica sylvestris (L.) Mill.
    • Crucifera brassica E.H.L.Krause
    • Napus oleracea (L.) K.F.Schimp. & Spenn.
    • Rapa rotunda Mill.
    • Raphanus brassica-officinalis Crantz

Brassica oleracea bụ ụdị osisi nke gụnyere ọtụtụ ụdị osisi, dị ka cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, Brussels sprouts, collard greens, Savoy cabbage, kohlrabi, na gai lan.

N'ụdị ya mgbe a na-akọbeghị ya akọ, a na-akpọ ya cabbage ọhịa ma bụrụkwa nke a na-ahụkarị n'ụsọ oké osimiri n'ebe ndịda na ọdịda anyanwụ Europe. Osisi siri ike n'ụdị ya a na-akọghị, nnagide ya dị elu maka nnu na lime, na enweghị nnagide asọmpi site na osisi ndị ọzọ, na-egbochi ihe okike ya na ugwu mmiri limestone, dị ka ugwu chalk n'akụkụ abụọ nke English Channel, na ụsọ mmiri ikuku n'akụkụ ọdịda anyanwụ nke Isle of Wight.[3] Nnyocha mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa nke mmadụ itoolu bi n'ọhịa n'ụsọ oké osimiri Atlantic nke France gosipụtara mmalite anụ ọhịa ha, nke sitere na osisi ndị a zụlitere n'ubi na ubi.[4]

B. oleracea ọhịa bụ osisi dị ogologo nke na-adịru afọ abụọ nke na-emepụta rosette siri ike nke nnukwu akwụkwọ n'afọ mbụ. Akwụkwọ ya dị nro ma sie ike karịa ụdị Brassica chin nke na-enyere ya aka ichekwa mmiri na ihe oriri na gburugburu ebe siri ike. N'afọ nke abụọ ya, ọ na-eji ihe na-edozi ahụ echekwara iji mepụta okooko osisi dị mita 1 - 2 n'ogologo na ọtụtụ okooko osisi na-acha edo edo.

Aha ya kpọmkwem oleracea pụtara "akwụkwọ nri ma ọ bụ ahịhịa" na Latin ma bụrụ ụdị holeraceus (oleraceus).[5][6]

Uto na ojiji[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Isi nke B. oleracea Botrytis otu (cauliflower) na-eto eto

B. oleracea eguzobewo dị ka ihe ọkụkụ nri dị mkpa nke mmadụ, nke a na-eji eme ihe n'ihi nnukwu nri ya, nke a chekwaara n'oge oyi na akwụkwọ ya. Ọ nwere ihe oriri na-edozi ahụ dị mkpa nke gụnyere vitamin C. A zụlitere ya n'ọtụtụ ụdị, gụnyere cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, collards, na kale, ụfọdụ n'ime ha anaghị aghọta ha dị ka ndị otu ụdị, ma ya fọdụkwa ụdị.[7] Akụkọ ihe mere eme nke ụdị Crucifera, nke pụtara "onye na-ebu obe" na-arutu aka na okooko osisi anọ, nke nwere ike ịbụ naanị ihe jikọtara ọnụ karịa ụtọ.

Ndị na-eme nchọpụta kwenyere na a na-akụ ya kemgbe ọtụtụ puku afọ, mana akụkọ ihe mere eme ya dị ka osisi a na-azụ n'ụlọ edoghị anya tupu oge ndị Gris na ndị Rom, mgbe ọ bụ akwụkwọ nri ubi a ma ama. Theophrastus kwuru ụdị atọ nke rhaphanos: akwụkwọ na-agba agba, akwụkwọ na-akwọ mụrụmụrụ, na ụdị ọhịa.[8][9] Ọ na-akọ na ọ na-asọ oyi na cabbage na osisi vaịn, n'ihi na ndị oge ochie kwenyere na cabbage a na-akụ n'akụkụ mkpụrụ vaịn ga-enye mmanya ahụ ụtọ ha.

Nri jupụtara na akwụkwọ nri cruciferous (dịka, cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower) nwere njikọ na mbelata ihe ize ndụ nke ọtụtụ ọrịa kansa mmadụ.[10][11]

A small tree with large leaves
Enwere ike ịzụlite cabbage Jersey ka ọ too nnukwu, ọkachasị na ihu igwe na-enweghị oyi.

Mmalite ya[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Dika Triangle of U theory sị dị , B. oleracea nwere njikọ chiri anya na ụdị ise ndị ọzọ nke ụdị Brassica.[12]

Ogwe ụkwụ Jersey

A na-achịkọta ụdị nke B. oleracea site na ụdị mmepe n'ime ìgwè asaa dị mkpa, nke otu Acephala ("na-abụghị isi") na-anọgide na-adị ka cabbage ọhịa n'ọdịdị:

  • Brassica oleracea Acephala otu a na-akpọ kale
  • Brassica oleracea Viridis otu collard akwụkwọ ndụ akwụkwọ ndụ
  • Brassica oleracea Alboglabra otu (Chinese broccoli)
  • Brassica oleracea Botrytis otu cauliflower, Romanesco broccoli, na broccoflower
  • Brassica oleracea Capitata otu
  • Brassica oleracea Gemmifera otu na Brussels sprouts
  • Brassica oleracea Ìgwè Gongylodes
  • Brassica oleracea Italica otu

N'ebe ndị dị ka Channel Islands na Canary Islands, ebe oyi dị obere ma si otú a wepụ osisi site na oge, ụfọdụ cultivars, nke a maara dị ka Jersey cabbages, nwere ike ito ruo mita atọ (9.8 ft) n'ogologo.[13] "Cabbages" ndị a na-amịpụta akwụkwọ ọhụrụ n'afọ niile, na-adịgide adịgide, ọ dịghịkwa mkpa ka e bibie ya n'oge owuwe ihe ubi dị ka ọ dị na cabbage nkịtị. A na-eme ka ahịhịa ha na-acha odo odo kpọọ nkụ mgbe ụfọdụ ma mee ka ha bụrụ ahịhịhịa na-agagharị agagharị.[14][15]

Akụkọ ihe mere eme[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Market Scene, ihe osise nke Pieter Aertsen (1569)

Site na ọbịbịa nke ọrụ ugbo na nzọghari osisi dị ọhịa na nso ụlọ, ndị bi n'ebe ugwu Mediterenian malitere ịkọ ugbo cabbage ọhịa. Site na nhọrọ aka maka àgwà dị iche iche nke phenotype, mpụta nke ọdịiche dị iche iche na osisi ahụ nwere nnukwu ọdịiche dị na ọdịdị were naanị puku afọ ole na ole. Nhọrọ maka akwụkwọ, okooko osisi, okooko ala, ogwe osisi, na okooko osisi mere ka a họrọ ụdị dị iche iche nke cabbage ọhịa n'ime ọtụtụ ụdị a maara taa.[16]

Mmetụta nke mmasị[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Nhọrọ maka iri akwụkwọ ya mere ka a họrọ ahịhịa ndị nwere akwụkwọ buru ibu na-ewepụta ma kụọ mkpụrụ ha maka uto ọzọ. N'ihe dị ka senchiri nke ise (5th century BC), mmepụta nke ihe a maara ugbu a dị ka kale amalitela.[17]
  • Nhọrọ ahụ dugara na nhọrọ aka nke osisi kale nwere akwụkwọ ndị siri ike, ma ọ bụ alaka na-epu elu. N'ebe ụfọdụ n'ihe dị ka narị afọ mbụ AD, ọdịiche dị iche iche nke B. oleracea nke a maara dị ka cabbage pụtara.
  • Nhọrọ nke Phenotype na Germany mere ka ọdịiche ọhụrụ site na cultivar kale. Site n'ịhọrọ maka ogwe osisi buru ibu, osisi dị iche iche a maara dị ka kohlrabi pụtara na narị afọ mbụ AD.
  • Nhọrọ ndị Europe pụtara maka iri okooko osisi na-eto eto, nhọrọ maka inflorescence. Ihe ndekọ mbụ na senchiri nke ịrị na ise (15th century AD), na-egosi na a chọtara ụdị isi cauliflower na broccoli n'ebe ndịda Ịtali na Sicily, ọ bụ ezie na ọ nwere ike ọ gaghị edozi ụdị ndị a n'ụdị dị iche iche ruo ihe dị ka afọ otu bari ka e mesịrị.[1]
  • Nhọrọ ọzọ na Belgium na mgbọrọgwụ n'akụkụ dugara na Brussels sprouts na narị afọ nke 18.

Ojiji ọgwụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Agbụrụ Lumbee nke North Carolina ejirila akwụkwọ B. oleracea mee ihe n'ọgwụ nke ha kwenyere na ọ nwere àgwà nhicha, yana ihe na-eme ka ọ dị nro, ihe na-egbochi ọzịza, na ọgwụgwọ maka glaucoma na oyi ịba n'ahụ.[18]

Ọtụtụ ụdị nke B. oleracea, gụnyere kale, Brussels sprouts, savoy, na Chinese kale

Mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa n'ihe gbasara ụtọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa TAS2R38 na-edepụta onye na-anabata protein G nke na-arụ ọrụ dị ka onye na-anata uto, nke ligands dị ka PROP na phenylthiocarbamide na-ejikọta na onye na-anakwere ma malite mgbaàmà nke na-enye ogo dị iche iche nke nghọta uto. Akwụkwọ nri dị n'ezinụlọ brassica, dị ka collard greens, kale, broccoli, cabbage, na Brussels sprouts, nwere glucosinolates na isothiocyanates, nke yiri PROP, ya mere ọtụtụ n'ime "obi ilu" nke akwụkwọ nri ndị a na-aga site na TAS2R38. A na-ahụkwa ndị na-anabata uto dị ilu n'ezinụlọ TS2R na mkpụrụ ndụ dị n'ime ụmụ mmadụ na ụmụ oke. Ndị na-anabata ihe ndị a na-emetụta mwepụta nke homonụ ndị metụtara ịchịkwa agụụ, dị ka peptide YY na glucagon-dị ka peptite-1, ya mere ha nwere ike imetụta iri calorie na mmepe nke oke ibu. Ya mere, nghọta ụtọ dị ilu nwere ike imetụta omume nri site n'inwe mmetụta na mmasị ụtọ na nhazi homonụ metabolic.[19]

Ụdị atọ dị na agbụrụ TAS2R38 ya bu: rs713598, rs1726866, na rs10246939 na-enwe njikọ dị elu na ọtụtụ ndị mmadụ ma na-akpata mgbanwe koodu amino acid nke na-eduga n'ọtụtụ ụdị nghọta dị ilu. PAV haplotype bụ ihe kachasị; ya mere, ndị nwere ma ọ dịkarịa ala otu ụdị nke PAV allele na-ahụ mkpụrụ ndụ dị na akwụkwọ nri ndị yiri PROP dị ka iri ihe ilu, n'ihi ya, ha nwere ike ịkpata ịkpọasị na akwụkwọ nri ilu. N'ụzọ dị iche, ndị nwere haplotypes AVI abụọ bụ ndị na-adịghị atọ ụtọ. PAV na AVI haplotypes bụ ndị a na-ahụkarị, ọ bụ ezie na haplotyps ndị ọzọ dị na-enye mmetụta dị n'etiti (AAI, AAV, AVV, na PVI). Mmetụta a nwere ike imetụta akwụkwọ nri n'ozuzu.[19][20]

Osisi ndị a na-akụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ịzụlite Foto Aha
Cabbage ọhịa Brassica oleracea var. oleracea
Cabbage Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. alba
Cabbage Savoy Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. sabauda
Cabbage na-acha ọbara ọbara Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. rubra
Cable cone Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. acuta
Gai lan Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra
Ihe olu na-acha akwụkwọ ndụ akwụkwọ ndụ Brassica oleracea var. viridis
Cabbage Jersey Brassica oleracea var. longata
Ihe ịchọ mma Brassica oleracea var. acephala
Kale Brassica oleracea var. sabellica
Kalette Brassica oleracea var. viridis x gemmifera
Akpụkpọ anụ Brassica oleracea var. palmifolia
Akpụkpọ anụ na-adịgide adịgide Brassica oleracea var. ramosa
Mkpụrụ osisi cabbage Brassica oleracea var. medullosa
Akpụkpọ ụkwụ Brassica oleracea var. costata
Uto nke Brussels Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera
Kohlrabi Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes
Broccoli Brassica oleracea var. italica
Cauliflower Brassica oleracea var. botrytis
Caulini Brassica oleracea var. botrytis
Broccoli nke Romanesco Brassica oleracea var. botrytis
Broccoli di Torbole Brassica oleracea var. botrytis
Okooko osisi broccoflower Brassica oleracea var. botrytis x italica
Broccolini Brassica oleracea var. italica × alboglabra

Edensibia[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Holubec, V., Uzundzhalieva, K., Vörösváry, G., Donnini, D., Bulińska, Z. & Strajeru, S. 2011. Brassica oleracea. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T170110A6717557. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-1.RLTS.T170110A6717557.en. Downloaded on 02 July 2021.
  2. "Brassica oleracea L." Plants of the World Online. Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 2017. Retrieved 27 August 2020.
  3. Snogerup (1990-01-01). "Brassica sect. Brassica (Brassicaceae) I. Taxonomy and Variation". Willdenowia 19 (2): 271–365. 
  4. Maggioni (2020). "Survey and genetic diversity of wild Brassica oleracea L. Germplasm on the Atlantic coast of France". Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 67 (7): 1853–1866. DOI:10.1007/s10722-020-00945-0. 
  5. Parker (2018). A Little Book of Latin for Gardeners. Little Brown Book Group. ISBN 978-1-4087-0615-2. “oleraceus, holeraceus = relating to vegetables or kitchen garden” 
  6. Whitney (1899). The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia. Century Co.. “L. holeraceus, prop. oleraceus, herb-like, holus, prop. olus (oler-), herbs, vegetables” 
  7. Stansell (2018-07-01). "Genotyping-by-sequencing of Brassica oleracea vegetables reveals unique phylogenetic patterns, population structure and domestication footprints" (in en). Horticulture Research 5 (1). DOI:10.1038/s41438-018-0040-3. ISSN 2052-7276. PMID 29977574. 
  8. Compare Theophrastus; raphanis (ραφανίς), "radish", also a Brassica.
  9. Zohary (2012). Domestication of Plants in the Old World: The Origin and Spread of Domesticated Plants in Southwest Asia, Europe, and the Mediterranean Basin (in en). OUP Oxford, 199. ISBN 978-0199549061. 
  10. Verhoeven (1996-09-01). "Epidemiological studies on brassica vegetables and cancer risk". Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 5 (9): 733–748. ISSN 1055-9965. PMID 8877066. 
  11. Higdon (2007-03-01). "Cruciferous vegetables and human cancer risk: epidemiologic evidence and mechanistic basis". Pharmacological Research 55 (3): 224–236. DOI:10.1016/j.phrs.2007.01.009. ISSN 1043-6618. PMID 17317210. 
  12. Dixon (2007). Vegetable brassicas and related crucifers. Wallingford: CABI. ISBN 978-0-85199-395-9. 
  13. Miller (1835). The Gardeners Dictionary, 9th. 
  14. Ayto (2012). The Diner's Dictionary: Word Origins of Food and Drink. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199640249. 
  15. Williams (June 13, 1986). "Rapid-Cycling Populations of Brassica". Science 232 (4756): 1385–1389. DOI:10.1126/science.232.4756.1385. PMID 17828914. 
  16. Osnas (2012-11-05). The extraordinary diversity of Brassica oleracea. The Botanist in the Kitchen. Retrieved on 2016-04-07.
  17. Vegetables - University of Saskatchewan. agbio.usask.ca. Archived from the original on 2016-03-29. Retrieved on 2016-04-07.
  18. de Rus Jacquet (2017-07-12). "Lumbee traditional medicine: Neuroprotective activities of medicinal plants used to treat Parkinson's disease-related symptoms" (in en). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 206: 408–425. DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2017.02.021. PMID 28214539. 
  19. 19.0 19.1 Calancie (2018). "TAS2R38 predisposition to bitter taste associated with differential changes in vegetable intake in response to a community-based dietary intervention". G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics 8 (6): 2107–2119. DOI:10.1534/g3.118.300547. PMID 29686110.  Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Calancie" defined multiple times with different content
  20. Behrens (2013). "Genetic, Functional, and Phenotypic Diversity in TAS2R38-Mediated Bitter Taste Perception". Chemical Senses 38 (6): 475–84. DOI:10.1093/chemse/bjt016. PMID 23632915. 
  • Beckett (2014). "Bitter Taste Genetics – the Relationship to Tasting, Liking, Consumption and Health". Food & Function 5 (12): 3040–54. DOI:10.1039/C4FO00539B. PMID 25286017. 
  • Boxer (2015). "Rare haplotypes of the gene TAS2R38 confer bitter taste sensitivity in humans". SpringerPlus 4. DOI:10.1186/s40064-015-1277-z. PMID 26405625. 
  • Bufe (2005). "The Molecular Basis of Individual Differences in Phenylthiocarbamide and Propylthiouracil Bitterness Perception". Current Biology 15 (4): 322–7. DOI:10.1016/j.cub.2005.01.047. PMID 15723792. 
  • Calancie (2018). "TAS2R38 Predisposition to Bitter Taste Associated with Differential Changes in Vegetable Intake in Response to a Community-Based Dietary Intervention". G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics 8 (6): 2107–2119. DOI:10.1534/g3.118.300547. PMID 29686110. 
  • Duffy (2010). "Vegetable Intake in College-Aged Adults Is Explained by Oral Sensory Phenotypes and TAS2R38 Genotype". Chemosensory Perception 3 (3–4): 137–148. DOI:10.1007/s12078-010-9079-8. PMID 21157576. 
  • Wieczorek (2018). "Bitter Taste of Brassica Vegetables: The Role of Genetic Factors, Receptors, Isothiocyanates, Glucosinolates, and Flavor Context.". Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 58 (18): 3130–3140. DOI:10.1080/10408398.2017.1353478. PMID 28718657. 
  • Rozengurt. "Taste Receptors in the Gastrointestinal Tract. I. Bitter taste receptors and α-gustducin in the mammalian gut". Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 7: 171–177. 
  • Roura (21 May 2015). "Variability in Human Bitter Taste Sensitivity to Chemically Diverse Compounds Can Be Accounted for by Differential TAS2R Activation.". Chemical Senses 40 (6): 427–35. DOI:10.1093/chemse/bjv024. PMID 25999325. 
  • Risso (27 June 2016). "Erratum: Corrigendum: Global Diversity in the TAS2R38 Bitter Taste Receptor: Revisiting a Classic Evolutionary PROPosal.". Scientific Reports 6. DOI:10.1038/srep28406. PMID 27346370. 
  • Mennella (20 February 2005). "Functionally Distinct Kinesin-13 Family Members Cooperate to Regulate Microtubule Dynamics during Interphase.". Nature Cell Biology 7 (3): 235–45. DOI:10.1038/ncb1222. PMID 15723056. 
  • Kim (2005). "Genetics of individual differences in bitter taste perception: lessons from the PTC gene". Clin. Genet. 67 (4): 275–80. DOI:10.1111/j.1399-0004.2004.00361.x. PMID 15733260. 
  • Kim (2004). "Genetics of Human Taste Perception". J. Dent. Res. 83 (6): 448–53. DOI:10.1177/154405910408300603. PMID 15153450. 
  • Khataan (2009). "TAS2R38 Genotypes and Phenylthiocarbamide Bitter Taste Perception in a Population of Young Adults.". Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics 2 (4–5): 251–6. DOI:10.1159/000297217. PMID 20484932. 
  • Genick (2011). "Sensitivity of genome-wide-association signals to phenotyping strategy: the PROP-TAS2R38 taste association as a benchmark". PLOS ONE 6 (11): e27745. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0027745. PMID 22132133. 

Njikọ mpụga[dezie | dezie ebe o si]