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Gelede
religious and cultural festive day
mba osiBenin, Naijiria, Togo Dezie
intangible cultural heritage statusRepresentative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity, Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity Dezie
kọwara na URLhttps://ich.unesco.org/en/RL/00002, https://ich.unesco.org/fr/RL/00002, https://ich.unesco.org/es/RL/00002 Dezie
ihe eji ya emeGẹlẹdẹ mask Dezie
WikiProject na-elekọta yaWikiProject Intangible Cultural Heritage Dezie

 

Gelede nkpuchi si ndi Yoruba nke Naijiria. Emere na Birmingham Museum of Art
Gelede Isi mkpuchi
Gelede mask, Afro-Brazil Museum, São Paulo

Ihe nkiri Gẹlẹdẹ nke ndị Yoruba bụ ihe ngosi ọha na eze site na nkpuchi mara mma nke na-ejikọta nka na egwu egwu iji kpalie, kụziere na ịkpali ofufe. [1] Gelede na-eme ememe "Ndị Nne" ( awon iya wa ), otu nke gụnyere ndị nna nna na chi nwanyị nakwa ndị agadi nwanyị nke obodo, na ike na ikike ime mmụọ ndị inyom a nwere n'ime ọha mmadụ. [1] [2] [3] Na-elekwasị anya ọ bụghị naanị na ọmụmụ na ịbụ nne kamakwa na ezi omume ọha mmadụ n'ime obodo Yoruba. [1]

Gelede n'ihe gbasara nkwenye ndị Yoruba[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Nke Gelede elekọta mmadụ burukwa dabere na Yoruba maxim Eso l'aye (Ụwa adịghị emebi emebi). N'ikwu ya n'ụzọ ọzọ, ndụ dị nro ma kwesị ịdị na-akpachapụ anya ma na-emesi ike na diplomacy, nlebara anya, nkwanye ùgwù na nkwekọ. [1]

Mmalite nke Gelede[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Enwere isi ụlọ akwụkwọ abụọ nke echiche banyere mmalite nke Gelede, akụkọ ihe mere eme na akụkọ ifo. Ejikọtara mmalite akụkọ ihe mere eme na ebe atọ enwere ike, Old Oyo, Ketu, na Ilobi. Ketu, otu n'ime ihe ngosi Gelede kacha ochie na nke kacha nwee akụkọ sitere na otu eze na-anwụ anwụ na ụmụ ejima ya abụọ na-azọ ọchịchị. Otu nwanna nwoke, mgbe ọ matara na ya agaghị enweta ocheeze ahụ, o wepụta atụmatụ igbu ejima ya. Mgbe nwanna nwoke ahụ jidere atụmatụ ahụ, o wepụta atụmatụ counter nke gụnyere imepụta ihe mkpuchi na onye na-eme ihe dị ka aghụghọ. Isi mmalite akụkọ ifo jikọtara ya na Iya Nla, ma ọ bụ Nne Ukwu, na njikọ ya na ịbụ nne na ejima. [1]

Enwere ike ịhụ ọtụtụ akụkọ ifo ndị Yoruba sitere na akụkọ ịgba afa a na-akpọ Odu Ifa . Odu Ifa dị ihe dị ka narị abụọ na iri ise na isii, nke ọ bụla n’ime ha nwere ọtụtụ uri a na-akpọ ese Ifa. Amụma ese Ifa bụ akụkọ gbasara onye ma ọ bụ anụmanụ nwere nsogbu na usoro iji dozie nsogbu ahụ. An ese Ifa kọwara mmalite Gelede si malite na Yemoja, "Nne nke orisa na ihe niile dị ndụ." Yemoja apughi imu umu, we chọba onye-ozi Ifa, onye gwara ya ka o we chua àjà, were kwa ihe oyiyi osisi n'isi-ya na ukwu-ya di n'ukwu-ya nāgwu egwu. Mgbe o mechara ememe a, ọ tụrụ ime. Nwa mbụ ya bụ nwa nwoke, nke a na-akpọ "Efe" (onye na-akpa ọchị); ihe mkpuchi Efe na-emesi egwu egwu na egwu egwu n'ihi àgwà nke aha ya. Nwa nke abụọ Yemoja mụrụ bụ nwa agbọghọ, aha ya bụ "Gelede" n'ihi na ọ bu oke ibu ka nne ya. Dịkwa ka nne ya, Gelede nwere mmasị n'ịgba egwu.

Ndị Gelede Society[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ememe Gelede na-akwalite mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya, n'ihi nke a ma nwoke na nwanyị na-etinye aka n'ime ọha mmadụ. Site na njikọ ya na Iya Nla, ma ọ bụ Nnukwu Nne, obodo Gelede nwere ọnụ ọgụgụ dị ukwuu nke ụmụ nwanyị. Nke a bụ n'otu akụkụ n'ihi njikọ ya na nne na nne, kamakwa n'ihi nkwenye na ikere òkè n'ime ọha mmadụ a na-enyere aka na ọmụmụ nke ụmụ nwanyị. Ejikọkwara nsonye ndị nwoke n'ime ihe ngosi ihe nkpuchi, n'ihi na isonye na mmemme ahụ nwekwara ike ịbawanye ọmụmụ. Ọ bụ ezie na ndị nwoke anaghị etinye aka n'okwu a dịka ụmụ nwanyị sitere n'ọdịdị obodo Yoruba na ọrụ ụmụ nwanyị n'ime ya. [1]

Iji nwee ike ịme ihe omume dị iche iche n'ime ememme Gelede, obodo Gelede na-ahọpụta ndị isi, ndị otu na ndị ọkachamara ka ha na-ahụ maka akụkụ dị iche iche n'ime ọha mmadụ. N'agbanyeghi na aha otu ndia di iche iche na ndi mmadu na-adi iche site na obodo rue obodo ndi a kachasi:

Iyalase, Onye-isi Nchụ-aja, nke pụtara “nne nke ụlọ nsọ” [1] bụ onye isi obodo Gelede a. Ọ bụ ya bụ onye isi nzikọrịta ozi n'etiti Iya Nla, obodo na otu Gelde. Isi ọrụ Iyalase na-abụghị ebe a na-ekwurịta okwu, bụ onye na-elekọta ụlọ nsọ Gelede, Ase, bụ ebe ọ bụ naanị ya kwere ka ọ bata.

Babalase, Onye-isi-nchu-àjà, nke putara “nna nke ulo nchuaja” [1] bu nwoke nke ya na Iyalase. Isi ọrụ ya n'ime obodo Gelede bụ nhazi nke ihe omume maka ememme Gelede. N'ikwekọ na ịbụ onye nhazi ihe omume Gelede, ọ bụ onye na-elekọta ndị isi na uwe Gelede. Babalase bụ, n'ozuzu oke, onye inyeaka na Iyalase ebe a ga-ahọpụta ya naanị site na nkwado nke Iya Nla na ndị nne dị ike.

Abore, ma ọ bụ onye nchụàjà nwoke, bụ nwoke meworo agadi na-enyere ndị na-achọ ihu ọma aka ịmepụta aje maka ememe ha. N'obodo ụfọdụ, ọnọdụ a bụ ihe nketa na-achọkwa ọtụtụ ihe ọmụma gbasara emume na ofufe n'obodo Yoruba.

Elefe, ma ọ bụ onye ọchị, bụ nwoke na-ebu ihe mkpuchi Efe maka ememme Gelede. Ọ bụ ọrụ ya ikpe ekpere maka ọdịmma obodo na ịkwalite omume adịghị mma ma bụrụkwa olu obodo. Ikwu na ime ihe ndị na-abụghị nke onye a ga-abụ nke ọha mmadụ anabataghị. Onye agadi nwoke ma ọ bụ okenye na-egwuri egwu, ọ dị mkpa na ọ maara ihe na akwụkwọ ọnụ nke obodo,

Arugi, ma ọ bụ ihe mkpuchi, pụtara "bu osisi". [1] Ọ bụghị naanị na nwoke a ga-abụ ezigbo onye ịgba egwu kamakwa ọ ga-amarịrị n'ilu ndị a ma ama na asụsụ obodo iji duzie onwe ya ma ghọta asụsụ nke ịgbà. Ịmụ asụsụ a na-amalitekarị n'oge ọ bụ nwata mgbe ụmụaka malitere ịmụ egwu dị iche iche. Ọ bụrụ na ha nwere nka, a na-azụ ụmụaka ahụ ma kwe ka ha na-eyi ihe mkpuchi n'oge ememme Gelede kwa afọ.

Gelede nlegharị anya[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ọ bụ ezie na e nwere ike ịme ememe Gelede n'oge ọ bụla n'afọ (iji mee ka ọtụtụ mmadụ dịkwuo mma, iji mee ka ọha mmadụ dị ọcha nke ọrịa na-efe efe, iji mee ka mmiri ozuzo, mee ka ọmụmụ mmadụ dịkwuo mma, iji nweta nkwado nke ike karịrị nke mmadụ na "ndị nne dị ike). "N'oge agha, na ịsọpụrụ ndị nwụrụ anwụ), ọrụ kachasị mma na-eme n'oge ememme kwa afọ. Nkwado na-arụ nnukwu ọrụ na nha na nkọwapụta nke mmemme ndị a. Ka arụmọrụ ya na-abawanye ka ọ ga-abụ na ndị obodo ga-akwado ya kama ịbụ otu onye ma ọ bụ ezinụlọ, nke na-adịkarị obere. [1] Ndị obodo na-akwadokarị ememme Gelede a na-eme kwa afọ n'ihi ya, ọ na-adịkarị ka ibu.

Ozugbo emechara kpọmkwem ụbọchị mmemme ahụ, na-abụkarị site n'ịgba afa, Iyalase na-agwa onye isi obodo na ndị isi nọ n'okpuru mkpa. Ozi ga-agakwuru ndị otu Gelede n'èzí obodo ma ọ bụ na-arụ ọrụ n'ebe dị anya ịlaghachi n'ụlọ maka ememe ahụ.

Gelede ekike na akwa isi[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A na-eji ihe mkpuchi Gelede na-eji ejiji nke nwere akwa akwa akwa na-egbuke egbuke.

Gelede "nkpuchi" bụ ihe n'ụzọ ziri ezi nke isi isi, ebe ọ na-adabere n'elu isi na ihu onye na-ekpuchi ya na akwa mkpuchi. Uwe isi na-ewere ụdị isi mmadụ, n'elu ya bụ ebumnuche ndị e bu n'obi iji mee ka ndị na-ekiri ihe na-atọ ụtọ mana, na mgbakwunye, na-ekwukarị nchegbu ọha na eze nke nwekwara ike igosipụta n'abụ ndị bụ akụkụ nke masquerade. A na-esekarị akwa isi isi nke ọma. [2]

Babatunde Lawal na-ede, sị: "Ewe isi bụ uwe ihe isi (ori) bụ ahụ mmadụ. Ọ bụ ihe nrịbama nke njirimara na isi njirimara onye masker ma ọ bụrụhaala na ọ nọ n'ime mkpuchi. N'agbanyeghị ọchị ọchị. ihe nnọchianya nke na-apụtakarị na headdress, ihu dị n'okpuru ụlọ elu na-anọgide na-adị jụụ, dị ka a ga-asị na ọ na-emesi ihe mgbagwoju anya nke bụ ndụ - na mkpa ọ dị ibi ndụ na nlekọta pụrụ iche." [1]

Uwe ejiji nke Gelede na-emetụta kpọmkwem njikọ ụmụ nwanyị na ịbụ nne nke ọha mmadụ. N'ịbụ nke nwere eriri nwa, ara, mkpịsị ụkwụ, mkpịsị ụkwụ ígwè, ogwe agba agba, whisk horsetail, na fan, ihe ndị eji ejiji Gelede nwere nkọwa dị iche iche. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, eriri nwa na-anọchi anya nne na-enye ara ara ebe ọ bụkwa ihe nkwado n'ime ejiji n'onwe ya. Ihe omume ehihie a na-eme n'ememme Gelede na-akawanye mma ma maa mma ma e jiri ya tụnyere ihe ngosi abalị, ewezuga uwe Efe. Nke a bụ n'ihi na n'oge ngosi nke abalị, ejiji na-esi ike ịhụ, ya mere ọ ga-abụ ihe na-abaghị uru inwe uwe mara mma nke a na-agaghị ahụ. [1]

Edensibia[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 Lawal (1996). The Gèlèdé spectacle : art, gender, and social harmony in an African culture. Seattle: University of Washington press. ISBN 978-0-295-97599-3.  Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Lawal" defined multiple times with different content
  2. 2.0 2.1 Siegmann (2009). African art a century at the Brooklyn Museum. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn Museum. ISBN 978-3791343211. 
  3. Washington (2014). The Architects of Existence: Aje in Yoruba Cosmology, Ontology, and Orature. Oya's Tornado, 196–199. ISBN 9780991073016.