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Elizabeth Gurley Flynn

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Elizabeth Gurley Flynn (August 7, 1890 - Septemba 5, 1964) bụ onye ndu ndị ọrụ America, onye ndọrọndọrọ, na onye nwanyị bụ onye rụrụ ọrụ ndu na ndị ọrụ nrụpụta nke ụwa (IWW). -.Flynn bụ onye tọrọ ntọala nke American Civil Liberties Union na onye na-akwado ikike ụmụ nwanyị, njikwa ọmụmụ, na ịhọpụta ụmụ nwanyị. Ọ sonyere na Communist Party USA na 1936 na N'ikpeazụ na ndụ, na 1961, ghọrọ onye isi oche ya. Ọ nwụrụ n'oge nleta na Soviet Union, ebe e mere olili ozu steeti na ndị njem na Red Square nke ihe karịrị mmadụ 25,000 gara.[1]

Ihe ndị mere n'oge gara aga[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ihe ncheta akụkọ ihe mere eme na-echeta ebe a mụrụ Flynn, nke, na Mee 2023, kpughere na Concord ma wepụ ya.

A mụrụ Elizabeth Gurley Flynn na August 7, 1890, na Concord, New Hampshire, nwa nwanyị nke Annie (Gurley) na Thomas Flynn. [2]Ezinụlọ ahụ kwagara New York na 1900, ebe ọ gụrụ akwụkwọ na ụlọ akwụkwọ ọha na eze dị n'ógbè ahụ. Nne na nna ya mere ka ọ mata ọchịchị onye kwuo uche ya. Mgbe ọ dị naanị afọ iri na ise, o kwuru okwu ihu ọha mbụ ya, "What Socialism Will Do for Women," na Harlem Socialist Club. Mgbe nke a gasịrị, ọ dị ya ka a manyere ya ikwu maka mgbanwe mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya. Ọ hapụrụ Morris High School tupu ọ gụchaa, mkpebi o mechara kwaa ụta. [3]Otú ọ dị, isi mmalite ndị ọzọ na-ekwu na a chụpụrụ ya n'ụlọ akwụkwọ sekọndrị n'ihi itinye aka na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị.[4]

Ọrụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ndị Ọrụ Ụlọ Ọrụ Na-emepụta Ihe n'Ụwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'afọ 1907, Flynn ghọrọ onye nhazi oge niile maka ndị ọrụ ụlọ ọrụ nke ụwa (IWW; nke a makwaara dị ka "Wobblies"), wee gaa mgbakọ IW mbụ ya na Septemba nke afọ ahụ. [5]N'ime afọ ole na ole sochirinụ, ọ haziri mkpọsa n'etiti ndị ọrụ uwe na Pennsylvania, ndị na-akpa ákwà silk na New Jersey, ndị ọrụ ụlọ oriri na ọṅụṅụ na New York, ndị na'egwupụta ihe na Minnesota, Missoula, Montana, na Spokane, Washington; na ndị ọrụ akwa na Massachusetts. N'oge a, onye edemede Theodore Dreiser kọwara ya dị ka "East Side Joan of Arc".   [citation needed]

N'afọ 1909, Flynn sonyere n'ọgụ nnwere onwe ikwu okwu na Spokane, ebe o kere onwe ya agbụ n'elu oriọna iji gbuo oge ijide ya. [6]O mechara boo ndị uwe ojii ebubo iji ụlọ mkpọrọ ahụ dị ka ụlọ akwụna, ebubo nke kpaliri ha ịnwa ịnapụ ndị ọrụ ụlọ ọrụ niile na-akọ akụkọ ahụ.  [7] Na Machị 4, 1910, Spokane kwetara, na-enye IWW ikike ịme nzukọ okwu ma hapụ ndị niile na-eme ngagharị iwe IWW.[citation needed][8][9]

1913 foto nke ndị isi Paterson silk strike Patrick Quinlan, Carlo Tresca, Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Adolph Lessig, na Bill Haywood

E jidere Flynn ugboro iri n'oge a, mana ọ dịghị mgbe a mara ya ikpe maka mpụ ọ bụla. Ọ bụ nkwekọrịta arịrịọ nke mere ka a chụpụ Flynn na IWW na 1916, ya na onye nhazi ibe ya Joe Ettor. Dị ka ọkọ akụkọ ihe mere eme Robert M. Eleff si kwuo, e jidere ndị na-egwupụta akụ̀ ndị dị n'ime ala na Minnesota atọ maka ebubo igbu ọchụ nke sitere na ihe mere mgbe otu ìgwè ndị na-echebe akụ̀ ahụ, gụnyere onye a na-ebo ebubo na ọ bụ onye na-agba égbè aha ya bụ James C. Myron na onye bụbu onye na-eche nche aha ya bụ Nick Dillon, bịara n'ụlọ otu n'ime ndị na-egwu ala, Philip Masonovitch, iji nyochaa ebubo nke ọnụnọmụ ọnụnọ nke mmanya na-akwadoghị ka dị n'ụlọ ahụ. [10]Esemokwu malitere ebe a gbagburu Myron na onye na-ekiri ya. Dị ka Eleff si kwuo, ụfọdụ ndị akaebe tụrụ aro na otu n'ime ndị ọrụ ibe ya gburu Myron na mberede, onye gbagburu ụlọ Masonovitch site n'èzí, nakwa na Dillon gburu onye na-ekiri ya. A na-ebo ndị nhazi IWW atọ ebubo, ọ bụ ezie na ha atọ nọ ebe ọzọ n'oge ahụ. Onye isi nke kọmitii nhazi nke IWW, Bill Haywood yiri ka o nwere obi ike na Judge Hilton, onye gbachitere George Pettibone mgbe ya na Haywood nọ n'ụlọ ikpe na Idaho, nwere ike imeri ikpe maka ndị na-egwupụta ihe.   [citation needed]

Otú ọ dị, ndị isi na-ahazi ihe n'ebe ahụ nabatara ndokwa nke a hapụrụ ndị ọzọ na-ahapụ ka ha pụọ n'efu, mana ndị na-egwupụta ihe n'ime ala atọ ahụ, onye ọ bụla n'ime ha na-asụ Bekee nke ọma, chere oge ihu n'ụlọ mkpọrọ. Enwekwara mgbagwoju anya na ikpe ahụ; a gbanwere nkwekọrịta mbụ maka otu afọ n'ụlọ mkpọrọ n'ụzọ ụfọdụ n'ụlọ ikpe ka ọ bụrụ ikpe nke afọ ise ruo afọ 20. Haywood jidere Flynn na Ettor maka ikwe ka ndị na-egwupụta akụ̀ na ụba kwupụta ikpe mara ha maka ebubo ndị ha nwere ike ọ gaghị aghọta. [11]Haywood dere n'akụkọ ndụ ya na Flynn na Ettor "akụkụ ya n'ihe omume ahụ kwụsịrị njikọ ha na IWW. " Onye na-ede akụkọ ndụ Haywood, Peter Carlson, dere na Ettor hapụrụ IWW na Flynn "nọgidere na njikọ ahụ, mana o gbasiri mbọ ike izere Haywood na ndị na-akwado ya. "[12][13]

American Civil Liberties Union[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Onye guzobere American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) na 1920, Flynn keere òkè dị mkpa na mkpọsa megide ikpe Sacco na Vanzetti. [14]Flynn nwere nchegbu karịsịa maka ikike ụmụ nwanyị, na-akwado igbochi ọmụmụ na ikike ụmụ nwanyị. Flynn katọkwara ndị isi nke òtù ndị ọrụ maka ịbụ ndị nwoke na-achịkwa ma ghara igosipụta mkpa ụmụ nwanyị.[15][16]

N'agbata afọ 1926 na 1936, Flynn biri na ndịda ọdịda anyanwụ Portland, Oregon, ya na onye na-egbochi ọmụmụ na onye na'okpuru ikike Marie Equi. Ọ bụ ezie na Flynn nọ n'ọrịa na-adịghị mma n'oge ya na Portland, ọ bụ onye na-akwado na-arụsi ọrụ ike na onye na-ekwu okwu nke 1934 West Coast Longshore Strike. [17]N'afọ 1939, a họpụtara Flynn ọzọ na bọọdụ ACLU; Otú ọ dị, mgbe Adolf Hitler na Josef Stalin bịanyere aka na nkwekọrịta na-enweghị esemokwu na 1939, ACLU chụpụrụ ndị otu Communist Party niile n'ọkwa ya na 1940, gụnyere Flynn.[18][19]

Nchebe Ọrụ Mba Nile[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Site na 1927 ruo 1930, Flynn bụ onyeisi oche nke International Labour Defence (ILD). N'oge ahụ, ọ na-agbasi mbọ ike n'ịgbalị ịtọhapụ ndị na-ahazi ọrụ a tụrụ mkpọrọ Thomas J. Mooney na Warren K. Billings.[19]

Òtù Kọmunist nke United States[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ogige Mkpọrọ Federal, Alderson, ebe a tụrụ Flynn mkpọrọ

Na 1936, Flynn sonyeere Communist Party USA (CPUSA) wee dee kọlụm nwanyị maka akwụkwọ akụkọ ya, Daily Worker. Afọ abụọ ka e mesịrị, a họpụtara ya ịbụ kọmitii mba. N'ịkọburu n'elu, Flynn so na pati ahụ mere ka chụpụ ya na bọọdụ ACLU na 1940..[18]

N'oge Agha Ụwa nke Abụọ, ọ rụrụ ọrụ dị mkpa na mkpọsa maka ohere akụ na ụba hà nhata na ịkwụ ụgwọ maka ụmụ nwanyị na nguzobe ebe nlekọta ụbọchị maka ndị nne na-arụ ọrụ. N'afọ 1942, ọ gbara ọsọ maka Congress na New York ma nweta vootu 50,000. N'ọnwa Julaị n'afọ 1948, e jidere ndị isi iri na abụọ nke ndị Communist Party ma bo ha ebubo imebi Iwu Smith site n'ịkwado iwepu ọchịchị US site n'ike na ime ihe ike. Mgbe a mara ha ikpe na ikpe Foley Square, ha rịọrọ Ụlọikpe Kasị Elu, nke kwadoro ikpe ha na Dennis v. United States; ndị ọka ikpe abụọ dere na-ekwenyeghị na a mara ha ama na mmebi ikike iwu ha maka itinye aka n'ọrụ nke Ndezigharị Mbụ.[20]

Flynn malitere mkpọsa maka ntọhapụ ha mana, na June 1951, e jidere ya n'onwe ya na nke abụọ nke njide ma kpụpụ ya n'okpuru Iwu Smith na ndị otu Communist Party iri na isii ndị ọzọ. A na-ebo ha ebubo na ha na-agba izu "ịkụzi ma na-akwado iwepu ọchịchị n'ike" nke gọọmentị. Ndị ọka iwu mbụ gụnyere: Abraham L. Pomerantz, Carol Weiss King, Victor Rabinowitz, Michael Begun, Harold I. Cammer, Mary Kaufman, Leonard Boudin, na Abraham Unger. Mgbe e mesịrị, O. John Rogge, onye ọka iwu Frank Costello George Wolf, William W. Kleinman, Joseph L. Delaney, Frank Serri, Osmond K. Fraenkel, Henry G. Singer, Abraham J. Gellinoff, Raphael P. Koenig, na Nicholas Atlas wepụrụ ha. [21]Mgbe ikpe ọnwa itoolu gasịrị, a mara ya ikpe ma jee ozi afọ abụọ na Federal Prison Camp, Alderson nso Alderson, West Virginia. O mechara dee akwụkwọ ncheta ụlọ mkpọrọ, The Alderson Story: My Life as a Political Prisoner .[22]

Mgbe a tọhapụsịrị ya n'ụlọ mkpọrọ, Flynn maliteghachiri ọrụ ya maka ihe ndị ekpe na ndị Kọmunist. Ọ gbara ọsọ maka New York City Council dị ka onye Kọmunist na 1957, na-enweta ngụkọta nke votu 710.[23]

N'afọ 1961, Flynn ghọrọ onye isi oche mba mbụ nke CPUSA.[19]

Ndụ onwe onye na ọnwụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Nkume ili nke Elizabeth Gurley Flynn

N'afọ 1907, Flynn zutere onye nhazi mpaghara Minnesota maka ndị ọrụ mmepụta ihe nke ụwa, J.A. Jones. Ọ gbara ya afọ iri na isii, mana Flynn kwuru n'akwụkwọ akụkọ ya, "M hụrụ ya n’anya, anyị lụkwara na January 1908.” Njikọ ahụ mụrụ ụmụ nwoke abụọ, John Vincent bụ́ onye nwụrụ ụbọchị ole na ole mgbe a mụsịrị ya, na Fred Flynn, a mụrụ May 19, 1910 (ọ nwụrụ na 1940)..[24][25]

Flynn nọrọ ihe dị ka afọ iri, site na 1926-1936, ya na Dr. Marie Equi, onye bụ nwanyị na-edina nwoke n'ihu ọha, bi. [26]N'ihi nke a, mmekọahụ Flynn abụwo isiokwu a na-eche echiche, ụfọdụ kwenyere na ọ nwere ike ịbụ nwoke na nwanyị ma ọ bụ nwanyị na-edina nwoke. [27][28]Otú ọ dị, n'ihi ọdịdị ya mechiri emechi, ọ bụ ezie na o doro anya na ha nwere mmekọrịta a tụkwasịrị obi, na-elekọta ibe ha n'oge ọrịa, mmekọrịta ha na mmekọahụ Flynn nwere ike ịkọ nkọ.[28]

Flynn nwụrụ na Soviet Union na September 5, 1964, mgbe ọ dị afọ 74.[4]

Gọọmentị Soviet nyere Flynn olili ozu steeti na Red Square na ihe karịrị mmadụ 25,000 bịara. [4]Dabere na ọchịchọ ya, e bugara ozu Flynn na United States maka olili ozu na Chicago's Waldheim Cemetery, nso ili Eugene Dennis, Bill Haywood, Emma Goldman, na Haymarket Riot Martyrs.[29]

Ihe Nketa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Onye na-eme ngagharị iwe na IWW Elizabeth Gurley Flynn bụ ihe kpaliri egwu Joe Hill, "The Rebel Girl" (1915)

Flynn hapụrụ obere ala ya (akwụkwọ, uwe, na arịa ụlọ) gaa n'ụlọ ọrụ Katọlik nke Dorothy Day na New York obodo mgbe ọ nwụsịrị. Flynn na Day zutere mbụ na 1910 na Flynn na-ezigara ya mgbe nile uwe ochie na akwa akwa gaa n'ụlọ ndị ọrụ Katọlik New York.[30]

Mmetụta Flynn dị ka onye na-eme ihe ike dị ukwuu, a na-echetakwa mkpagbu ya n'otu bọọlụ a ma ama. Onye na-akwado ọrụ na onye na-egwu egwu dere egwu ama ama, "The Rebel Girl". Joe Hill na-asọpụrụ Flynn .[31][32]

Edepụtara nkwupụta Flynn n'oge ikpe ya na 1952 dị ka nọmba 87 na American Rhetoric's Top 100 Speeches of 20th Century (nke e depụtara n'ogo)..[33][34]

Ihe ngosi akụkọ ihe mere eme nke New Hampshire nke 278 sọpụrụ Flynn n'obodo ya bụ Concord. Nkwupụta nke akara ahụ na Mee 2023 dugara na esemokwu, na Gọvanọ Chris Sununu na-akpọ maka nyocha nke usoro nke dugara na ntinye ya. [35]N'ime izu abụọ a kpughere ya, e wepụrụ akara ahụ. [36]Nkwupụta ọzọ sitere na CPUSA katọrọ mwepụ ahụ, na-ekwu, "Ọ bụrụ na ndụ [ya] dị mkpa iji zoo, mgbe ahụ ndụ ya dị mkpa iji mara".[37]

N'omenala a ma ama[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A na-egosi ụdị Flynn nke akụkọ ifo n'akwụkwọ akụkọ John Updike In the Beauty of the Lilies ebe ekwuru na ya na onye anarchist Carlo Tresca nwere mmekọrịta, nke akwụkwọ ozi Flynn kwadoro..na memoir. Tresca nwekwara mmekọrịta ya na nwanne nwanyị Flynn Bina, ma bụrụ nna nwa nwanne ya, Peter D. Martin.[38][39]

A na-egosi Flynn na akwụkwọ akụkọ Jess Walter The Cold Millions. .[40]

A na-egosikwa Flynn na egwu "Joe Hill Revival"..[41]

Hụkwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Matilda Robbins

Ọrụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Akwụkwọ na akwụkwọ nta[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Mmebi: Nkwụsị nke Ọrụ Ndị Ọrụ. Cleveland, OH: IWW Publishing Bureau, 1916.
  • [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji]
  • Azụliteghị m nwa m nwoke ịbụ onye agha - maka Wall Street. New York: Ndị na-ebipụta akwụkwọ na Workers Library, 1940.
  • Earl Browder: Nwoke si Kansas. New York: Ndị na-ebipụta akwụkwọ na Workers Library, 1941.
  • Ajụjụ na Azịza na Okwu Browder. New York: Kọmitii ụmụ amaala iji tọhapụ Earl Browder, 1941.
  • Ndị na-egwupụta coal na Agha. New York: Ndị na-ebipụta akwụkwọ na Workers Library, 1942.
  • Ụmụ nwanyị n'Agha. New York: Ndị na-ebipụta akwụkwọ na Workers Library, 1942.
  • Ụmụ nwanyị nke America: Ella Reeve Bloor, Anita Whitney. New York: Ndị na-ebipụta akwụkwọ na Workers Library, 1942.
  • Ụmụ nwanyị nwere mkpakọrịta nwoke na nwanyị. New York: Ndị na-ebipụta akwụkwọ na Workers Library, 1944.
  • Zute ndị Kọmunist. New York: Communist Party, U.S.A., 1946.
  • Ebe nwanyị nọ n'ọgụ maka ụwa ka mma. [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji]
  • Iri na Abụọ na Gị: Ihe Na-eme na Ọchịchị Onye kwuo uche ya bụ Azụmaahịa Gị, Ọzọkwa! New York: New Century Publishers, 1948.
  • William Z. Foster nke aka ya: Afọ iri ise nke ndị Kọmunist nke idu ndú na ọgụ. New York: New Century Publishers, 1949.
  • Nnụnụ a na-akpọ "Pigeon" New York: New Century Publishers, 1949.
  • Atụmatụ iji merie America. New York: New Century Publishers, 1950.
  • Ozi nye ụmụ nwanyị Kọmunist niile site n'aka Elizabeth Gurley Flynn n'ụbọchị nne, Mee 1950. New York: National Women's Commission, Communist Party, U.S.A., 1950.
  • Debs na Dennis, Fighters for Peace. New York: New Century Publishers, 1950.
  • Elizabeth Gurley Flynn na-ekwu okwu n'ụlọ ikpe: Nkwupụta mmeghe n'ụlọikpe na Nkwupụta n'okwu ikpe nke ndị iri na isii Smith Act Victims na ikpe ahụ na Foley Square, New York. New York: New Century Publishers, 1952.
  • Ndị Kọmunist 13 na-ekwu okwu n'ụlọ ikpe. New York: New Century Publishers, 1953.
  • Ndị Kọmunist na ndị mmadụ: Nchịkọta okwu nye ndị ọka ikpe na Iwu Foley Square Smith nke Abụọ Ikpe nke Ndị Ndú Kọmunist Iri na Atọ. [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji]
  • I Speak My Own Piece: Autobiography of "The Rebel Girl." New York: Masses and Mainstream 1955.
  • Arịrịọ maka ụmụ nwanyị. New York: Kọmitii mkpọsa, People's Rights Party, 1955.
  • Horizons of the Future for a Socialist America. New York: Communist Party, USA, 1959.
  • Nnwere Onwe Na-amalite n'Ụlọ. New York: New Century Publishers, 1961.
  • Ben Davis na Iwu McCarran na Harvard Law Forum. site n'aka Benjamin J. Davis New York: Gus Hall-Benjamin Davis Defense Committee, 1962. (Nkwupụta)
  • Akụkọ Alderson: Ndụ m dị ka onye mkpọrọ ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị. New York: International Publishers, 1963.
  • Iwu McCarran, Eziokwu na Echiche. New York: Gus Hall-Benjamin J. Davis Defense Committee, 1963.
  • The Rebel Girl: An Autobiography, My First Life (1906-1926) . New York: International Publishers, 1973. - Mbipụta e dezigharịrị ma dezigharịa nke I Speak My Own Piece.Ana m ekwu okwu nke m.
  • Ihe ncheta nke ndị ọrụ ụlọ ọrụ nke ụwa. New York: American Institute for Marxist Studies, 1977.

Nkeji edemede[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Edensibia[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. Revolt, They Said. Andrea Geyer. Retrieved on June 11, 2017.
  2. Elizabeth Gurley Flynn Facts. Archived from the original on May 15, 2019. Retrieved on November 10, 2018.
  3. Flynn (1955). I Speak My Own Piece. New York: Masses & Mainstream, Inc, 52–53. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Elizabeth Gurley Flynn. Archives of Women's Political Communication. Iowa State University."Elizabeth Gurley Flynn". Archives of Women's Political Communication. Iowa State University.
  5. Paul Frederick Brissenden, The I.W.W. A Study of American Syndicalism, Columbia University, 1919, pages 180-181
  6. Library Guides: Industrial Workers of the World Photograph Collection: Elizabeth Gurley Flynn.
  7. Flynn (December 15, 1909). Story of My Arrest and Imprisonment. Marxists Internet Archive. Industrial Worker. Archived from the original on April 26, 2014. Retrieved on July 6, 2020.
  8. "March 4, 1910 (Page 6 of 34)." Spokane Daily Chronicle (1890-1982), March 4, 1910, p. 6. ProQuest. Web. January 18, 2021
  9. "March 4, 1910 (Page 11 of 22)." The Spokesman-Review (1894-2009), March 4, 1910, p. 11. ProQuest. Web. January 18, 2021
  10. Robert M. Eleff, The 1916 Minnesota Miner`s Strike Against US Steel, Minnesota History Magazine, Summer 1988
  11. Haywood (1929). The Autobiography of Big Bill Haywood. 
  12. Haywood (1929). The Autobiography of Big Bill Haywood. 
  13. Peter Carlson, Roughneck, The Life And Times of Big Bill Haywood, 1983, page 237.
  14. Trasciatti (2016). "Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, the Sacco-Vanzetti Case, and the Rise and Fall of the Liberal-Radical Alliance, 1920-1940". American Communist History 15 (2): 191–216. DOI:10.1080/14743892.2016.1232263. 
  15. Women's history: Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, the Rebel Girl (March 19, 2010).
  16. Flynn Biography. dwardmac.pitzer.edu.
  17. The Portland Red Guide (2007). Archived from the original on July 29, 2007.
  18. 18.0 18.1 Roger Baldwin: Founder, American Civil Liberties Union. Harvard Square Library. Archived from the original on July 27, 2010. Retrieved on October 29, 2023.. Harvard Square Library. Archived from the original on July 27, 2010.
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 Quinnell (March 20, 2020). Women's History Month Profiles: Elizabeth Gurley Flynn (en). AFL-CIO. Retrieved on July 6, 2021.Quinnell, Kenneth (March 20, 2020). "Women's History Month Profiles: Elizabeth Gurley Flynn". AFL-CIO. Retrieved July 6, 2021.
  20. Smith Act Held Constitutional: Severe Blow to First Amendment. Today in Civil Liberties History (June 24, 2013). Retrieved on May 20, 2023.
  21. "Judge Relieves Defense Aides In Red Trial", The Washington Post, August 9, 1951, pp. 2.
  22. On Flynn's "My Life as a Political Prisoner" (January 6, 2020).
  23. Joseph Clark, "A Letter from America," The New Reasoner, vol. 1, no. 3 (Winter 1957-1958), pg. 87.
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  25. Flynn (1955). I Speak My Own Piece. New York: Masses & Mainstream, Inc, 102–03. 
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  29. Elizabeth Gurley Flynn - Connexipedia article. www.connexions.org.
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  35. Schinella (May 4, 2023). Despite Claim City Did Not Initiate Marker For Concord Communist: Docs. Concord NH Patch. Patch Media. Retrieved on May 4, 2023.
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