Ihe mgbu Ibárruri

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Ihe mgbu Ibárruri
Mmádu
ụdịekerenwanyị Dezie
mba o sịSpain, Soviet Union Dezie
aha n'asụsụ obodoDolores Ibárruri Gómez Dezie
Aha ọmụmụMaría de los Dolores Ibárruri y Gómez Dezie
Aha enyereDolores Dezie
aha ezinụlọ yaIbárruri Dezie
second family name in Spanish nameGómez Dezie
aha pseudonymLa Pasionaria Dezie
ụbọchị ọmụmụ ya9 Disemba 1895 Dezie
Ebe ọmụmụGallarta Dezie
Ụbọchị ọnwụ ya12 Novemba 1989 Dezie
Ebe ọ nwụrụHospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal Dezie
ihe kpatara ọnwụỌrịa oyi Dezie
Ebe oliliCivil Cemetery, Madrid, Civil Cemetery, Madrid Dezie
Dị/nwunyeJulián Ruiz Gabiña Dezie
nwaRubén Ruiz Ibárruri Dezie
asụsụ ọ na-asụ, na-ede ma ọ bụ were na-ebinye akaSpanish Dezie
Ọrụ ọ na-arụOnye ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị, Onye ntaakụkọ, activist Dezie
Ọkwá o jiSpanish Communist Party General Secretary, Member of the Congress of Deputies, Member of the Cortes republicanas Dezie
ebe agụmakwụkwọnormal school Dezie
ogo mmụtaDoctor of Sciences Dezie
Ebe ọrụMadrid Dezie
onye otu ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchịCommunist Party of Spain Dezie
candidacy in election1977 Spanish general election Dezie
Ihe nriteOrder of Lenin, Lenin Peace Prize, Order of the Victory of Socialism, Order of the October Revolution, Q109986273 Dezie
Dolores Ibárruri
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Dolores Ibárruri na 1978

Isidora Dolores Ibárruri Gómez ( <Spanish: [isiˈðoɾa ðoˈloɾes iˈβaruɾi ˈɣomeθ ]/link> ; Ọnwa Iri na-eme 9, 1895 – 12 Nọvemba 1989), "onye ire dị ka Pasionaria onye nwere ike".  ụzọ Spanish Republican nke Agha Obodo Spanish nke 1936–1939 na onye Kọmunist mara maka okwu ya ¡No Pasarán!  ("Ha agabiga!") E mmetụta n'oge Agha Madrid na November 1936

.Ọ sonyeere ndị Kọmunist Spanish ( Spanish </link> ) mgbe e hiwere ya na 1920. N'afọ 1930, ọ bụ onye edemede maka akwụkwọ Communist Party of Spain (PCE) Mundo Obrero na na February 1936 ka a ọmụmụ na Cortes Generales dị  ka onye PCE maka Asturias .  N'ịbụ onye si na Spen jee biri na njedebe nke Agha Obodo na 1939, ọ na-egosi ukwu nke Central Committee nke Communist Party nke Spain, ọnọdụ ọ mgbasa site na 1942 ruo 1960. Ndị otu ahụ wee onye isi oche ya nke  PCE, ɔkwa o jigidere oge ndụ ya niile.  Mgbe ọ la n'ụdị Spain na 1977, a na-amụ ya ọzọ ka ọ bụrụ onye anya Cortes maka otu mpaghara ọ nọchitere anya site na 1936 ruo 1939 n'okpuru Republic nke abụọ nke Spanish.

. A shafi Dolores Ibárruri na 1895 nke ewepụ n'ime ụmụ mmadụ.  [1] O nwere nna Basque na-egwuputa ihe na nne Castilian .  O tolitere na Gallarta, ma emesịa kwagara Somorrostro ( Biscay ).  Galarta nọ n'abụ nnukwu ogbunigwe siderite

Ibárruri hapụrụ ụlọ akwụkwọ na 15 ka ọ nọrọ afọ abụọ na-akwado maka kọleji ndị nkuzi na agbamume nke onye isi ụlọ akwụkwọ. Nne na nna ya enweghị ike inwetakwu akwụkwọ, n'ihi ya, ọ gara rụọ ọrụ dị ka onye na-akwa akwa ma mesịa rụọ ọrụ dị ka onye na-arụ ọrụ n'ụlọ. [1] Ọ ghọrọ onye na-eri nri n'obodo Arboleda, bụ obodo kachasị mkpa na mpaghara Somorrostro. [2] N'ebe ahụ, ọ zutere Julián Ruiz Gabiña, onye na-akwado otu na onye nchoputa Socialist Youth nke Somorrostro. Ha lụrụ na ngwụsị 1915, afọ abụọ ka a mụsịrị nwa mbụ ha. [3] Di na nwunye na-eto eto sonyere na iku izugbe nke 1917 na Ruiz laghachiri n'ụlọ mkpọrọ. N'oge a, Ibárruri nọrọ abalị na-agụ ọrụ Karl Marx na ndị ọzọ a hụrụ n'ọbá akwụkwọ nke Socialist Workers' Center na Somorrostro.

. [4]Na 1920 Ibárruri na Workers' Centre sonyeere ndị Communist Party nke Spain [1] (PCE) na-eto eto wee dozie ya onye otu Kọmitii Provincial nke Basque Communist Party.  Mgbe afọ iri nke ndị agha agha, a mgbaàmà ya na Kọmitii Central nke PCE na 1930.

[5]N'oge a, Ibárruri, ụmụ isii.  N'ime ụmụ ise ya, anɔ die ka ọ dị obere.  Ọ "na-akọbu etu di ya siri were igbe osisi osisi kpụpụta obere igbe ozu."  [1] Nwa ya nwoke, Rubén, nwụrụ na iri na abụọ na Agha nke Stalingrad .  Nwa nke njọ, Amaya, dị ndụ ụfọdụ nne ya.  N'afọ 2008, Amaya bi na mpaghara ndị ọrụ nke Ciudad Lineal na Madrid.  [2] [3] Ọ nwụrụ na 2018 mgbe ọ dị afọ 95.

Na Madrid (1931-1936)[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

. [6]Na mbata nke Republic nke ihe na 1931, Ibárruri kwagara Madrid .  Ọ nchịkọta onye nchịkọta akụkọ nke akwụkwọ PCE Mundo Obrero .  E jidere ya na nke mbụ ya na September 1931. N'ịbụ onye a ụzọ ndị n'àmá ya na ndị na-emejọ ya, ọ gwara ha ka ọrụ ọrụ iwu iji akwụkwọ onwe maka ndị na-ejeso ndị agha.  Mgbe e jidere ya nke abụọ na March 1932, o duuru ndị nche ndị ọzọ na-abụ abụ " The Internationale " n'ime ụlọ ụlọ.  Ọ gbara ha ume ka ha jụ obere ọrụ a na- pụghị iche n'ogige ụlọ ndị.  [1] O dere ndị sitere na nga, otu nke PCE oge Frente Rojo na nke ọzọ bụ Mundo Obrero .  Na 17 Maachị 1932, a na-achọpụta ya na Kọmitii Central nke PCE na Mgbakọ 4th emere na Seville.

N'afọ 1933, ọ ntọala ntọala Mujeres Antifascistas</link> , òtù ụmụ na-Cheta Fascist na agha.  [1] Na 18 ụgbọ, onye na-ekiri mbara igwe Soviet Grigory Neujmin emechira asteroid 1933 HA wee edi ya " Dolores " n'aha ya.  Na November, ọ gara Moscow dị ka onye na-achọ nke 13th Plenum nke Executive Committee of the Communist International (ECCI), bụ nke tụlere ihe ize ndụ nke Fascism na egwu agha.  [2] Ịhụ isi obodo Rọshịa nkata Ibárruri ụtọ.  "Nye m, onye gbanye ya site n'anya nke ike obi", o dere n'akwụkwọ ya, "ọ bụ obodo iza mma n'ụwa. A na- isiokwu ihe owuwu nke socialism na ya.  ndị ohu, ndị a chụpụrụ phopụ, ndị serfs, ndị proletarians. Site na ndị mmadụ nwere ike ike ma njem nke ihe a pịa mmadụ na-aga na nkọwa Kọmunist."  [3] Ọ bụghị Spain ruo afọ ọhụrụ.

Ka ọ na-erule nsọ nke 1934, Ibárruri na ndị mmadụ abụọ ndị ọzọ butere ọrụ nnapụta dị ize ndụ n’azọ Asturias na-egwupụta ihe iji kpa ihe umuagbo umu na-agụ na Madrid.  A nne nne na nna ndị na-ahụ ụzọ ka Mgbanwe Ọktọba dara ada nke General Franco n'ihi ụzọ nke Republican.  Ọ gara nke ọma, ma a kpọchiri ya obere oge n'ahụ anya Sama de Langre na Oviedo .  [1] Iji chebe ụmụ ya inwekwu ike, o pụta ha na Soviet Union n'oge opupu ihe ubi nke 1935.

N'afọ 1935, ọ gafere na nzuzo na Spanish wee gaa na 7th World Congress of the Communist International nke e mere na 25 Julaị - 21 August na Moscow. Na Congress a, Georgi Dimitrov kwuru okwu isi okwu nke ọ tụrụ aro ka ya na ndị ọchịchị "bourgeois na-aga n'ihu" na-emekọrịta ihe megide ndị fasizim. [7] N'okpuru ozizi a, ndị Popular Front malitere ọchịchị na France na June 1936, kwụsịrị ike mgbanwe mgbanwe nke ọha mmadụ Communist ma gbochie enyemaka na Spanish Republic n'oge Agha Obodo Spanish. Ọ bụ Léon Blum, onye isi oche nke French Popular Front webatara nkwekọrịta na-adịghị etinye aka, nke mechiri ọdịnihu nke Republic, ma bịanye aka na 2 Ọgọst 1936, site n'aka France, Britain, Russia, Germany na Ịtali. Ibárruri nabatara okwu Dimitrov dị ka nkwuwa okwu nke PCE ogologo oge wee laghachi n'ụlọ "jupụtara na ịnụ ọkụ n'obi, kpebisie ike ime ihe na-agaghị ekwe omume iji nweta nkwenye n'etiti ndị ọrụ dị iche iche na òtù onye kwuo uche nke obodo anyị.". [8] N'otu ebe ahụ, a họpụtara ya onye osote onye otu ECCI wee bụrụ onye ọchịchị Kọmunist nke abụọ na Spain mgbe José Díaz, bụ odeakwụkwọ ukwu nke PCE gasịrị.

Ozugbo mmeri ndị Popular Front mere na ntuli aka ahụ bịara mara m, bụbu onye omeiwu a họpụtara ahọpụta, pụtara n'ụlọ mkpọrọ nke Oviedo n'ụtụtụ echi ya, gara n'ụlọ ọrụ nke Director, onye gbapụrụ n'oké ụjọ n'ihi na ọ mere omume dị ka onye omekome n’ebe ndị mkpọrọ Asturia nọ n’ụlọ mkpọrọ gasịrị mgbe mgbanwe nke October 1934 gasịrị, ma n’ebe ahụ ka m chọtara Onye Ọchịchị ahụ m sịrị, “Nye m mkpịsị ugodi n’ihi na a ghaghị ịtọhapụ ndị mkpọrọ taa.” Ọ zara, sị, "Anataghị m iwu ọ bụla", m wee zaa, "Abụ m onye omeiwu nke Republic, ana m arịọ gị ka nyefee mkpịsị ugodi ozugbo ka ịtọhapụ ndị mkpọrọ." O nyefere ha ma m na-emesi gị obi ike na ọ bụ ụbọchị kacha atọ ụtọ nke ndụ m, na-emepe mkpụrụ ndụ ma na-eti mkpu, "Ndị enyi, onye ọ bụla pụta!" N'ezie na-akpali akpali. Echeghị m ka nzuko omeiwu nọrọ ọdụ ma ọ bụ ka e nye iwu ntọhapụ. M chere, sị, "Anyị agbawo nkwa nnwere onwe maka ndị mkpọrọ nke mgbanwe mgbanwe nke 1934 - anyị meriri - taa ndị mkpọrọ na-ahapụ onwe ha." [9]

N'ime ọnwa ole na ole tupu Agha Obodo Spanish, ọ sonyeere ndị na-eti Cadavio mine na Asturias wee guzoro n'akụkụ ndị nwe ụlọ dara ogbenye a chụpụrụ n'otu mpaghara Madrid. [4] N'oge a, Federico García Lorca, La Pasionaria na ndị enyi na-akparịta ụka ma na-ekesa kọfị na cafeteria Madrid mgbe Lorca, bụ onye na-amụ ọdịdị Ibárruri, gwara ya, "Dolores, ị bụ nwanyị nke iru újú, nke iru újú ... M ga-ede gị abụ." [10] Onye na-ede uri laghachiri na Granada wee zute ọnwụ ya n'aka ndị Nationalists tupu ọ rụchaa ọrụ ahụ.

On 24 February, Stalin forbade Soviet volunteers to be sent to fight in Spain, but he did not recall Order of Lenin awardee Alexander Orlov of the NKVD (secret police).[Tinye edensibịa][citation needed] Orlov and the NKVD orchestrated May Days, the war that broke out between 3-8 May in Barcelona between the Popular Front and the Trotskyist Workers Party of Marxist Unification (POUM). The battle left some 1,000 fighters dead and 1,500 injured, though estimates vary. With the annihilation of the POUM, Stalin deprived the fugitive Leon Trotsky of a possible Spanish haven.[Tinye edensibịa][citation needed] Orlov used the same methods of terror, duplicity and deception that were employed in the Great Purge (1936–38).

Ibárruri ascribed the events to an "anarcho-trotskyist" attempt at shutting down the Republican government on orders from Franco, acting in tandem with Adolf Hitler. She said the violence was the culmination of an anarchist plot that included plans to stop the movement of trains and cut all telegraph and telephone lines. She cited an "order [from the Catalan government] to its forces to control the telephone building and disarm all people whom they encounter in the streets without proper authorization" as the aim of the anarchist plan. However, she provided no evidence to support these claims, which were widely held by fellow Party members at the time but have since been discredited.

Edensibia[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. "Dolores Ibárruri (Pasionaria)", Spartacus Educational. Retrieved on 2017-12-09.
  2. La Arboleda/Zugaztieta (Valle de Trápaga/Trapagaran). Bizkaia.net.
  3. Fallece Julián Ruiz, marido de "La Pasionaria". La Vanguardia Española. August 5, 1977, p. 10.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Lorenzo Peña: "Nota Biográfica de La Pasionaria. España Roja.
  5. Bonet. "Muere Amaya Ruiz Ibárruri, hija de Pasionaria", El País, 4 December 2018. Retrieved on 2022-03-07. (in es)
  6. Partido Comunista de España. Spanish Wikipedia.
  7. entry: Popular Front. Encyclopedia of Marxism. Marxists Internet Archive.
  8. Dolores Ibárruri, María Carmen García-Nieto París, María José Capellín Corrada. El único camino. Madrid: Editorial Castalia, 1992.
  9. Dolores Ibárruri quoted by Mariano Muniesa in: "Emocionado Recuerdo a una Mujer del Pueblo: La Camarada, Compañera y Hermana Dolores Ibárruri." La Comuna. 13 November 2009.
  10. Dolores Ibárruri. Me faltaba España, 1939–1977. Barcelona: Editorial Planeta, 1984.