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Gadaa

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Prọfesọ Asmerom Legesse na akwa Abbaa Gadaa.
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Gadaa (Oromo: Gadaa[1]; n'ụzọ nkịtị: oge) bụ usoro ọchịchị onye kwuo uche ya nke ụmụ amaala na-eji na Etiopia na ugwu Kenya.[1] Ndị Konso na Gedeo nke ndịda Etiopia na-emekwa ya. Usoro a na-achịkwa ọrụ ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị, akụ na ụba, mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya na okpukpe nke obodo ahụ.[2]

N'okpuru Gadaa, afọ asatọ ọ bụla, ndị Oromo ga-ahọrọ site na nkwekọrịta ndị isi itoolu a maara dị ka Salgan ya'ii Borana (mgbakọ Borana itoolu).[3][4] Onye ndu ahọpụtara site na usoro gadaa na-anọgide na-achị naanị afọ 8, na ntuli aka na-ewere ọnọdụ na njedebe nke afọ 8 ndị ahụ.[5][6][7] Mgbe ọ bụla Abbaa Gadaa nwụrụ mgbe ọ na-arụ ọrụ ya, bokkuu (ihe nnọchianya nke ike) na-agafe nwunye ya ma ọ na-edebe bokkuu ma kwupụta iwu.[8]

UNESCO edeela usoro Gada dị ka ihe nketa ọdịbendị a na-apụghị ịhụ anya kemgbe afọ 2016.[9] Ọ bụ echiche nke Oromo si na Madda Walabu district nke Oromia.[10][11] Ndị Oromo weere usoro ahụ dị ka ihe nketa ha na dịka akụkụ dị mkpa nke ọdịbendị ha.[12] Ọ bụ usoro nke ndị Oromo na-achị onwe ha n'ụzọ ọchịchị onye kwuo uche ya ruo ọtụtụ narị afọ.[13][14]

Ndị Oromo chịrị onwe ha dịka usoro Gadaa si dị ogologo oge tupu narị afọ nke iri na isii, mgbe nnukwu agha atọ malitere n'etiti ha na Alaeze Ukwu Etiopia n'ebe ugwu ha na Adal Sultanate n'ebe ọwụwa anyanwụ na ndịda ha. Ihe si na ya pụta bụ na ndị Oromo na-etinye aka na okpukpe Ndị Kraịst na Islam. Ndị otu Borana na Guji dị nso n'ókè Etiopia na Kenya nwere ike ịme Gadaa n'enweghị nkwụsịtụ. Na steeti Oromia n'okpuru usoro gọọmentị etiti nke Etiopia, usoro Gadaa malitere ịmaliteghachi n'ofe Oromia. N'afọ 2015, e meghere Gadaa Center na Odaa Bultum na n'afọ 2018, e weghachiri Gadaa Center dị na Odaa Hullee mgbe narị afọ abụọ nke nkwụsịtụ gasịrị.[15][16] N'afọ 2019, Mahadum Bule Hora malitere mmemme nzere masta na ọmụmụ Gadaa.[17]

Ihe ndị e ji mara ya[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Luba[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A haziri ndị Gadaa n'ime ndị ọgbọ dabere na afọ ma ọ bụ ọgbọ usoro ọmụmụ a na-akpọ Luba. Luba ọ bụla nwere ụmụ nwoke niile nọ na klas ọzọ. Klas ahụ dum na-aga n'ihu site na ogo iri na otu dị iche iche, nke ọ bụla dabere na usoro afọ asatọ, na nke ọ bụla nwere ikike na ibu ọrụ nke ya.[18]

Gadaa Grades[19]
Daballe Junior Gaammee Onye nzuzu Kuusaa Raabaa Doorii Gadaa Yuuba nke Mbụ Yuuba nke Abụọ na nke Atọ Gadaamoojjii Jaarsa
Afọ 0-8 9-16 17-24 25-32 33-40 41-48 49-56 57-64 na 65-72 73-80 >80
Ihe odide Enweghị ibu ọrụ Nwa akwụkwọ Onye a na-azụ n'agha Ndị agha Onye Agha Onye ndu Onye ndụmọdụ Ebe nchekwa iwu Omume Omume Enweghị ibu ọrụ

Ọkwa ahụ na-agafe site n'otu ọkwa nke mmepe gaa na nke ọzọ n'afọ asatọ ọ bụla.

Baallii[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Baallii is a process of transferring power from one Gadaa party to the next.

Gadaa Party (Gogeessa Gadaa)[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

E nwere òtù Gadaa ise a maara dị ka shanan Gadaa Oromoo. Ndị otu a na-agbaso echiche ụwa ise nke ndị Oromo. Ndị otu Gadaa ise na-abịa n'ọchịchị n'usoro. Otu pati na-abịa n'ọchịchị otu ugboro n'ime afọ iri anọ ọ bụla. N'ihi ya, a gaghị enwe asọmpi kpọmkwem n'etiti òtù Gadaa ise, kama asọmpi ahụ ga-abụ n'etiti ndị mmadụ n'ime otu. Ndị otu Gadaa ise nwere aha dị iche iche n'etiti Boorana, Maccaa-Tuulama, Arsii, Gujii na Ituu-Humbannaa.[20][21]

Gadaa Parties
Boorana Maccaa-Tuulama Arsii Gujii Ituu-Humbannaa
Meelba / Harmufaa Birmajii Birmajii Harmufa Oge
Muudana / Roobalee Michilee / Muudana Roobalee Roobalee Dibbaaqa
Kiilolee / Birmajii Duuloo / Halchiisa Bahara Muudana Dibbeessa
Biifolee / Muldhata Meelbaa / Hambissaa Oge Halchiisa Fadata
Michilee / Duuloo Roobalee Daraara

Nnyocha[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ọtụtụ ndị ọkà mmụta amụọla Gadaa. Legesse dere na Gadaa bụ "otu n'ime mgbanwe ndị dị ịtụnanya na ndị na-akụzi ihe na mmepe nke ọha mmadụ".[22] Na mgbakwunye na edemede PhD ya na Harvard, Legesse ebipụtala akwụkwọ na-etinye Gadaa dị ka ọchịchị onye kwuo uche ya nke Afrịka nke nwere ike ịgwa ndị na-eche echiche iwu.[23] Onye nwụrụ anwụ Donald Levine kwuru na Gadaa bụ "otu n'ime usoro kachasị mgbagwoju anya nke nhazi mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya nke echiche mmadụ chepụtara".[24] Maka Jalata, Gadaa na-anọchite anya "ngụkọta nke mmepeanya Oromo".

Ọrụ ụmụ nwanyị[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Nke mbụ, usoro Gadaa bụ nkà ihe ọmụma oge ochie nke usoro mmekọrịta ọha na eze na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị nke na-ahụ maka ịchịkwa nkwụsi ike ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị, uto akụ na ụba, ọrụ mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya, nkwekọrịta ọdịnala nke usoro okpukpe nke ọha mmadụ Oromo na omume Gadaa Democracy nke chọrọ ntinye aka hà nhata nke nwoke na nwanyị. A ka na-arụrịta ụka n'ihe gbasara agụmakwụkwọ dịka ụmụ nwanyị Oromo enweghị mmetụta ọ bụla n'oge niile nke iwu Gadaa ma ọ bụ usoro idu ndú agbụrụ mana a na-emeso nwunye nke onye a họpụtara Abbaa Gadaa dịka Abbaa Gadaa n'onwe ya. Onye na-ahụ maka ụmụ nwanyị Siinqee na-anọchite anya ụmụ nwanyị na usoro gadaa.

Ọnọdụ dị ugbu a[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'ịtụle ihe nnọchianya nke Gadaa maka ndị Oromo, yana ihe ọhụrụ ya, ndị na-eme nchọpụta na iwu, ọmụmụ ụmụ amaala, na pan-Africanism na-enyocha otu esi eji usoro ahụ mee ihe na narị afọ nke 21. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, edemede nke Z. Sirna nke akpọrọ "Ethiopia: Mgbe Gadaa Democracy Rules in a Federal State" na-enyocha otu esi ejikọta usoro ahụ na usoro gọọmentị etiti nke oge a nke Ethiopia, na-eje ozi dị ka usoro ọchịchị maka Oromia Regional National State.[25] Sirna enyochaala usoro Gadaa n'ihe gbasara ụdị ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị a na-eji eme ihe na Western. Ọ kwubiri na usoro Gadaa nke 'nkwekọrịta site na mkparịta ụka' bụ ihe pụrụ iche mana gbanyere mkpọrọgwụ na ụkpụrụ ọchịchị onye kwuo uche ya nke ọdịda anyanwụ, ya mere ọ dabara adaba maka nnabata n'ime ọchịchị onye kwuo ike nke gọọmentị etiti nke Ethiopia.[26] Otu òtù ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị a maara dị ka GSAP (Gadaa System Advancement Party) na-adabere n'echiche ya na ụkpụrụ Gadaa. Ọrụ ọdịnihu, ọchịchị 2.0 a na-akpọ BitGadaa na-enweta mkpali site na ụkpụrụ na nhazi nke Gadaa.[27]

Hụkwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Irreechaa
  • Ndị Kushit
  • Barentu (Oromo)
  • Ndị Borana
  • Oromia
  • Ihe nketa ọdịbendị a na-apụghị ịhụ anya

Ihe odide[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Gada system, an indigenous democratic socio-political system of the Oromo. unesco.org.
  2. Gada system, an indigenous democratic socio-political system of the Oromo. unesco.org.
  3. Galla, Candace (2012). "Sustaining generations of Indigenous voices: Reclaiming language and integrating multimedia technology". {World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium Journal: 46–48. 
  4. Tesema Ta'a (2006). The Political Economy of an African Society in Transformation: the Case of Macca Oromo (Ethiopia). Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 26–27. ISBN 978-3-447-05419-5. 
  5. John Ralph Willis (2005). Slaves and Slavery in Africa: Volume Two: The Servile Estate. Routledge, 122–127, 129–134, 137. ISBN 978-1-135-78017-3. 
  6. John Ralph Willis (2005). Slaves and Slavery in Africa: Volume Two: The Servile Estate. Routledge, 128–134. ISBN 978-1-135-78016-6. 
  7. Ira M. Lapidus (2014). A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-139-99150-6. 
  8. The Gadaa System and Some of Its Institutions among the Booranaa: A Historical Perspective. ajol.info 91–92.
  9. Gada system, an indigenous democratic socio-political system of the Oromo. unesco.org.
  10. A heroic send-off for Aliyi Cirri, a pioneer Oromo freedom fighter whose courage and bravery inspired generations. www.opride.com (17 November 2017).
  11. Historical Background. mwu.edu.et.
  12. The Gada sysytem; full Dimocratical politics of Oromo;71stBorana BalliHand overing Day Febrawary 2009/20017:The Gada of Kura Jarso.. oromiatourism.gov.et. Archived from the original on 2021-04-18. Retrieved on 2023-06-14.
  13. Gada System inscribed in UNESCO as Intangible World Heritage. ethiopianembassy.be.
  14. Briefing: What is Oromo's Gada system?. hornaffairs.com (December 2016).
  15. The 2015 Commemoration of Odaa-Bultum (One of the Major Oromo Gadaa System's Administrative Centers). Oromianeconomist.com.
  16. A Journey to Revitalizing Gadaa at Odaa Hullee: Tracing Jimma University's Unwavering Commitment. ju.edu.et.
  17. Bule Hora University Journey. bhu.edu.et. Archived from the original on 2020-06-01. Retrieved on 2023-06-14.
  18. Participedia Contributors. The Gadaa System of the Oromo People. Participedia.net. Retrieved on 29 January 2019.
  19. Gadaa Grades. addisherald.com. Archived from the original on 2023-06-14. Retrieved on 2023-06-14.
  20. Sirna. "A Future Gaze: Gadaa Oriented Constitutional Structure for Oromia". Gadaa Journal: 15–16. 
  21. "Waa'ee Gadaa wantoota beekuu qabdan shan", bbc.com.
  22. Asmarom Legesse, "Gadaa: Three Approaches to the Study of African Society", 1973
  23. Asmarom Legesse, "Oromo Democracy: an Indigenous African Political System", 2006
  24. Donald Levine, "Greater Ethiopia: The Evolution of a Multiethnic Society", 1974
  25. Z. Sirna, "Ethiopia: When the Gadaa Democracy Rules in a Federal State", 2012
  26. Participedia Contributors. The Gadaa System of the Oromo People. Participedia.net. Retrieved on 29 January 2019.
  27. BitGadaa | Futuristic African Democracy (2015-09-09). Archived from the original on 2015-09-09. Retrieved on 2019-10-30.

Akwụkwọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Ulrich Braukämper, Layers Islam History and Culture in Southern Ethiopia (2003)
  • Joseph Van de Loo, "Guji Oromo Culture in Southern Ethiopia". Berlin: Reimer, 1991.
  • Asmarom Legesse, "Gadaa: Ụzọ Atọ Ọmụmụ nke African Society", 1973
  • Donald Levine, "Greater Ethiopia: The Evolution of a Multiethnic Society", 1974
  • Asmarom Legesse, "Oromo Democracy: a Indigenous African Political System", 2006
  • Asafa Jalata, Gadaa (Oromo Democracy): Ihe Nlereanya nke Mmepeanya Africa nke oge ochie, Journal of Pan-African Studies (2012)
  • Tenna Dewo, 2008. Echiche nke Udo na Oromo Gadaa System: Usoro ya na Omume Omume. Journal of Oromo Studies 15.1: 139-180. Ntinye weebụ [njikọ nwụrụ anwụ na-adịgide adịgide]
  • Z. Sirna, "Ethiopia: Mgbe Gadaa Democracy na-achị na Federal State", 2012
  • Participedia Contributors, "The Gadaa System of the Oromo People," ikpeazụ gbanwere na Septemba 7, 2018, Chọtara site na https://participedia.xyz/method/4865