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Clara Zetkin

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Clara Zetkin (/ˈzɛtkɪn/; German: ; née Eißner ; 5 Julaị 1857- 20 June 1933) bụ onye German Marxist theorist, onye na-ekwuchitere ndi mmadu, na onye na-akwado ikike ụmụ nwanyị.[1]

Tutu ruo afọ 1917, ọ na-arụsi ọrụ ike na Social Democratic Party nke Germany.[2] Mgbe ahụ, ọ sonyeere Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany (USPD) na akụkụ aka ekpe ya, Spartacist League. Nke a mesịrị ghọọ Communist Party of Germany (KPD), nke ọ nọchitere anya na Reichstag n'oge Weimar Republic site n'afọ 1920 ruo 1933.[1]

A mụrụ Clara Josephine Eißner (Eissner) diọkpara n'ime ụmụ atọ na Wiederau (Saxony) [de], obodo ndị ọrụ ugbo na Saxony, nke bụzi akụkụ nke obodo Königshain-Wiederau.[3] Nna ya, Gottfried Eissner, bụ onye nkuzi ụlọ akwụkwọ, onye na-akpọ ụbọ akwara na onye Protestant na-anụ ọkụ n'obi, ebe nne ya, Josephine Vitale, nwere mgbọrọgwụ French, sitere n'ezinụlọ nọ n'etiti na Leipzig ma gụọ akwụkwọ nke ọma.[3][4][5] N'afọ 1872, ezinụlọ ya kwagara Leipzig, ebe ọ gụrụ akwụkwọ na Leipzig Teachersī College for Women. Mgbe ọ nọ n'ụlọ akwụkwọ, ya na nwa ọhụrụ Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (SPD; Social Democratic Party) guzobere mmekọrịta.

Zetkin n'oge nnọkọ na Zurich na 1897

N'ihi mmachibido iwu nke Bismarck tinyere na ọrụ ndị otu ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na Germany n'afọ 1878, Zetkin gara Zurich n'afọ 1882 wee gaa biri na Paris, ebe ọ gụrụ akwụkwọ ịbụ onye nta akụkọ na onye ntụgharị. N'oge ọ nọ na Paris, ọ rụrụ ọrụ dị mkpa na ntọala nke otu Socialist International.[6] Ọ nabatakwara aha onye ọ hụrụ n'anya, onye Russia-Jewish Ossip Zetkin [de], onye Marxist raara onwe ya nye, onye ya na ya nwere ụmụ nwoke abụọ, Maxim na Konstantin (nke a maara dịka Kostja). Ossip Zetkin dara ezigbo ọrịa na mbido 1889 wee nwụọ na June nke afọ ahụ. Mgbe onye ọ hụrụ n'anya nwụsịrị, Zetkin na ụmụ ya kwagara Stuttgart. Ọ lụrụ onye na-ese ihe Georg Friedrich Zundel, onye ji afọ iri na asatọ tọọ ya, site n'afọ 1899 ruo 1928.[7]

Ịgba ọsọ ndụ na ọnwụ

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Akwụkwọ ego nke GDR
Ihe ncheta ebe Clara Zetkin biri na Jena, Germany

Mgbe Adolf Hitler na ndị Nazi Party ya weghaara ọchịchị, a machibidoro ndị Communist Party nke Germany iwu, mgbe ọkụ Reichstag gbara n'afọ 1933. Zetkin gara mba ọzọ n'oge ikpeazụ, n'oge a na Soviet Union. Ọ nwụrụ n'ebe ahụ, na Arkhangelskoye, nso Moscow, na 1933, mgbe ọ fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ afọ 76.[6] E debere ntụ ya na Kremlin Wall Necropolis, site na Moscow Kremlin Wall, nso Red Square.[6] Ndị isi ndị Kọmunist si Europe niile bịara ememe olili ozu ahụ, gụnyere Joseph Stalin na Nadezhda Krupskaya (nwunye Lenin).[8]

Mgbe 1949 gachara , Zetkin ghọrọ onye dike a ma ama na German Democratic Republic (East Germany), obodo ukwu ọ bụla nwere okporo ámá aha ya. A ka nwere ike ịchọta aha ya na map nke ala ndị bụbu GDR.[7] E nwekwara okporo ámá dị na Tula, Russia nke aha ya bụ Zetkin (Kla Цеткин) nke na-aga n'otu akụkụ na Red Army Prospect nke bụ okporo ụzọ bụ isi na-eduga na Moscow Train Station na obodo ahụ.

Nsọpụrụ ndị e nyere mgbe ọ nwụsịrị

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  • E chetaara Zetkin na mkpụrụ ego ego iri na mkpụrụ ego iri abụọ nke German Democratic Republic (GDR) (East Germany).
  • Mgbe 1949, obodo ukwu ọ bụla dị na GDR nwere okporo ámá aha ya.
  • N'afọ 1954, GDR guzobere ihe nrite Clara Zetkin (Clara-Zetkin-Medaille).
  • N'afọ 1955, kansụl obodo Leipzig guzobere ebe ntụrụndụ ọhụrụ dị nso n'etiti obodo a na-akpọ "Clara-Zetkin-Park"[9]
  • N'afọ 1967, e guzobere ihe oyiyi nke Clara Zetkin, nke onye na-ese ihe GDR Walter Arnold, na Johannapark, Leipzig iji cheta ụbọchị ọmụmụ ya nke afọ 110.
  • N'afọ 1987, GDR wepụtara stampụ nwere foto ya.
  • Kemgbe afọ 2011, otu ndị Germany bụ Die Linke na-ewepụta "Clara-Zetkin-Frauenpreis [de]" kwa afọ.

Edemsibịa

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Njikọ mpụga

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  • Media related to Clara Zetkin at Wikimedia Commons
  • Quotations related to Clara Zetkin at Wikiquote
  • Works by Clara Zetkin at Project Gutenberg
  • Clara Zetkin na Spartacus Educational (akụkọ ndụ, ihe ndị e wepụtara)
  • Zetkin na marxists.org (akụkọ ndụ, ụfọdụ ihe odide, njikọ)
  • Newspaper clippings about Clara Zetkin in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW
  • Ihe M Na-echeta Lenin site na Clara Zetkin
  1. 1.0 1.1 Gilbert Badia, Clara Zetkin: Féministe Sans Frontières (Paris: Les Éditions Ouvrières 1993).
  2. Clara Zetkin | bpb
  3. 3.0 3.1 Young (1988). Socialism since 1889: a biographical history. Rowman & Littlefield, 169. ISBN 978-0-389-20813-6. 
  4. (1998) Encyclopedia of World Biography: Vitoria-Zworykin. Gale Research, 504. ISBN 978-0-7876-2556-6. 
  5. Zetkin (1984). Clara Zetkin, selected writings. International Publishers, 17. ISBN 978-0-7178-0620-1. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Zetkin, Clara * 5.7.1857, † 20.6.1933: Biographische Angaben aus dem Handbuch der Deutschen Kommunisten. Bundesstiftung zur Aufarbeitung der SED-Diktatur: Biographische Datenbanken. Retrieved on 15 November 2014. Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; name "BiographischeDatenbankenCZ" defined multiple times with different content
  7. 7.0 7.1 Clara Zetkin biography from the University of Leipzig (in German)
  8. Clara Zetkin facts. Your Dictionary. Archived from the original on 2 April 2019. Retrieved on 23 February 2019.
  9. Clara-Zetkin-Park – Stadt Leipzig