Ike mmeghari ohuru

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Ike mmeghari ohuru
obere ụdị nkerenewable resource Dezie
Akụkụ nkesustainability Dezie
mụrụ yarenewable energy science Dezie
dochieMmanụ ọkụ Dezie
megidere nkenonrenewable energy Dezie
Isi mmalite nke ume ọhụrụ, karịsịa fotovoltaic anyanwụ na ike ikuku, na enye òkè na arịwanye elu nke ike ike.

  Ike emeghari ohuru bu ike sitere na akụrụngwa emeghari ohuru nke emejuputara n'okike n'oge mmadu. Ihe ndị a na emegharị ọhụrụ gụnyere ìhè anyanwụ, ifufe, mmegharị mmiri, na okpomọkụ geothermal. Ọ bụ ezie na ọtụtụ isi mmalite ike mmeghari na adigide, ụfọdụ adịghị. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, a na ewere ụfọdụ isi mmalite biomass adịghị adịgide na ọnụego nrigbu ugbu a. A na ejikarị ike ọhụrụ eme ihe maka ọkụ eletrik, kpo oku na oyi. Ọrụ ume ọhụrụ na abụkarị nnukwu nnukwu, mana ha dabara na ime obodo na ime obodo yana mba ndị ka na emepe emepe, ebe ike na adịkarị mkpa na mmepe mmadụ. A na etinyekarị ume ọhụrụ na ntinye ọkụ ọzọ, nke nwere ọtụtụ uru: ọkụ eletrik nwere ike ịkwaga okpomọkụ ma ọ bụ ihe nke ọma, ma dị ọcha n'oge oriri.

Site na 2011 ruo 2021, ike mmeghari amụbaala site na 20% ruo 28% nke ọkụ eletrik zuru ụwa ọnụ. Ojiji ike fossil adalata site na 68% ruo 62%, yana nuklia sitere na 12% ruo 10%. Oke ike mmiri gbadara site na 16% ruo 15% ebe ike sitere na anyanwụ na ifufe gbagoro site na 2% ruo 10%. Biomass na ike geothermal tolitere site na 2% ruo 3%. Enwere gigawatt 3,146 arụnyere na mba 135, ebe mba 156 nwere iwu na achịkwa mpaghara ume ọhụrụ. [10] Na 2021, China ruru ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ ọkara nke mmụba zuru ụwa ọnụ na ọkụ eletrik.

N'ụwa niile enwere ihe karịrị nde ọrụ 10 jikọtara ya na ụlọ ọrụ ume ọhụrụ, yana fotovoltaics nke anyanwụ bụ onye na eweghachi ọrụ kachasị ukwuu. Usoro ume ọhụrụ na adị ngwa ngwa na arụ ọrụ nke ọma ma dị ọnụ ala ma òkè ha nke mkpokọta ike ike na aba ụba, ebe a na emegharị ọnụ ọgụgụ ka ukwuu nke ikike ọkụ eletrik arụnyere ọhụrụ n'ụwa nile. N'ọtụtụ mba, anyanwụ ma ọ bụ ikuku ikuku nke fotovoltaic bụ ọkụ eletrik ọhụrụ arụpụtara dị ọnụ ala.

Nchịkọta[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

 

Coal, mmanụ, na gas ka bụ isi isi mmalite ike zuru ụwa ọnụ ọbụna dị ka mmeghari ohuru amalitela ibu ngwa ngwa.
PlanetSolar, ụgbọ mmiri nwere ike anyanwụ kacha ukwuu n'ụwa na ụgbọ ala eletrik mbụ nke anyanwụ gafere gburugburu ụwa (na 2012)

Nkọwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ike ume ọhụrụ na aga n'ihu gụnyere ihe ndị sitere n'okike dị ka ìhè anyanwụ, ifufe, tides, uto osisi, na okpomọkụ geothermal, dị ka International Energy Agency na akọwa:  

Ndị ọkwọ ụgbọala na uru[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Nchegbu mgbanwe ihu igwe, yana ọnụ ahịa na aga n'ihu na efu nke ụfọdụ akụrụngwa ume ọhụrụ, dị ka igwe ikuku ikuku na akụkụ anyanwụ, na eme ka ojiji a na emegharị anya na abawanye. Mmefu gọọmentị ọhụrụ, iwu na amụma nyere ụlọ ọrụ aka ihu nsogbu ego zuru ụwa ọnụ karịa ọtụtụ ngalaba ndị ọzọ. Dị ka nke 2019, Otú ọ dị, dị ka International Renewable Energy Agency, mmeghari n'ozuzu òkè na ike mix (gụnyere ike, okpomọkụ na njem) kwesịrị itolite ugboro isii ngwa ngwa, iji mee ka ịrị elu na nkezi okpomọkụ zuru ụwa ọnụ "nke ọma n'okpuru" 2.0 °C (3.6 °F) n'ime narị afọ ugbu a, ma e jiri ya tụnyere ọkwa tupu ụlọ ọrụ.

Ọnụ ọgụgụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Igwe anyanwụ nke ezinụlọ, yana batrị ma ọ bụrụ na ha nwere ha, enwere ike iji ya mee naanị ụlọ ahụ ma ọ bụ ọ bụrụ na ejikọtara ya na igwe eletrik na ọtụtụ nde ndị ọzọ. Ihe karịrị nde ezinaụlọ 44 na eji biogas mere n'ọnụ ọgụgụ ezinụlọ maka ọkụ na/ma ọ bụ isi nri, na ihe karịrị nde ezinụlọ 166 na adabere n'ọgbọ ọhụrụ nke esi nri biomass na arụ ọrụ nke ọma.[39][chọrọ mmelite] Dị ka nyocha ahụ siri kwuo, a mba ga erute n'otu oge na uto ya tupu ya enwee ike iji ike emeghari ohuru. N'okwu anyị, mgbakwunye ya gbanwere ka ihe ntinye dị mkpa (ọrụ na isi obodo) si ejikọta ibe ha, na eweda nhịahụ ha n'ozuzu ya ma na abawanye ụbara akụ na ụba pụtara ìhè. Onye odeakwụkwọ ukwu nke asatọ nke United Nations Ban Ki moon ekwuola na ume ọhụrụ nwere ike ibuli mba ndị kasị daa ogbenye n'ọkwa ọganihu ọhụrụ. N'ọkwa mba, opekata mpe mba iri atọ n'ụwa niile enweela ike imeghari ume na enye aka karịa 20% nke ike. Ọ bụ ezie na ọtụtụ mba nwere ebumnuche dị iche iche maka ike mmeghari ume ogologo oge, ndị a na abụkarị maka mpaghara ọkụ, gụnyere ebumnuche 40% nke ọkụ eletrik niile ewepụtara maka European Union site na 2030.

Na eji[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ike mmeghari ohuru na ebupụkarị mmanụ ọkụ n'oge na mpaghara anọ: ọgbọ ọkụ eletrik, mmiri ọkụ / oghere oghere, njem, na ọrụ ike ime obodo (off-grid).[45]

Nrụpụta ike[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A na enweta ihe karịrị otu ụzọ n'ụzọ anọ nke ọkụ eletrik site na mmeghari ohuru dịka nke 2021.

Na ekpo ọkụ na oyi[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Igwe kpo oku nke anyanwụ na enye aka dị mkpa na okpomọkụ enwere ike imeghari n'ọtụtụ mba, ọkachasị na China, nke nwere ugbu a 70% nke mkpokọta ụwa (180 GWth). A na etinye ọtụtụ n'ime usoro ndị a n'ụlọ obibi nke ọtụtụ ezinụlọ ma na egbo akụkụ nke mkpa mmiri ọkụ nke ihe dị ka nde 50-60 nde ezinụlọ na China. Gburugburu ụwa, ngụkọta sistemu igwe kpo oku nke anyanwụ na ezute akụkụ nke mkpa kpo oku mmiri nke ihe karịrị nde ezinụlọ 70. Na Sweden, iji ike biomass eme ihe nke mba karịrị nke mmanụ. Igwe ọkụ na ekpo ọkụ na enye ma kpo oku ma na ajụ oyi, ma na eme ka ọkụ eletrik dị ọkụ ma si otú a na ebute ụzọ na arịwanye elu ike ikuku ume ọhụrụ na etokwa ngwa ngwa. Ihe dị ka 10% nke ike kpo oku na ike jụrụ oyi sitere na mmeghari ohuru.

Ụgbọ njem[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ụgbọ ala nke biodiesel na ebu mmanụ

Otu n'ime mbọ a na agba iji mebie ụgbọ njem bụ mmụba nke ụgbọ ala eletrik (EV). N'agbanyeghị nke ahụ na iji biofuels, dị ka biojet, ihe na erughị 4% nke ike njem sitere na mmeghari ohuru. Mgbe ụfọdụ, a na eji mkpụrụ ndụ mmanụ hydrogen eme njem dị arọ.

Teknụzụ ndị bụ isi[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ike anyanwụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

 

Map zuru ụwa ọnụ nke irradiation kwụ ọtọ
Global electricity power generation capacity 1053.1 GW (2022)[55]
Global electricity power generation capacity annual growth rate 25% (2013-2022)
Share of global electricity generation 2% (2018)[1]
Levelized cost per megawatt hour Utility-scale photovoltaics: USD 38.343 (2019)[58]
Primary technologies Photovoltaics, concentrated solar power, solar thermal collector
Other energy applications Water heating; heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC); cooking; process heat; water treatment
Onyonyo Satellite nke Bhadla Solar Park na India, ogige anyanwụ kachasị ukwuu n'ụwa

A na eji ike anyanwụ, ọkụ na egbuke egbuke na okpomọkụ sitere na anyanwụ, na eji teknụzụ dị iche iche na agbanwe agbanwe dị ka ọkụ anyanwụ, fotovoltaics, ike anyanwụ (CSP), fotovoltaics concentrator (CPV), ụlọ ọrụ anyanwụ na photosynthesis artificial. Kacha ọhụrụ ume ọhụrụ bụ anyanwụ. A na akọwa teknụzụ nke anyanwụ n'ụzọ sara mbara dị ka anyanwụ na agafe agafe ma ọ bụ anyanwụ na arụ ọrụ dabere n'otú ha si ejide, gbanwee, na ikesa ike anyanwụ. Usoro anyanwụ na agafe agafe na agụnye idobe ụlọ n'akụkụ anyanwụ, ịhọrọ ihe ndị nwere oke ọkụ ma ọ bụ ihe na ekesa ọkụ, na ịmepụta oghere ndị na ekesa ikuku. Teknụzụ anyanwụ na arụ ọrụ gụnyere ike ọkụ anyanwụ, na eji ndị na anakọta anyanwụ maka ikpo ọkụ, na ike anyanwụ, na atụgharị ìhè anyanwụ ka ọ bụrụ ọkụ eletrik ma ọ bụ na eji fotovoltaics (PV), ma ọ bụ n'ụzọ na edoghị anya na eji ike anyanwụ gbadoro anya (CSP).

Usoro fotovoltaic na atụgharị ìhè n'ime ọkụ eletrik kpọmkwem (DC) site na iji uru nke fotoelectric mmetụta. Solar PV aghọọla ọtụtụ ijeri, ụlọ ọrụ na eto ngwa ngwa, na aga n'ihu na emeziwanye ọnụ ahịa ya, ma nwee ikike kachasị nke teknụzụ ọ bụla nwere ike imeghari yana CSP. Sistemu na etinye ike anyanwụ (CSP) na eji lenses ma ọ bụ enyo na usoro nsochi anya na elekwasị anya n'akụkụ dị ukwuu nke ìhè anyanwụ n'ime obere ọkụ. Ewubere ụlọ ọrụ ọkụ anyanwụ gbadoro anya azụmaahịa na 1980s. CSP-Stirling nwere arụmọrụ kachasị elu n'etiti teknụzụ ike anyanwụ niile.

Na 2011, International Energy Agency kwuru na "mmepe nke dị ọnụ ala, na adịghị agwụ agwụ na dị ọcha teknụzụ ike anyanwụ ga enwe nnukwu uru na adịte aka. kwalite nkwado, belata mmetọ, belata ọnụ ahịa nke ibelata mgbanwe ihu igwe, ma mee ka ọnụ ahịa mmanụ ọkụ dị ala karịa ka ọ dị ọzọ.Uru ndị a bụ nke zuru ụwa ọnụ. ọ dị mkpa ka a na ekesa ọtụtụ ebe." Ike anyanwụ na enweta 505 GW kwa afọ, nke bụ ihe dịka 2% nke ọkụ eletrik n'ụwa. Enwere ike iji ike anyanwụ mee ihe n'ebe ọ bụla nwetara ìhè anyanwụ; Otú ọ dị, ọnụ ọgụgụ nke ike anyanwụ nke a pụrụ iji rụọ ọrụ ọkụ eletrik na emetụta ọnọdụ ihu igwe, ọnọdụ mpaghara na oge ụbọchị. Dịka isi 6 nke akụkọ mbelata ihu igwe IPCC 2022 si kwuo, ike zuru ụwa ọnụ nke ike anyanwụ kpọmkwem karịrị nke akụ ume ọhụrụ ọ bụla ọzọ. Ọ karịrị oke ike niile achọrọ iji kwado mbelata na narị afọ ugbu a. Australia nwere oke ọkụ eletrik nke anyanwụ n'ụwa, na enye 9.9% nke ọkụ eletrik nke obodo na 2020. Ihe karịrị pasenti 30 nke ezinụlọ Australia nwere ugbu a PV anyanwụ elu ụlọ, yana ikike jikọtara ya karịrị 11 GW.

Otú ọ dị, e nwere mmetụta gburugburu ebe obibi nke ịkwalite ike anyanwụ. Karịsịa, ọchịchọ maka akụrụngwa dị ka aluminom na enwe nchegbu maka akara ụkwụ carbon nke ga esi na iwepụta ihe ndị dị mkpa iji mejuputa ike anyanwụ.

Ike ikuku[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

 

Ọgbọ ike ikuku site na mpaghara ka oge na aga
Map zuru ụwa ọnụ nke ike njupụta ike ikuku
Global electricity power generation capacity 898.8 GW (2022)[71]
Global electricity power generation capacity annual growth rate 13% (2013-2022)
Share of global electricity generation 5% (2018)[1]
Levelized cost per megawatt hour Land-based wind: USD 30.165 (2019)[73]
Primary technology Wind turbine
Other energy applications Windmill, windpump

Enwere ike iji ikuku ikuku na ebugharị ikuku ikuku. Igwe ikuku ikuku na arụ ọrụ ọgbara ọhụrụ dị site na gburugburu 600 kW ruo 9 MW nke ike akwadoro. Ike dị site na ikuku bụ ọrụ nke cube nke ọsọ ifufe, ya mere, ka ikuku na agba ọsọ, mmepụta ike na-abawanye ruo n'ogo kachasị maka otu turbine. Ebe ikuku siri ike ma na adịgide adịgide, dị ka ebe dị n'ụsọ oké osimiri na ebe dị elu, bụ ebe a na ahọrọ maka ugbo ikuku. Dịka, awa zuru oke nke igwe ikuku ikuku na adị iche n'etiti pasenti 16 na 57 kwa afọ mana ọ nwere ike ịdị elu karịa na saịtị ndị dị n'ụsọ osimiri.

Ọkụ eletrik nke ikuku na enweta zutere ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ 4% nke ọkụ eletrik zuru ụwa ọnụ na 2015, na etinye ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ 63 GW nke ikike ikuku ọhụrụ. Ike ikuku bụ isi mmalite nke ikike ọhụrụ na Europe, US na Canada, yana nke abụọ kachasị na China. Na Denmark, ike ikuku zutere ihe karịrị 40% nke ọkụ eletrik ya ebe Ireland, Portugal na Spain zutere ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ 20%.

N'ụwa niile, a na ekwenye na ikike teknụzụ ogologo oge nke ike ikuku bụ okpukpu ise ngụkọta mmepụta ike zuru ụwa ọnụ ugbu a, ma ọ bụ ugboro 40 ọkụ eletrik ugbu a, na eche na e meriri ihe mgbochi niile dị mkpa. Nke a ga achọ ka etinyere igwe ikuku ikuku na mpaghara buru ibu, ọkachasị n'akụkụ akụrụngwa ikuku dị elu, dị ka oke osimiri, yana ikekwe iji ụdị turbines VAWT ọhụrụ na mgbakwunye na mpaghara axis kwụ ọtọ ugbu a. Dị ka ifufe dị n'ụsọ oké osimiri na agba ọsọ nkezi ~ 90% karịa nke ala, akụ ndị dị n'ụsọ mmiri nwere ike inye aka karịa ike turbines nke ala.

Ike mmiri[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

   

Mmiri mmiri atọ nke Gorges dị na Osimiri Yangtze na China
Global electricity power generation capacity 1,255.5 GW (2022)
Global electricity power generation capacity annual growth rate 2.2% (2013-2022)
Share of global electricity generation 16% (2018)[1]
Levelized cost per megawatt hour USD 65.581 (2019)[80]
Primary technology Dam
Other energy applications Pumped storage, mechanical power

Ebe ọ bụ na mmiri dị ihe dị ka okpukpu 800 karịa ikuku, ọbụna iyi mmiri na eji nwayọọ nwayọọ na eru, ma ọ bụ nke oké osimiri na akpụ akpụ, pụrụ inye ike dị ukwuu. Mmiri nwere ike ịmepụta ọkụ eletrik na ngbanwe arụmọrụ nke ihe dịka 90%, nke bụ ọnụ ọgụgụ kachasị elu na ume ọhụrụ. Enwere ọtụtụ ụdị ike mmiri:

A na emepụta ike mmiri na mba 150, yana mpaghara Eshia Pacific na emepụta pasent 32 nke ike mmiri zuru ụwa ọnụ na 2010. N'ime mba 50 kachasị elu site na pasentị ọkụ eletrik sitere na ihe ndị a na emegharị, 46 bụ isi mmiri ọkụ. Enwere ugbua ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri asaa karịrị 10 GW (10,000MW) n'ụwa niile, lee tebụl n'okpuru.

Rank Station Country Location Capacity (MW)
1. Three Gorges Dam  China 49 22,500
2. Baihetan Dam  China 13 16,000
3. Itaipu Dam  Brazil

 Paraguay
24 14,000
4. Xiluodu Dam  China 15 13,860
5. Belo Monte Dam  Brazil 06 11,233
6. Guri Dam  Venezuela 45 10,235
7. Wudongde Dam  China 20 10,200

Ọtụtụ ike mmiri na agbanwe agbanwe, si otú a na emeju ikuku na anyanwụ. Ike ebili mmiri, nke na ejide ike nke ebili mmiri nke oke osimiri, na ike tidal, na agbanwe ike nke tides, bụ ụdị abụọ nke ike mmiri na enwe ike n'ọdịnihu; Otú ọ dị, a kabeghị ha n'ọrụ azụmahịa. Ihe ngosi ngosi nke ụlọ ọrụ Ocean Renewable Power Company na arụ n'ụsọ oké osimiri Maine, ma jikọọ ya na grid, na ejikọta ike mmiri sitere na Bay of Fundy, ebe ebe mmiri na asọ asọ kacha elu n'ụwa. Ntugharị ike okpomọkụ nke oke osimiri, nke na eji ọdịiche okpomọkụ dị n'etiti igwe oyi na mmiri dị ọkụ, enweghị ikike akụ na ụba ugbu a.

Nri ike[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Okpete na emepụta ethanol na Brazil
Ụlọ ọrụ ọkụ CHP na eji osisi na enye ezinụlọ 30,000 na France
Global electricity power generation capacity 148.9 GW (2022)[90]
Global electricity power generation capacity annual growth rate 6.5% (2013-2022)
Share of global electricity generation 2% (2018)[1]
Levelized cost per megawatt hour USD 118.908 (2019)[92]
Primary technologies biomass, biofuel
Other energy applications Heating, cooking, transportation fuels

Biomass bụ ihe dị ndụ sitere na ihe dị ndụ, ma ọ bụ ihe dị ndụ na nso nso a. Ọ na ezokarị aka na osisi ma ọ bụ ihe ndị sitere na osisi. Dị ka isi iyi ike, a pụrụ iji biomass ozugbo site na combustion mepụta okpomọkụ, ma ọ bụ na apụtaghị ìhè mgbe ọ gbanwere ya n'ụdị dị iche iche nke biofuel n'ụdị siri ike, mmiri mmiri ma ọ bụ gas. Enwere ike nweta ngbanwe nke biomass ka ọ bụrụ mmanụ ọkụ site na ụzọ dị iche iche nke ekesara n'ọtụtụ ebe: ụzọ ọkụ, kemịkalụ, na biochemical. Osisi bụ isi iyi ike biomass kachasị dị ka nke 2012; ihe atụ gụnyere ihe fọdụrụ n'oké ọhịa dị ka osisi nwụrụ anwụ, alaka na stumps osisi, mkpọsa ụlọ, ibe osisi na ọbụna ahịhịa siri ike nke ime obodo. Enwere ike itolite biomass ụlọ ọrụ site na ụdị osisi dị iche iche, gụnyere miscanthus, switchgrass, hemp, ọka, poplar, willow, sorghum, okpete, achara, na ụdị osisi dị iche iche, sitere na eucalyptus ruo nkwụ mmanụ (mmanụ nkwu).

A na emepụta ike osisi site na ihe ọkụkụ ndị a kụrụ kpọmkwem maka ojiji dị ka mmanụ ụgbọala nke na enye mmepụta biomass dị elu kwa hectare na ike ntinye dị ala. Enwere ike iji ọka mee ihe maka ụgbọ njem mmiri mmiri ebe enwere ike ịgba ahịhịa ahụ ọkụ iji mepụta okpomọkụ ma ọ bụ ọkụ eletrik. A nwekwara ike iweda biomass osisi site na cellulose gaa na glucose site na usoro ọgwụgwọ kemịkalụ dị iche iche, enwere ike iji shuga na esi na ya pụta mee ihe dị ka mmanụ ndụ nke ọgbọ mbụ.

Enwere ike ịtụgharị biomass ka ọ bụrụ ụdị ike ndị ọzọ enwere ike iji ya dị ka gas methane ma ọ bụ mmanụ ụgbọ njem dị ka ethanol na biodiesel. Ihe mkpofu na ere ure, na ihe mkpofu ugbo na nke mmadụ, ihe niile na ahapụ gas methane nke a na akpọkwa gasfill gas ma ọ bụ biogas. Enwere ike ịme ihe ọkụkụ, dị ka ọka na okpete, iji mepụta mmanụ ụgbọala, ethanol. Biodiesel, mmanụ ụgbọ njem ọzọ, nwere ike imepụta site na ngwaahịa nri fọdụrụ dị ka mmanụ ihe oriri na abụba anụmanụ. Enwere otutu nyocha nke metụtara mmanụ algae ma ọ bụ biomass sitere na algae n'ihi na ọ bụ ihe nri na abụghị nri, na eto gburugburu ugboro 20 ngwa ngwa karịa ụdị nri ndị ọzọ, dị ka ọka na soy, ma nwee ike itolite. fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụla. Ozugbo ewechara ya, enwere ike ịgbakọ ya iji mepụta mmanụ ndị dị ka ethanol, butanol, na methane, yana biodiesel na hydrogen. Ihe biomass eji eme ọkụ eletrik na adịgasị iche site na mpaghara. Ngwaahịa sitere n'ọhịa, dị ka ihe fọdụrụ n'osisi, bụ ihe a na ahụkarị na United States. Ihe mkpofu ugbo bụ ihe a na ahụkarị na Mauritius (ihe fọdụrụ n'okpete shuga) na Ndịda Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ Eshia (osikapa osikapa).

Ihe ndị na emepụta ihe na agụnye mmanụ ọkụ dị iche iche sitere na biomass. Okwu ahụ na ekpuchi mmanụ ọkụ siri ike, mmiri mmiri na gas. Mmiri mmiri mmiri na agụnye bioalcohols, dị ka bioethanol, na mmanụ, dị ka biodiesel. Ihe ndị na emepụta ihe na emepụta ihe na agụnye gas biogas, gas na ejuputa gas na gas sịntetik. Bioethanol bụ mmanya na aba n'anya nke a na eme site n'ime ka ihe ndị mejupụtara shuga dị n'ihe ọkụkụ sie ike, a na esikwa na sugar na starch eme ya. Ndị a gụnyere ọka, okpete na, na nso nso a, sorghum dị ụtọ. Ihe ubi nke ikpeazụ dabara adaba maka itolite n'ọnọdụ ala kpọrọ nkụ, ebe International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics na enyocha ya maka ikike ọ nwere inye mmanụ, yana nri na nri anụmanụ, n'akụkụ ebe kpọrọ nkụ nke Asia na Africa.

Site na mmepe teknụzụ dị elu, a na ejikwa cellulosic biomass, dị ka osisi na ahịhịa, dị ka nri nri maka mmepụta ethanol. Enwere ike iji Ethanol dị ka mmanụ ụgbọala maka ụgbọ ala n'ụdị ya dị ọcha, ma a na ejikarị ya eme ihe dị ka mmanụ ụgbọala iji mee ka octane dịkwuo elu ma melite ikuku ụgbọ ala. A na eji Bioethanol eme ihe na United States na Brazil. Ọnụ ego ike maka imepụta bio ethanol fọrọ nke nta ka ọ hà nhata, ike na enweta site na bio ethanol. Otú ọ dị, dị ka Ụlọ Ọrụ Na ahụ Maka Gburugburu Ebe Obibi Europe si kwuo, ihe ndị na emepụta ihe ndị na emepụta ihe na adịghị emetụta nchegbu okpomọkụ zuru ụwa ọnụ. A na eme biodiesel site na mmanụ ihe oriri, abụba anụmanụ ma ọ bụ griiz emegharịrị. Enwere ike iji ya dị ka mmanụ ụgbọala n'ụdị ya dị ọcha, ma ọ bụ karịa ka ihe mgbakwunye mmanụ dizel iji belata ọkwa nke ụmụ irighiri ihe, carbon monoxide, na hydrocarbons sitere na ụgbọ ala ndị nwere mmanụ dizel. A na emepụta Biodiesel site na mmanụ ma ọ bụ abụba site na iji transesterification na ọ bụ ihe ọkụkụ na emekarị na Europe. Biofuels nyere 2.7% mmanụ ụgbọ njem ụwa na 2010.[104][chọrọ mmelite]

A na akpọ biomass, biogas na biofuels ọkụ iji mepụta okpomọkụ / ike na ime nke a nwere ike imerụ gburugburu ebe obibi. A na emepụta ihe ndị na emetọ ihe dị ka sulphurous oxides (SOx), nitrous oxides (NOx), na particulate matter (PM) site na combustion nke biomass. N'ihe gbasara iji biomass eme ihe maka ikpo ọkụ na isi nri, Healthtù Ahụ Ike Worldwa na eme atụmatụ na nde mmadụ 3.7 nwụrụ anwụghị aka site na mmetọ ikuku n'èzí na 2012 ebe mmetọ ime ụlọ sitere na mmetụta ọkụ biomass karịrị ijeri mmadụ atọ n'ụwa niile.

Geothermal ike[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

 

Uzuoku na esi na Nesjavellir Geothermal Power Station na Iceland
Global electricity power generation capacity 14.9 GW (2022)[107]
Global electricity power generation capacity annual growth rate 3.4% (2013-2022)
Share of global electricity generation <1% (2018)[1]
Levelized cost per megawatt hour USD 58.257 (2019)[109]
Primary technologies Dry steam, flash steam, and binary cycle power stations
Other energy applications Heating

Ike geothermal dị elu sitere na ike ọkụ ewepụtara ma chekwaa ya n'ụwa. Ike okpomọkụ bụ ike na ekpebi okpomọkụ nke ihe. Ike geothermal nke ụwa na esi na mmalite e hiwere mbara ala yana site na ire ere nke mineral (nke a na ejighị n'aka ugbu a mana enwere ike ha nhata). The geothermal gradient, nke bụ ọdịiche dị na okpomọkụ dị n'etiti isi nke mbara ala na elu ya, na eme ka ike na aga n'ihu na aga n'ihu n'ụdị okpomọkụ site na isi ruo n'elu. Okwu geothermal sitere na mgbọrọgwụ Greek geo, nke pụtara ụwa na thermos, nke pụtara okpomọkụ.

Okpomọkụ a na eji maka ike geothermal nwere ike isi na miri emi dị n'ime ụwa, ruo na isi ụwa 6,400 kilomita (4,000 mi) gbadaa. Na isi, okpomoku nwere ike iru ihe karịrị 5,000 °C (9,030 °F). Okpomọkụ na-eduzi site na isi ruo na nkume gbara ya gburugburu. Oke okpomọkụ na nrụgide na eme ka ụfọdụ nkume gbazee, nke a na akpọkarị magma. Magma na atụgharị elu ebe ọ dị mfe karịa nkume siri ike. Magma a na ekpo ọkụ na nkume na mmiri n'ime eriri, mgbe ụfọdụ ruo 371 °C (700 °F).


ezo aka n'iji mpụta nke ụwa dị ka batrị na-ekpo ọkụ na-eme ka ike ọkụ na-emegharị maka ikpo ọkụ na ụlọ jụrụ oyi, yana ihe ndị ọzọ na-eme ka ikuku na ụlọ ọrụ mmepụta ihe. N'ụdị geothermal a, a na-eji mgbapụta ọkụ geothermal na ihe na-ekpo ọkụ na-ekpo ọkụ na-ejikọta ọnụ iji mee ka ike ọkụ banye n'ụwa (maka oyi) na site na Ụwa (maka ikpo ọkụ) na oge dịgasị iche iche. Okpomọkụ geothermal dị ala (nke a na-akpọkarị "GHP") bụ teknụzụ dị mkpa na-agbanwe agbanwe n'ihi na ọ na-ebelata mkpokọta ike ike kwa afọ jikọtara ya na kpo oku na jụrụ oyi, yana ọ na-eme ka ọkụ eletrik na-achọ ọkụ na-ewepụ oke ọkụ eletrik na okpomọkụ na oyi. chọrọ. Ya mere, obere okpomọkụ geothermal/GHP na-aghọ ihe mkpa mba na-abawanye na nkwado kredit ụtụ isi dị ka akụkụ nke mmegharị ahụ na-aga n'ihu na ike efu efu.

Igwe ọkụ ọkụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Page 'Solar thermal energy' not found

Teknụzụ na apụta[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Enwekwara teknụzụ ume ọhụrụ ndị ọzọ ka na emepe emepe, gụnyere cellulosic ethanol, ike ọkụ ọkụ nkume geothermal, na ike mmiri. Teknụzụ ndị a egosipụtabeghị ebe niile ma ọ bụ nwee oke azụmaahịa. Ọtụtụ ndị nọ na mbara igwe ma nwee ike iji tụnyere teknụzụ ume ọhụrụ ndị ọzọ, mana ka dabere na ịdọta nlebara anya zuru oke na nyocha, mmepe na ngosipụta (RD&D) ego.

Sistemụ geothermal emelitere[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Sistemụ geothermal emelitere (lee nkọwa faịlụ maka nkọwa)

  Sistemụ geothermal emelitere (EGS) bụ ụdị teknụzụ ike geothermal ọhụrụ nke na achọghị akụrụngwa hydrothermal convective eke. Ọnụ ọgụgụ ka ukwuu nke ike geothermal dị n'ebe a na egwupụta ihe dị n'ime nkume kpọrọ nkụ na nke na adịghị agbapụta. Teknụzụ EGS “na ebuli elu” na/ma ọ bụ mepụta akụrụngwa geothermal n'ime “okwute kpọrọ nkụ dị ọkụ (HDR)” site na mgbawa hydraulic. A na atụ anya na teknụzụ EGS na HDR, dị ka hydrothermal geothermal, ga abụ akụrụngwa na ebupụta ike awa 24 kwa ụbọchị dị ka osisi fossil. Ihe dị iche na hydrothermal, HDR na EGS nwere ike ịdị irè n'ebe ọ bụla n'ụwa, dabere na oke akụ na ụba nke omimi ihe omimi. Ezigbo ebe dị n'elu granite miri emi nke nnukwu oyi akwa (3-5 km ma ọ bụ 1.9–3.1 mi) kpuchiri sedimenti mkpuchi na ebelata okpomọkụ. Enwere usoro HDR na EGS ugbu a na etolite ma nwalee na France, Australia, Japan, Germany, U.S. na Switzerland. Ọrụ EGS kasị ukwuu n'ụwa bụ ihe ngosi 25 megawatt nke a na emepụta ugbu a na Cooper Basin, Australia. Basin Cooper nwere ike iwepụta 5,000–10,000 MW.

Ike mmiri[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ọdụ ọkụ Tidal Rance, France

   

Ike mmiri (nke a na akpọkwa mgbe ụfọdụ dị ka ike oke osimiri) bụ ike nke ebili mmiri nke oke osimiri, tides, salinity, na ọdịiche okpomọkụ nke oke osimiri na ebu. Ntugharị nke mmiri n'ime oke osimiri nke ụwa na emepụta nnukwu nchekwa ike nke kinetic, ma ọ bụ ume na mmegharị. Enwere ike iji ike a mee ka ọkụ eletrik rụọ ụlọ, ụgbọ njem na ụlọ ọrụ. Okwu ike mmiri na agụnye ike ebili mmiri ike sitere na ebili mmiri dị n'elu, ike mmiri dị ugbu a ike sitere na iyi hydrokinetic nke mmiri (dịka, Gulf Stream), na ike tidal enwetara site na ike kinetic nke nnukwu mmiri na akpụ akpụ. Reverse electrodialysis (RED) bụ nkà na ụzụ maka ịmepụta ọkụ eletrik site na ịgwakọta mmiri mmiri ọhụrụ na mmiri nnu nnu n'ime nnukwu sel ike e mere maka nzube a; N'afọ 2016, a na anwale ya n'obere nha (50 kW). Ike ikuku nke dị n'ụsọ mmiri abụghị ụdị ike mmiri, n'ihi na ike ikuku sitere na ifufe, ọ bụrụgodị na a na etinye ikuku ikuku n'elu mmiri. Oke osimiri nwere oke ume ma dị nso na ọtụtụ ma ọ bụrụ na ọ bụghị ndị mmadụ gbadoro anya. Ike oke osimiri nwere ikike nke inye nnukwu ume ọhụrụ enwere ike imeghari gburugburu ụwa.

# Station Country Location Capacity Refs
1. Sihwa Lake Tidal Power Station South Korea 37°18′47″N 126°36′46″E / 37.31306°N 126.61278°E / 37.31306; 126.61278 (Sihwa Lake Tidal Power Station) 254 MW [2]
2. Rance Tidal Power Station France 48°37′05″N 02°01′24″W / 48.61806°N 2.02333°W / 48.61806; -2.02333 (Rance Tidal Power Station) 240 MW
3. Annapolis Royal Generating Station Canada 44°45′07″N 65°30′40″W / 44.75194°N 65.51111°W / 44.75194; -65.51111 (Annapolis Royal Generating Station) 20 MW [3]
Igwe oyi na ekpo ọkụ nke ụbọchị na agafe agafe nwere ike ịjụ oyi na enweghị ike oriri ma ọ bụ mmetọ.

Iju oyi n'ehihie na agafe agafe[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Passive daytime radiative cooling (PDRC) na eji oyi nke dị n'èzí dị ka isi iyi ume ọhụrụ iji nweta ntụ oyi nke ehihie nke enwere ike iji mee ihe n'ọtụtụ ngwa, dị ka oghere ime ụlọ, mbelata àgwàetiti okpomọkụ nke obodo mepere emepe, na arụmọrụ cell anyanwụ. Emebere elu PDRC ka ọ dị elu na nlegharị anya anyanwụ iji belata uru okpomọkụ yana ike na nnyefe ọkụ infrared ogologo oge (LWIR). N'ọ̀tụ̀tụ̀ mbara ala, a tụpụtara ya ka ọ bụrụ ụzọ iji mee ka okpomọkụ dị n'ụwa kwụsịlata ma gbanwee. A na ebugharị ngwa PDRC dị ka ihu igwe chere ihu, dịka isi mmalite ike mmeghari ọzọ dị ka sistemu fotovoltaic na ndị na anakọta ọkụ anyanwụ. PDRC wee kwe omume site n'ikike iji gbochie ikpo ọkụ anyanwụ site na iji photonic metamaterials, nke e bipụtara nke mbụ na nyocha nke Raman et al. na ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị obodo na 2014. PDRC ngwa maka ime ụlọ jụrụ oyi na eto eto na eme atụmatụ "ahịa size nke ~ $27 ijeri na 2025."

Photosynthesis artificial[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  Artificial photosynthesis na eji usoro gụnyere nanotechnology iji chekwaa ike electromagnetic anyanwụ na njikọ kemịkalụ site n'ikewa mmiri iji mepụta hydrogen wee jiri carbon dioxide mee methanol. Ndị na eme nchọpụta na ngalaba a gbalịsiri ike chepụta ihe omimi nke photosynthesis nke na eji mpaghara dị iche iche nke anyanwụ na arụ ọrụ, na eji usoro catalytic emepụtara site na ọtụtụ ihe ndị dị ọnụ ala nke siri ike, na edozi ngwa ngwa, na adịghị egbu egbu, kwụsiri ike n'ọtụtụ ọnọdụ gburugburu ebe obibi ma na arụ ọrụ. nke ọma na ekwe ka akụkụ ka ukwuu nke ike photon kwụsị na ogige nchekwa, ya bụ, carbohydrates (kama ịmepụta na ịkwado mkpụrụ ndụ ndụ). Otú ọ dị, nchọpụta a ma ama na eche nsogbu ihu, Sun Catalytix a MIT spin off kwụsịrị ịmalite ịmepụta mmanụ ụgbọala cell na 2012 n'ihi na ọ na enye ego ole na ole maka ụzọ ndị ọzọ isi mee hydrogen site na ìhè anyanwụ.

Ụwa infrared thermal radieshon[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ụwa na ewepụta ihe dị ka 1017 W nke radieshon thermal infrared nke na aga na mbara ihu oyi. Ike anyanwụ na adaba n'elu na ikuku nke ụwa ma na emepụta okpomọkụ. N'iji ngwaọrụ dị iche iche dị iche iche dị ka emisive energy harvester (EEH) ma ọ bụ diode thermoradiative, ike a nwere ike gbanwee ka ọ bụrụ ọkụ eletrik. Na tiori, teknụzụ a nwere ike iji n'oge abalị.

Ndị ọzọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mmanụ algae[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  Ịmepụta mmanụ ọkụ sitere na ụdị algae nwere mmanụ (abụba ọgaranya) bụ isiokwu nyocha na aga n'ihu. A na anwale microalgae dị iche iche na eto na sistemu mepere emepe ma ọ bụ mechiri emechi gụnyere ụfọdụ sistemu enwere ike ịtọlite ​​​​na n'ọhịa brownfield na ọzara.

Uzuoku mmiri[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Nchịkọta nke ụgwọ ọkụ eletrik kwụ ọtọ site na ụmụ irighiri mmiri n'elu igwe bụ teknụzụ nnwale nke ga aba uru karịsịa na mba ndị nwere obere ego nwere iru mmiri ikuku karịrị 60%.

Ihe mkpofu ihe ubi[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ngwa AuREUS (Aurora Renewable Energy & UV Sequestration), nke dabere na mkpofu ihe ọkụkụ nwere ike nweta ìhè ultraviolet sitere na anyanwụ wee mee ka ọ bụrụ ume ọhụrụ.

Ntinye n'ime usoro ike na njikọ ngalaba[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

   

Atụmatụ ike chọrọ ihe karịrị otu izu na Mee 2012 na Mee 2020, Germany, na egosi mkpa ọ dị maka ọgbọ a na ebugharị kama ịbụ ọgbọ baseload na grid.

Mmepụta ume ọhụrụ sitere na isi mmalite ụfọdụ dị ka ikuku na anyanwụ na agbanwe agbanwe yana gbasaa na mpaghara karịa teknụzụ dabere na mmanụ ọkụ na nuklia. Ọ bụ ezie na ijikọta ya n'ime usoro ume ka ukwuu bụ ihe kwere omume, ọ na eduga na ụfọdụ ihe ịma aka ndị ọzọ dị ka mmụba mmepụta mmepụta na mbelata inertia usoro. Mmejuputa nchekwa ike, iji teknụzụ ume ọhụrụ dị iche iche, na imejuputa smart grid nke a na eji ike eme ihe na akpaghị aka n'oge a na emepụta ya nwere ike ibelata ihe egwu na ọnụ ahịa mmejuputa ume ọhụrụ.[148]

Njikọ ngalaba nke ngalaba nrụpụta ọkụ na mpaghara ndị ọzọ nwere ike ịbawanye mgbanwe: dịka ọmụmaatụ ngalaba njem nwere ike jikọta site na ịchaji ụgbọ ala eletrik na izipu ọkụ eletrik site na ụgbọ ala gaa na grid. N'otu aka ahụ ngalaba ụlọ ọrụ nwere ike ijikọ ya na hydrogen emepụtara site na electrolysis, yana ngalaba ụlọ site na nchekwa ike ọkụ maka ikpo ọkụ na oyi.

Nchekwa ọkụ eletrik[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

   

Nchekwa ọkụ eletrik bụ nchịkọta ụzọ eji echekwa ike eletrik. A na echekwa ike eletrik n'oge mmepụta (karịsịa site na isi mmalite dị ka ike ikuku, ike tidal, ike anyanwụ) karịrị oriri, ma laghachi na grid mgbe mmepụta dara n'okpuru oriri. Igwe ọkụ na echekwa ọkụ na akpata ihe karịrị 85% nke nchekwa ike grid niile. A na ebuwanye batrị maka nchekwa na ọrụ enyemaka grid yana maka nchekwa ụlọ. Hydrogen Green bụ ụzọ akụ na ụba ka ukwuu nke nchekwa ike mmeghari ohuru na adịte aka, n'ihe gbasara mmefu ego ma e jiri ya tụnyere hydroelectric ma ọ bụ batrị na agbapụta.

Usoro ahịa na ụlọ ọrụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ọtụtụ ihe ọhụrụ a na emegharị ọhụrụ bụ anyanwụ, ikuku na esote ya na mmiri na bioenergy. Ntinye ego na ihe ndị a na emegharị ọhụrụ, karịsịa anyanwụ, na achọ ka ọ dị irè n'ịmepụta ọrụ karịa kol, gas ma ọ bụ mmanụ. Gburugburu ụwa, mmeghari ohuru na ewe ihe dị ka nde mmadụ 12 dị ka nke 2020, ebe PV anyanwụ bụ teknụzụ na arụ ọrụ kacha ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ nde 4.

Ntụnyere ọnụ ahịa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Installed

TWp
Growth

TW/yr[4]
Production

per installed

capacity*
Energy

TWh/yr*[5]
Growth

TWh/yr*[5]
Levelized cost

US¢/kWh
Av. auction prices

US¢/kWh
Cost development

2010–2019[6]
Solar PV 0.580 0.098 13% 549 123 6.8 3.9 −82%
Solar CSP 0.006 0.0006 13% 6.3 0.5 18.2 7.5 −47%
Wind Offshore 0.028 0.0045 33% 68 11.5 11.5 8.2 −30%
Wind Onshore 0.594 0.05 25% 1194 118 5.3 4.3 −38%
Hydro 1.310 0.013 38% 4267 90 4.7 +27%
Bioenergy 0.12 0.006 51% 522 27 6.6 −13%
Geothermal 0.014 0.00007 74% 13.9 0.7 7.3 +49%

* = 2018.Ụkpụrụ ndị ọzọ niile maka 2019.

Uto nke mmeghari ohuru[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

 

 

Pricing
Ntụle nke ọnụ ahịa oge maka ike sitere na ifufe, anyanwụ na isi mmalite ndị ọzọ. Ka oge na aga, ihe ndị a na emegharị emegharị na erite uru site na usoro mmụta na ọnọdụ akụ na ụba.
Ọnụ ego gara aga nke imepụta ume ọhụrụ gbadara nke ọma, yana 62% nke mkpokọta ike mmeghari ohuru agbakwunyere na 2020 nwere ọnụ ahịa dị ala karịa nhọrọ mmanụ ọkụ ọhụrụ dị ọnụ ala.

Nsonaazụ nyocha nke akwụkwọ ndị ahụ n'oge na adịbeghị anya kwubiri na ka ndị na eku ọkụ griin haus (GHG) na amalite ịbụ ndị na akwụ ụgwọ maka mmebi n'ihi ikuku GHG nke na akpata mgbanwe ihu igwe, uru dị elu maka mbelata ụgwọ ọrụ ga enye ihe mkpali dị ike maka ntinye nke teknụzụ ume ọhụrụ. .

N'ime afọ iri nke 2010-2019, ntinye ego zuru ụwa ọnụ na ikike mmeghari ohuru na ewepu nnukwu ike mmiri ruru ijeri US $ 2.7, nke mba ndị kacha elu China nyere US $ 818 ijeri, United States nyere US $ 392.3 ijeri, Japan nyere US $ 210.9 ijeri, Germany nyere aka. US $ 183.4 ijeri, na United Kingdom nyere US $ 126.5 ijeri. Nke a bụ mmụba nke ihe karịrị atọ na ikekwe okpukpu anọ nke nha ego etinyere n'ime afọ iri nke 2000-2009 (enweghị data dị maka 2000-2003).

N'ihe dị ka afọ 2022, e mere atụmatụ na 28% nke ọkụ eletrik n'ụwa bụ ihe mmeghari ohuru. Nke a gbagoro site na 19% na 1990.

Atụmatụ n'ọdịnihu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ihe karịrị 35% nke ụlọ ọrụ EU na eme ihe na ihu igwe site na ebe a na emegharị ike na n'èzí.


Na June 2022 IEA Executive Director Fatih Birol kwuru na mba kwesịrị itinyekwu ego na mmeghari ohuru iji mee ka nrụgide dị n'ahụ ndị na azụ ahịa si n'ọnụ ahịa mmanụ ọkụ dị elu, mee ka sistemu ike anyị dịkwuo nchebe, wee mee ka ụwa nwee ike iru ebumnuche ihu igwe anyị.

Atụmatụ afọ ise nke China na 2025 gụnyere ịba ụba kpo oku ozugbo site na mmeghari ohuru dị ka geothermal na okpomọkụ anyanwụ.

REPowerEU, atụmatụ EU ịgbanarị ịdabere na gas fossil Russia, na atụ anya na ọ ga akpọ maka ọtụtụ hydrogen akwụkwọ ndụ akwụkwọ ndụ.

Mgbe oge mgbanwe gachara, a na atụ anya na mmepụta ume ọhụrụ ga emejupụta ọtụtụ mmepụta ike nke ụwa. N'afọ 2018, ụlọ ọrụ na ahụ maka ihe egwu, DNV GL, na ebu amụma na a ga ekewa ngwakọta ike nke ụwa n'otu n'otu n'etiti isi mmalite fossil na ndị na abụghị fossil n'afọ 2050.

Arịrịọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ọnụ ọgụgụ UK ewepụtara na Septemba 2020 kwuru na "ọnụ ọgụgụ nke ihe achọrọ site na mmeghari ohuru dịgasị iche site na obere 3.4 pasent (maka ụgbọ njem, tumadi site na biofuels) ruo ihe karịrị pasenti 20 maka 'ndị ọrụ ikpeazụ ndị ọzọ', nke bụ nke ukwuu. ngalaba ọrụ na azụmahịa nke na eri oke ọkụ eletrik na ụlọ ọrụ. "

N'ebe ụfọdụ, ezinaụlọ n'otu n'otu nwere ike họrọ ịzụta ume ọhụrụ site na mmemme ume ndụ ndụ nke ndị ahịa.

Ọnọdụ maka teknụzụ onye ọ bụla[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Hydroelectricity[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'afọ 2021, ike ikuku ume ọhụrụ nke ụwa bụ 1 360 GW. Naanị otu ụzọ n'ụzọ atọ nke ike ikuku mmiri dị n'ụwa nke 14,000 TWh kwa afọ ka emepụtara. Ọrụ ọhụrụ nke ike mmiri na eche mmegide site n'aka ndị obodo n'ihi nnukwu mmetụta ha, gụnyere ịkwaga obodo na iju mmiri nke ebe obibi anụ ọhịa na ala ugbo. Ọnụ ego dị elu na oge ndu site na usoro ikike, gụnyere nyocha gburugburu ebe obibi na ihe ize ndụ, na enweghị nnabata gburugburu ebe obibi na ọha mmadụ bụ isi ihe ịma aka maka mmepe ọhụrụ. Ọ na ewu ewu inyeghachi mmiri mmiri ochie wee si otú a na abawanye arụmọrụ na ikike ha yana nzaghachi ngwa ngwa na grid. Ebe ọnọdụ nyere ikike mgbochi mmiri ndị dị dị ka Russell Dam nke e wuru na 1985 nwere ike imelite ya site na akụrụngwa "pump back" maka nchekwa mgbapụta nke bara uru maka ibu dị elu ma ọ bụ iji kwado ikuku na adịte aka na ike anyanwụ. N'ihi na ike izipu bara uru karịa mba VRE nwere nnukwu mmepe mmiri ọkụ dị ka Canada na Norway na emefu ijeri ijeri iji gbasaa grid ha iji zụọ ahịa na mba ndị agbata obi nwere oke mmiri.

Mmepe ike ikuku[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Uto ike ikuku zuru ụwa ọnụ (1996–2018)
Ugbo ikuku anọ dị na mpaghara Thames Estuary: Kentish Flats, Gunfleet Sands, Thanet na London Array. Nke ikpeazụ bụ nke kachasị n'ụwa dịka nke Eprel 2013.
Ifufe dị n'ụsọ oké osimiri na aghọwanye uru

Mmepe fotovoltaic[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Fotovoltaics (PV) na eto ngwa ngwa na ikike zuru ụwa ọnụ na abawanye site na 230 GW na njedebe nke 2015 ruo 890 GW na 2021.


Fotovoltaics toro ngwa ngwa na China n'etiti 2016 na 2021 na agbakwunye 560 GW, karịa akụ na ụba niile dị elu jikọtara ọnụ. Ike ike arụnyere nke anyanwụ PV adịla njikere karịa nke coal ka ọ na erule 2027, na aghọ nke kachasị n'ụwa. Nke a chọrọ mmụba nke ikike PV arụnyere ruo 4,600 GW, nke a na atụ anya ibuga ihe karịrị ọkara na China na India.

Igwe anyanwụ na Topaz Solar Farm 550MW

Ewubere ụlọ ọrụ ọkụ anyanwụ gbadoro anya azụmaahịa na 1980s. Ka ọnụ ahịa ọkụ eletrik nke anyanwụ dara, ọnụ ọgụgụ nke sistemu PV nke anyanwụ jikọtara grid amụbaala n'ọtụtụ nde na a na ewu ụlọ ọrụ ike anyanwụ nke gigawatt. Ewuola ọtụtụ ọdụ ọkụ fotovoltaic nke anyanwụ, ọkachasị na Europe, China na United States. Ogige mmiri ozuzo nke 1.5 GW Tengger, dị na China bụ ọdụ ọkụ PV kacha ukwuu n'ụwa. Ọtụtụ n'ime osisi ndị a jikọtara ya na ọrụ ugbo ma ụfọdụ na eji usoro nleba anya nke na agbaso ụzọ anyanwụ na adị kwa ụbọchị na agafe na mbara igwe iji nweta ọkụ eletrik karịa usoro ndị a na agbanye ọkụ.

Mmepe biofuel[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Brazil na emepụta bioethanol sitere na okpete nke dị na mba ahụ dum. A na akara ọdụ ụgbọ mmanụ gas nwere ọrụ mmanụ abụọ “A” maka mmanya (ethanol) yana “G” maka mmanụ ụgbọala.

Ike bioenergy zuru ụwa ọnụ na 2021 bụ 158 GW. Biofuels zere 4.4% nke mmanụ ụgbọ njem zuru ụwa ọnụ na 2021.

Atumatu n'ihe karịrị mba 80 na akwado ọchịchọ biofuels.

Kemgbe 1970s, Brazil enweela mmemme mmanụ mmanụ ethanol nke nyeworo obodo ahụ ohere ịbụ onye na emepụta ethanol nke abụọ n'ụwa (mgbe United States gachara) na ndị na ebupụ ibu kachasị n'ụwa. Usoro mmanụ ọkụ ethanol nke Brazil na eji ngwá ọrụ ọgbara ọhụrụ na okpete dị ọnụ ala dị ka nri nri, a na ejikwa ihe mkpofu okpete (bagasse) arụpụta okpomọkụ na ike. Enwekwaghị ụgbọ ala ndị dị ọkụ na Brazil na agba na mmanụ ụgbọala dị ọcha.

A na atụ anya na Biojet ga adị mkpa maka obere oge mbelata ikuku carbon dioxide sitere na ụgbọ elu ogologo oge.

Geothermal mmepe[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Osisi geothermal na The Geysers, California, US

Ike geothermal zuru ụwa ọnụ na 2021 bụ 15 GW.

Ike geothermal na eri ọnụ ahịa, ntụkwasị obi, na adigide, yana enyi na gburugburu ebe obibi, mana ejedebeghị na akụkọ ihe mere eme na mpaghara dị nso na oke tectonic. Ọganihu teknụzụ na nso nso a agbasawanyela oke na nha nke akụrụngwa bara uru, ọkachasị maka ngwa dị ka kpo oku ụlọ, na emepe ohere maka nrigbu zuru ebe niile. Olulu mmiri geothermal na ahapụ ikuku ikuku griin ha tọrọ n'ime ụwa, mana ihe ndị a na esikarị ike dị ala karịa nke mmanụ ọkụ. N'ihi ya, ike geothermal nwere ike inye aka belata okpomoku zuru ụwa ọnụ ma ọ bụrụ na etinyere ya n'ọtụtụ ebe n'ọnọdụ mmanụ ọkụ.

Na 2017, United States ji 12.9 GW nke ikike arụnyere duru ụwa na mmepụta ọkụ eletrik. Otu nnukwu ụlọ ọrụ ike geothermal n'ụwa dị na The Geysers, ubi geothermal na California. Philippines na esote US dị ka onye na emepụta ike geothermal nke abụọ kachasị elu n'ụwa, yana 1.9 GW nke ike n'ịntanetị.

Mba ndị na emepe emepe[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

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Iwu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Oke nke mmepụta ọkụ eletrik sitere na mmeghari ohuru, 2022

Atumatu iji kwado ume ọhụrụ dị mkpa na mgbasawanye ha. Ebe Europe na achị n'ịwube amụma ike na mmalite 2000s, ọtụtụ mba gburugburu ụwa nwere ugbu a ụdị ụfọdụ nke amụma ume.

Usoro iwu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) bụ otu gọọmentị etiti maka ịkwalite nnabata nke ume ọhụrụ n'ụwa niile. Ọ na achọ ịnye ndụmọdụ amụma doro anya na ịkwado ikike ikike na ịnyefe teknụzụ. Emebere IRENA na 2009, yana mba 75 bịanyere aka na akwụkwọ ikike nke IRENA. Ruo Eprel 2019, IRENA nwere steeti ndị otu 160. Onye odeakwụkwọ ukwu nke United Nations n'oge ahụ, Ban Ki moon ekwuola na ume ọhụrụ nwere ike ibuli mba ndị kasị daa ogbenye n'ọkwa ọganihu ọhụrụ, na na September 2011 ọ malitere UN Sustainable Energy for All Atumatu iji meziwanye ohere ike, ịrụ ọrụ na ntinye nke ume ọhụrụ.

Agreement 2015 Paris maka mgbanwe ihu igwe kpaliri ọtụtụ mba imepe ma ọ bụ melite amụma ume ọhụrụ.[19] Na 2017, ngụkọta nke mba 121 nakweere ụfọdụ ụdị amụma ume ọhụrụ. Ebumnuche mba n'afọ ahụ dị na mba 176.[19] Tụkwasị na nke ahụ, a na enwekwa usoro iwu dị iche iche na steeti/ógbè, na mpaghara.[104] Ụfọdụ ụlọ ọrụ ọha na enyere aka ịhazi ma ọ bụ wụnye nkwalite ike obibi.

Ọtụtụ gọọmentị mba, steeti na ime obodo emepụtala ụlọ akụ green. Ụlọ akụ akwụkwọ ndụ akwụkwọ ndụ bụ ụlọ ọrụ ego nke ọha na eze na eji isi obodo na etinye ego nkeonwe na teknụzụ ume dị ọcha. Ụlọ akụ ndụ ndụ na eji ngwá ọrụ ego dị iche iche na edozi oghere ahịa na egbochi ntinye ike dị ọcha.

Nnọpụiche ihu igwe n'afọ 2050 bụ isi ebumnuche nke European Green Deal. Maka European Union iru ebumnuche ha nke nnọpụiche ihu igwe, otu ebumnuche bụ imebi sistemu ike ya site n'ịchọ imezu ikuku ikuku ikuku net efu site na 2050.

Ike mmeghari ohuru zuru oke[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Arụmụka[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ọtụtụ ndị zaghachiri na nyocha ihu igwe mere na 2021-2022 site na European Investment Bank kwuru na mba kwesịrị ịkwado ume ọhụrụ iji luso mgbanwe ihu igwe ọgụ.

Ọgbọ ọkụ eletrik a na emegharị ọhụrụ site na ifufe na anyanwụ na agbanwe agbanwe. Nke a na ebute ihe ike belata ma nwee ike ịchọ idobe ụfọdụ ụlọ ọrụ ọkụ na agba ọkụ gas ma ọ bụ ọgbọ ndị ọzọ a na ezigara na njikere ruo mgbe enwere nchekwa ike zuru oke, nzaghachi chọrọ, nkwalite grid, na/ma ọ bụ ike ibu dị ala site na isi mmalite ndị na adịghị akwụsị akwụsị dị ka hydropower, nuklia. ike ma ọ bụ bioenergy.

Ahịa maka teknụzụ ume ọhụrụ anọgidewo na eto eto. Nchegbu mgbanwe ihu igwe na ịba ụba na ọrụ akwụkwọ ndụ akwụkwọ ndụ, yana ọnụ ahịa mmanụ dị elu, mmanụ kachasị elu, agha mmanụ, mmanụ ọkụ, nkwalite ụgbọ ala eletrik na ọkụ eletrik na emegharịghachi, ọdachi nuklia na ịba ụba nkwado gọọmentị, na ebuli iwu ume ọhụrụ na abawanye, ihe mkpali na ịzụ ahịa.

International Energy Agency ekwuola na ntinye nke teknụzụ mmeghari na emekarị ka ụdị ọkụ eletrik dị iche iche na abawanye na, site na ọgbọ mpaghara, na enye aka na mgbanwe nke usoro ahụ na nkwụsị ya na mgbagwoju anya nke etiti.

Nkwado ọha[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ụlọ ọrụ ọkụ anyanwụ nwere ike ịsọ mpi na ala ubi, ebe ugbo ikuku nke dị n'ikpere mmiri na eche mmegide n'ihi nchegbu na mkpọtụ, nke na emetụta ma mmadụ ma anụ ọhịa. Na United States, ọrụ ngo Massachusetts Cape Wind egbuola oge ruo ọtụtụ afọ n'ihi ihe ịma mma. Otú ọ dị, ndị bi na mpaghara ndị ọzọ enwewo mmasị karị. Dị ka otu onye isi obodo si kwuo, ọnụ ọgụgụ ka ukwuu nke ndị obodo kwenyere na Ardrossan Wind Farm dị na Scotland emeela ka mpaghara ahụ dịkwuo mma. Nchegbu ndị a, mgbe a na eduzi megide ume ọhụrụ, a na akọwa mgbe ụfọdụ dị ka àgwà "ọ bụghị n'azụ ụlọ m" (NIMBY).

Akwụkwọ gọọmentị UK nke 2011 kwuru na "ọrụ na adịkarị ka ọ ga aga nke ọma ma ọ bụrụ na ha nwere nkwado ọha na eze na nkwenye nke ndị obodo. Nke a pụtara inye obodo ma ọnụ ahịa okwu na ske". Na mba ndị dị ka Germany na Denmark ọtụtụ ọrụ mmeghari ohuru bụ nke obodo nwe, ọkachasị site na arụkọ ọrụ ọnụ, ma na atụnye ụtụ nke ukwuu n'ọkwa n'ozuzu nke mbugharị ume ọhụrụ.

Atụpụtara ike nuklia dị ka ume ọhụrụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ụlọ ọrụ ike nuklia Leibstadt dị na Switzerland
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Geopolitics[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Echiche nke nnukwu grid

Site na gburugburu 2010 gaa n'ihu, a tụlere mmetụta geopolitical nke mmụba nke ume ọhụrụ. Ụfọdụ na arụ ụka na ndị na ebubupụ mmanụ ọkụ n'oge gara aga ga enwe nkụda mmụọ nke ọnọdụ ha n'ihe gbasara mba ụwa, ebe a ga ewusi mba ndị nwere ụbara ume ọhụrụ ike. Ọzọkwa ụfọdụ mba bara ụba na ihe dị mkpa maka teknụzụ ume ọhụrụ ka a na atụ anya na ọ ga abawanye na mkpa na ihe omume mba ụwa.

Ndekọ GeGaLo nke uru geopolitical na mfu na enyocha otú ọnọdụ geopolitical nke mba 156 nwere ike isi gbanwee ma ọ bụrụ na ụwa gbanwere n'ụzọ zuru ezu na akụrụngwa ume ọhụrụ. A na atụ anya na ndị na ebupụ mmanụ ọkụ n'oge gara aga ga akwụsị ike, ebe a na atụ anya na ọnọdụ ndị na ebubata mmanụ ọkụ na mba ndị nwere akụ ume ọhụrụ ga esiwanye ike. Ịnweta ihe ndị achọrọ, nwe nke isi akụrụngwa akụrụngwa yana nhazi nke grids niile chọrọ nlebara anya geopolitics.


Otu nnyocha chọpụtara na ntugharị site na mmanụ ọkụ na agbanwe agbanwe na usoro ume ọhụrụ na ebelata ihe ize ndụ sitere na Ngwuputa, azụmahịa na ịdabere na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị n'ihi na usoro ume ọhụrụ adịghị mkpa mmanụ ụgbọala ha na adabere na ịzụ ahịa nanị maka inweta ihe na ihe ndị dị n'oge a na ewu ụlọ.

Mba ndị nwere ike anyanwụ na ikuku nwere ike bụrụ ndị na ebupụ ike.

Azụmahịa na hydrogen nwere ike megharịa ọdịdị ala nke azụmaahịa ike zuru ụwa ọnụ, yana ọchịchị mba ụwa na ntinye ego na achọ ịkwalite akụ na ụba hydrogen nwere ike belata "ihe egwu nke ikewa ahịa, mkpọchi carbon, na asọmpi geo akụ na ụba siri ike". Eletrik ga agafe ndị ọzọ na ebu ike n'afọ 2050, na aza ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ 50% nke ngụkọta ike oriri (site na 22% na 2015). N'iburu mmachi nke iji naanị ọkụ eletrik, hydrogen dị ọcha nwere ikike dị ukwuu n'ọtụtụ ụlọ ọrụ. Hydrogen nwere ike ịchekwa ogologo oge n'ime ụlọ ọrụ ọkụ na ọkụ ọkụ.


Metal na mineral mmịpụta[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mgbanwe ume ọhụrụ chọrọ mmụba nke ụfọdụ ọla na mineral. Nke a na emetụta gburugburu ebe obibi ma nwee ike ibute esemokwu gburugburu ebe obibi.

International Energy Agency anaghị aghọta ụkọ akụrụngwa mana na ekwu na ọkọnọ nwere ike ịgbalịsi ike na aga n'ihu na ebumnuche ihu igwe ụwa. A na atụ anya na ụgbọ ala eletrik (EV) na nchekwa batrị ga ebute ihe kacha achọ. Ugbo ikuku na PV anyanwụ anaghị ericha nri. Mgbatị ọkụ eletrik chọrọ nnukwu ọla kọpa na aluminom. Ndị IEA na atụ aro ka ebulite ihe eji emegharị ihe. Ka ọ na erule afọ 2040, ọnụọgụ ọla kọpa, lithium, cobalt na nickel sitere na batrị emefuru nwere ike belata mkpokọta ihe achọrọ maka mineral ndị a ihe dịka 10%.


Ụzọ na arụ ụka bụ igwu mmiri miri emi. Enwere ike ịnakọta mineral site na isi mmalite ọhụrụ dị ka nodules polymetallic dina n'elu oke osimiri, mana nke a nwere ike imebi ụdị ndụ dị iche iche.

Mmetụta ahụike na gburugburu ebe obibi[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ịkwaga na ume ume ọhụrụ nwere nnukwu uru ahụike n'ihi ibelata mmetọ ikuku site na mmanụ ọkụ.

Ebe ndị a na emegharị ọhụrụ na abụghị biomass dị ka ike ikuku, fotovoltaics, na hydroelectricity nwere uru nke inwe ike ichekwa mmiri, mmetọ dị ala na ibelata ikuku CO2.

Igwe mbara igwe na agbanwe albedo nke elu, yabụ ọ bụrụ na ejiri ya mee ihe n'ọtụtụ buru ibu (dịka ikpuchi 20% nke Ọzara Sahara), nwere ike gbanwee usoro ihu igwe zuru ụwa ọnụ.

Ebe nchekwa, imegharị ihe na ihe ndị dị ụkọ n'ụwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ntugharị gaa na ume ọhụrụ na adabere na akụrụngwa anaghị emeghari ohuru, dị ka ọla ndị a na egwupụta ihe. Ịmepụta ogwe fotovoltaic, ikuku ikuku na batrị chọrọ nnukwu ihe nke ụwa na adịghị ahụkebe nke nwere mmetụta dị ịrịba ama na mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya ma ọ bụrụ na a na egwupụta n'ime ọhịa na ebe echedoro. N'ihi njikọta nke ihe ndị na adịghị ahụkebe nke ụwa na redioaktivu (thorium, uranium na radium), Ngwuputa ala na adịghị ahụkebe na ebute mmepụta nke mkpofu redioaktivu dị ala.

N'afọ 2020 ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị bipụtara maapụ ụwa nke mpaghara nwere akụrụngwa ume ọhụrụ yana atụmatụ ha ga adaba na "Ebe Ndị Dị Iche Iche Ndụ", "Ọzara fọdụrụnụ" na "Ebe echekwara". Ndị ode akwụkwọ nyochara na ọ dị mkpa iji nlezianya mee atụmatụ atụmatụ. A na emegharị oghere ndị dị na mbara igwe iji belata ihe mkpofu eletrọnịkị ma mepụta isi iyi maka ihe ndị ga adị mkpa ka a na egwupụta akụ, ma azụmahịa dị otú ahụ ka dị ntakịrị ma na arụ ọrụ na aga n'ihu iji melite na ịkwalite usoro ahụ.

  Max Weber kwuru banyere njedebe nke mmanụ ọkụ na paragraf mmechi nke Die protestantische Ethik und der Geist des Kapitalismus (The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism), nke e bipụtara na 1905. Mmepe nke igwe igwe na aga n'ihu ruo mgbe Agha Ụwa Mbụ malitere. A ghọtara mkpa ike anyanwụ dị na 1911 akwụkwọ akụkọ sayensị American: "n'ọdịnihu dị anya, mmanụ ọkụ nke ike gwụrụ [ike anyanwụ] ga anọgide dị ka nanị ụzọ e si ebi ndụ nke agbụrụ mmadụ".

E bipụtara tiori nke mmanụ kacha elu na 1956. Na 1970s ndị na ahụ maka gburugburu ebe obibi kwalitere mmepe nke ume ọhụrụ ma dị ka onye na anọchi anya njedebe nke mmanụ, yana maka mgbapụ site na ịdabere na mmanụ, na ọkụ eletrik mbụ na emepụta ikuku turbines. pụtara. Ogologo oge ejirila anyanwụ mee ihe maka ikpo ọkụ na ikpo ọkụ, mana oghere anyanwụ dị oke ọnụ iji wuo ugbo anyanwụ ruo 1980.

Mmefu gọọmentị ọhụrụ, iwu na atumatu nyeere ụlọ ọrụ aka ihu nsogbu akụ na ụba 2009 karịa ọtụtụ mpaghara ndị ọzọ.

Osisi[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Electricity. International Energy Agency (2020). Archived from the original on 7 June 2021. Retrieved on 17 July 2021.
  2. Sihwa Tidal Power Plant. Renewable Energy News and Articles. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015.
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