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Ethiopia–Tigray peace agreement

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Ethiopia–Tigray peace agreement
peace treaty
mba/obodoEthiopia Dezie
ebePretoria Dezie
oge omelu2 Novemba 2022 Dezie
webụsaịtịhttps://addisstandard.com/wp-content/uploads/2022/11/AU-led-Ethiopia-Peace-Agreement.pdf Dezie

[1][2][3]Na 2 Nọvemba 2022, e binyere aka n'akwụkwọ nkwekọrịta udo n'etiti gọọmentị Etiopia na ndị Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF), ebe otu abụọ ahụ kwenyere na "nkwụsị agha na-adịgide adịgide" iji kwụsị agha Tigray.[1] E mere nkwekọrịta ahụ n'ụbọchị na-esote na 3 Nọvemba, na-eme ncheta afọ abụọ nke agha ahụ.[4]

Ihe ndị mere n'oge gara aga[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Agha Tigray[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Agha ahụ malitere na Nọvemba 2020, na mpaghara Tigray nke Etiopia. N'ụzọ bụ isi esemokwu dị n'etiti gọọmentị Etiopia na Eritrea n'otu akụkụ, na ndị TPLF n'akụkụ nke ọzọ, agha ahụ ejiriwo mpụ agha, mgbuchapụ nke ndị nkịtị, ebubo mgbukpọ, [1] na nsogbu ndị mmadụ na-emebi emebi. 3].[5][6][7][8] Ka ọ na-erule Ọktọba 2022, agha ahụ gburu ihe dị ka mmadụ 385,000 ruo 600,000.[9]

Mgbe ọdịda nke nkwụsị agha na Machị-Ọgọstụ gasịrị, ime ihe ike n'oge agha rịrị elu ruo n'ókè a na-ahụtụbeghị n'ime ọnwa. Ndị agha jikọtara ndị Etiopia na ndị TPLF kpọkọtara ọtụtụ narị puku ndị agha megide ibe ha, na-achụpụ mmadụ 574,000, ma na-egbu ihe dị ka 100,000 ndị ọzọ n'ime izu ole na ole.[10][11][12][13]   N'ụbọchị nke ise n'ọnwa Ọktoba, ma gọọmentị Etiopia ma ndị agha nnupụisi nke Tigrayan nabatara oku nke AU ka ha nwee mkparịta ụka udo na South Africa, nke e mere atụmatụ na mbụ ka ọ bụrụ n'etiti ụbọchị asaa na asatọ n'ọnba Ọktobe.[14] Otú ọ dị, e yigharịrị mkparịta ụka n'oge na-adịghị anya, a kọrọ na ọ bụ n'ihi ngwakọta nke ihe, gụnyere atụmatụ na-adịghị mma, nsogbu nhazi, ngwa ngwa nke ọgụ, na nchegbu sitere na TPLF banyere enweghị ozi zuru ezu banyere otu a ga-esi mee mkparịta ụka ahụ.[15][16] .[17][18][19]N'ikpeazụ, e debere ụbọchị ọhụrụ maka mkparita ụka udo maka 25 October, ebe a ga-enwe mkparịta ụka na Pretoria, na Ngalaba Mmekọrịta Mba Nile na Mmekọrịta South Africa.

Oge nkwekọrịta[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Pretoria, South Africa

N'ụbọchị nke abụọ n'ọnwa Nọvemba afọ 2022, gọọmentị etiti nke Etiopia na TPLF wepụtara nkwupụta jikọrọ aka, ebe ha kwuru na ha "kwetara imechi égbè ahụ kpamkpam ma kwụsị afọ abụọ nke esemokwu n'ebe ugwu Etiopia".[20][21][22] Obasanjo kọwara na nkwekọrịta ahụ ga-agụnye "nkwụsị nke ọma, nke dị nro, nke dị mma na nke a haziri ahazi".[23]

Ndị otu abụọ ahụ kwetara ịgbaso iwu ndị ruuru mmadụ na mba ụwa ma chebe ndị nkịtị na mmebi ikike mmadụ. A mara nkatọ akọwapụtara nke ọma megide omume mmekọahụ na ime ihe ike metụtara nwoke na nwanyị, ime ihe ike megide ụmụaka (gụnyere iji ụmụaka agha), ime ihe ike megide ụmụ nwanyị na ụmụ agbọghọ, na ime ihe ike megide ndị agadi.

Dị ka akụkụ nke nkwekọrịta ahụ, a ga-etinye ENDF n'ókè mba ụwa nke Etiopia; nkwekọrịta na-ekwu na ha ga-echebe ọbụbụeze, iguzosi ike n'ezi ihe nke ala, na nchekwa nke mba ahụ site na mwakpo mba ọzọ ma hụ na ọ gaghị enwe mkpasu iwe ma ọ bụ mwakpo site n'akụkụ ọ bụla nke ókèala ahụ.[4]

.Na 15 Nọvemba, Kọmitii International nke Red Cross (ICRC) kwupụtara na, na nke mbụ kemgbe August, nnyefe ọgwụ ha eruola isi obodo Tigrayan Mekelle.[24] World Food Programme na World Health Organization zitekwara ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ 18,000 metric ton nke enyemaka.[25] Ọbụna na nkwụsịtụ nke ihe mgbochi a, Otú ọ dị, ndị ọrụ UN kwuru na ngwụcha Nọvemba na akụkụ ụfọdụ nke Tigray - ya bụ na mpaghara ndịda na mpaghara ọwụwa anyanwụ - "na-anọgide na-egbochi," ma kpọọ ka ewepụ ihe mgbochi na mpaghara ndị a.[26] Na mbido Jenụwarị 2023, ụlọ ọgwụ kachasị ukwuu n'ógbè ahụ kwuru na ha ka nwere ụkọ ọgwụ, ha enwetaghị enyemaka zuru ezu site na gọọmentị etiti iji belata ụkọ a.[27]

N'abalị itoolu n'ọnwa Nọvemba, Mohammed Idris, onye isi nchịkwa nke Ethiopian Media Authority (EMA), mara ọkwa na a na-eguzobe ntuziaka ọhụrụ maka otu mgbasa ozi Ethiopian si kọọ akụkọ banyere mkparịta ụka ndị a. Emere nke a dị ka ụzọ iji mee ka ọ kwekọọ na iwu nkwekọrịta udo megide okwu ịkpọasị na mgbasa ozi, dịka "ihe ọmụma ụgha na okwu ịkpọasị megidere echiche udo".[28] Nkwupụta nke 12 Nọvemba na-eme ihe doro anya banyere "Ojiji dị mma nke mgbasa ozi", na-ekwu na mgbasa ozi nke ndị otu abụọ na-achịkwa kwesịrị "ịrụ ọrụ dị mma" n'imezu ebumnuche nke nkwekọrịta Pretoria.[29]

Ndị na-ekwurịta okwu na ndị na-eme udo, n'otu aka ahụ, họọrọ ịghara ikwu okwu banyere Eritrea n'ụzọ doro anya. Mgbe a jụrụ ajụjụ banyere ya n'oge mkparịta ụka Nairobi, Uhuru Kenyatta kwuru na ha "anọghị ebe a iji kwuo maka otu mba ọ bụla n'ụzọ a ma ọ bụ n'ụzọ ahụ, kama ha lekwasịrị anya n'okwu udo.[30] Redwan Hussein nke Ethiopia kwuru na Ethiopia na Tigray nọ na-arụsi ọrụ ike na-alụ ọgụ nke na ọ "kwadebe ụzọ maka onye nke atọ iji mebie anyị". O kwukwara na onye nke atọ a a na-akpọghị aha "ma eleghị anya enweghị mmasị na usoro udo a"; Associated Press kọwara nke a dị ka nkọwa na-apụtaghị ìhè banyere Eritrea.[31]






a ikpe ziri ezi.[32]


Filsan Abdi, onye bụbu onye so na ndị isi oche Prime Minister Abiy, kwuru na N'ajụjụ ọnụ ya na PBS NewHour na iru nkwekọrịta iji kwụsị agha ahụ, ọ bụ ezie na ọ dị mkpa, ekwesịghị ịpụta na ha "na-ahapụ ịchọ ikpe ziri ezi na azịza" maka ndị mmebi iwu ruuru mmadụ, na karịsịa n'ihe gbasara ime ihe ike megide ụmụ nwanyị na ụmụ agbọghọ.[33] Filsan gbara arụkwaghịm n'ọkwa ya dị ka Minista nke Ụmụ nwanyị, Ụmụaka na Ndị Ntorobịa na Septemba 2021, na nzaghachi maka ihe o weere dị ka mgbochi gọọmentị kpachapụrụ anya maka ibipụta akụkọ banyere ime ihe ike mmekọahụ mere n'oge agha ahụ.[34]

  • Spokesperson Getachew Reda said "we are ready to implement and expedite this agreement," and indicated that the TPLF had made "painful concessions" in order to "build trust." He further stated: "ultimately, the fact that we have reached a point where we have now signed an agreement speaks volumes about the readiness on the part of the two sides to lay the past behind them to chart a new path of peace."[2] He lamented, however, that the war "has turned Ethiopia, once on the cusp of great economic progress, into a bad parody of itself and caused tremendous suffering to the people of Tigray."[35][36]
    • Getachew acknowledged on 7 November that "whether we will deliver on our promise in a manner that satisfies our people time will tell," but reiterated his support for the agreement, saying if it "can ensure our survival, why not give it a try?!"[31][37]


Ihe odide[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Njikọ mpụga[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. Winning. "Parties in Ethiopia conflict agree to cease hostilities", Reuters, 2 November 2022. (in en)
  2. 2.0 2.1 Ethiopia's gov't and Tigrayan forces agree to end two-year war. Al Jazeera (2 November 2022).
  3. AU announces peace deal in Ethiopia's Tigray conflict. Deutsche Welle (2 November 2022).
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Agreement for Lasting Peace through a Permanent Cessation of Hostilities between the Government of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia and the Tigray People's Liberation Front", Addis Standard, 2022-11-02. Retrieved on 2022-11-04.
  5. Statement by Alice Wairimu Nderitu, Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide, condemning the recent escalation of fighting in Ethiopia. United Nations (press release) (19 October 2022).
  6. UN: Warring sides committing atrocities in Ethiopia's Tigray. Al Jazeera (September 19, 2022). Archived from the original on October 6, 2022.
  7. Ethiopian patriarch pleads for international help to stop rape and genocide by government troops. The Guardian (8 May 2021). Retrieved on 24 June 2021.
  8. Paravicini (August 20, 2022). Nearly half the people in Ethiopia's Tigray in 'severe' need of food aid, World Food Programme says. Reuters. Archived from the original on October 11, 2022.
  9. York (21 October 2022). Surge of dehumanizing hate speech points to mounting risk of mass atrocities in northern Ethiopia, experts say. The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 4 November 2022.
  10. "News: Over half a million people newly displaced in Tigray, Afar and Amhara since militarized conflict resumed in August: UN", Addis Standard, 2022-10-31. Retrieved on 2022-11-04.
  11. Harper. "Ethiopia's Tigray conflict: Civilian bloodbath warning as offensive escalates", BBC News, 16 October 2022. “'The carnage is horrendous. Likely as many as 100,000 have been slaughtered over the last weeks,' [ peace researcher Kjetil Tronvoll ] tweeted.”
  12. Chothia (19 October 2022). Ethiopia civil war: Hyenas scavenge on corpses as Tigray forces retreat. BBC News. Archived from the original on 22 October 2022. “'...100,000 have probably died in this third phase,' [ Horn of Africa analyst Abdurahman Sayed ] said.”
  13. War in Ethiopia (en). Global Conflict Tracker (20 October 2022).
  14. Paravicini (October 6, 2022). Ethiopia, Tigrayan forces accept African Union-led peace talks. Reuters.
  15. Burke (October 8, 2022). Postponement of Tigray peace talks latest blow in Ethiopia's hidden war. The Observer.
  16. Anna (October 7, 2022). Peace talks in Ethiopian conflict delayed for logistical reasons, diplomats say. The Globe and Mail.
  17. Empieza el diálogo de paz para acabar con la guerra en el norte de Etiopía. EFE (25 October 2022).
  18. Miridzhanian. "Ethiopia peace talks start in South Africa", Reuters, 25 October 2022. (in en)
  19. Media Briefing on AU-led negotiations for peace in Ethiopia. DIRCO (2 November 2022). Archived from the original on 15 November 2022.
  20. "Joint Statement between the Government of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia and the Tigray Peoples' Liberation Front (TPLF)", Peace and Security Council, 2022-11-02. Retrieved on 2022-11-03.
  21. Ethiopia: government and TPLF agree to cease-fire. Africanews (3 November 2022).
  22. Key Points Of Joint Ethiopia Statement. Barron's (2 November 2022).
  23. Feleke (3 November 2022). Warring parties in Ethiopia agree on 'permanent cessation of hostilities'. CNN World.
  24. First aid trucks arrive in Ethiopia's Tigray after peace deal, says Red Cross. France 24 (15 November 2022).
  25. News: Despite improvements in deliveries, humanitarian aid flowing to Tigray still insufficient: UN. Addis Standard (26 November 2022).
  26. Food aid into Ethiopia's Tigray 'not matching needs': UN. Al Jazeera (26 November 2022).
  27. Kristos (3 January 2023). News: Tigray's biggest hospital remains short of medical supply despite peace deal, pleads for laboratory reagents. Addis Standard.
  28. News: Authority preparing media guideline to report on Ethiopia cessation of hostilities agreement. Addis Standard (9 November 2022).
  29. Declaration of the Senior Commanders on the Modalities for the Implementation of the Agreement for Lasting Peace Through a Permanent Cessation of Hostilities between the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE) and the Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF). Addis Standard (12 November 2022). Archived from the original on 12 November 2022.
  30. News: Federal, Tigray military commanders to form joint committee to elaborate DDR, agree to facilitate unhindered humanitarian access, movement of humanitarian aid workers. Addis Standard (12 November 2022).
  31. 31.0 31.1 Anna (7 November 2022). New round of peace talks between Ethiopia, Tigray envoys. Associated Press.
  32. Ethiopia: Peace agreement must deliver justice to victims and survivors of conflict. Amnesty International (3 November 2022).
  33. Schifrin (3 November 2022). Ethiopian government, Tigrayan rebels reach truce, but enormous challenges remain. PBS NewsHour. Archived from the original on 7 November 2022.
  34. Bearak. "She was in Abiy Ahmed's cabinet as war broke out. Now she wants to set the record straight.", The Washington Post, 30 December 2021. (in en-US)
  35. "Reaction to Ethiopia truce deal", Reuters, 3 November 2022. (in en)
  36. Anna (3 November 2022). Ethiopia asserts government got '100%' in Tigray peace deal. ABC News.
  37. Reda (7 November 2022). will do what it takes to protect our people who have suffered beyond what ordinary mortals can endure. We are fighting not because we are a trigger-happy nation but because our survival as a people is at stake. If a peace agreement can ensure our survival, why not give it a try?!. Twitter. Archived from the original on 18 November 2022.