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Iwu nke Milan

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Iwu nke Milan

Iwu nke Milan (Latin: Edictum Mediolanense; Greek: Διάταγμα τῶν Μεδιολάνων, Diatagma tōn Mediolanōn) bụ nkwekọrịta nke February 313 AD iji mesoo Ndị Kraịst n' ụzọ dị mma n' ime Alaeze Ukwu Rom.[1] Eze Ukwu Rom nke Ọdịda Anyanwụ Constantine nke Mbụ na Eze Ukwu Licinius, ndị na-achịkwa Balkan, zutere na Mediolanum (Milan nke oge a) ma, n' etiti ihe ndị ọzọ, kwetara ịgbanwe ụkpụrụ megide Ndị Kraịst na-eso iwu nnagide nke Eze Ukwu Galerius nyere afọ abụọ tupu mgbe ahụ na Serdica.[1] Iwu nke Milan nyere Iso Ụzọ Kraịst ọnọdụ iwu na mwepụ site na mkpagbu mana emeghị ka ọ bụrụ chọọchị steeti nke Alaeze Ukwu Rom. Nke ahụ mere n' AD 380 na Edict of Thessalonica.

A na-ahụ akwụkwọ ahụ na De mortibus persecutorum nke Lactantius na <i id="mwKg">akụkọ ihe mere eme nke Chọọchị</i> nke Eusebius nke Sesaria na ọdịiche dị n'etiti ha abụọ.[2][3] Ma e nwere 'Edict of Milan' ma ọ bụ na ọ bụghịzi arụmụka n' etiti ndị ọkà mmụta na-ajụ akụkọ ahụ n' ozuzu ya ka ọ na-ada na akụkọ ihe mere eme nke ụka.[4][1]

Nsụgharị a hụrụ na Lactantius abụghị n' ụdị iwu.[3] Ọ bụ akwụkwọ ozi sitere n' aka Licinius nye ndị gọvanọ nke mpaghara dị na Alaeze Ukwu Ọwụwa Anyanwụ ọ ka meriri site na imeri Maximinus[5] n' ikpeazụ n' otu afọ ahụ ma wepụta ya na Nicomedia.[1][6]

Ihe ndị mere n' oge gara aga[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ndị Rom chere na ha bụ ndị ji okpukpe kpọrọ ihe, ma kwuo na ihe ịga nke ọma ha dị ka ike ụwa bụ n' ihi nsọpụrụ ha (pietas) n' ịnọgide na-enwe mmekọrịta dị mma na chi. A maara ndị Rom maka ọnụ ọgụgụ dị ukwuu nke chi ha na-asọpụrụ.[7] Ọnụnọ nke ndị Gris na mpaghara mmiri nke Ịtali webatara ụfọdụ omume okpukpe dịka ofufe nke Apollo. Ndị Rom na-achọ ihe jikọrọ ha n' etiti chi ha na ndị Gris, na-agbanwe akụkọ ifo na ihe oyiyi ndị Gris maka akwụkwọ Latin na nka Rom. Dị ka akụkọ mgbe ochie si kwuo, enwere ike ịchọta ọtụtụ n' ime ụlọ ọrụ okpukpe Rom site na ndị guzobere ya; okpukpe ochie a bụ ntọala nke mos maiorum, "ụzọ ndị nna nna" ma ọ bụ naanị "ọdịnala", nke a na-ele anya dị ka ihe dị mkpa na njirimara Rom. Site na interpretatio graeca na interpretatio romana, okpukpe nke ndị ọzọ sonyere n' Alaeze Ukwu Rom biri n' ime usoro ndị isi okpukpe Rom.

Nkwado ndị Juu na Ndị Kraịst na Yahweh bụ naanị Chineke, ikwere na chi ndị ọzọ niile bụ chi ụgha, enweghị ike itinye ya na usoro ahụ. Nkwupụta ha gbochiri ha ịṅụ iyi iguzosi ike n' ihe nye chi eze ukwu. Karịsịa, a na-ele ịjụ Ndị Kraịst ịkwụ ụtụ isi ndị Juu anya dị ka ihe iyi egwu ọ bụghị naanị maka ofufe steeti, kamakwa maka steeti n' onwe ya, na-eduga n' ụdị mkpagbu dị iche iche. Eze Ukwu Decius (r. 249-251) wepụtara iwu nke tinyere ihe mgbochi siri ike na Ndị Kraịst, iwu nke onye nọchiri ya bụ Valerian gara n' ihu. Site na ntinye nke Gallienus (r. 253-268), Chọọchị ahụ nwere oge nke ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ afọ 40 na-enweghị nkwado gọọmentị megide Ndị Kraịst, nke Eusebius kọwara dị ka "obere" udo nke Chọọchị. N' afọ 311, Galerius bipụtara iwu sitere na Nicomedia na-akwụsị mkpagbu ahụ.

Iwu nke Na-anabata Ihe nke Galerius[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ihe fọdụrụ n'obí eze nke Mediolanum (Milan). Obí eze ukwu (nke Maximian, onye ọrụ ibe Diocletian, wuru n'ụzọ dị ukwuu) bụ nnukwu ụlọ nwere ọtụtụ ụlọ, ogige, na ogige, nke a na-eji maka ọrụ onwe onye na nke ọha na eze nke eze ukwu, yana maka ụlọ ikpe ya, ezinụlọ ya, na ọchịchị eze ukwu.

Kemgbe ọdịda nke usoro ndị eze Severan na AD 235, ndị na-asọ mpi maka ocheeze eze ukwu arịọla maka nkwado site na ịkwado ma ọ bụ ịkpagbu Ndị Kraịst.[8] Ọ bụ eze ukwu Galerius si Serdica wepụtara Iwu nke Na-anabata nke Galerius ma ziga ya na Nicomedia na 30 Eprel 311. Site na ndokwa ya, e nyere Ndị Kraịst "gbasochara ụdị ọchịchọ ahụ ma daa n' ime nzuzu nke na ha agaghị irube isi n' ụkpụrụ oge ochie".[9]  Ya mere, n' ihe odachi a ha kwesịrị ikpe ekpere nye chi ha aka nzọpụta ha, maka obodo ha, nakwa. Aka ha onwe ha, na ndị mmadụ nkịtị agaghị emerụ ahụ ọzọ n' akụkụ ọbụla. N' ha ga ebi n' nkpichite n' ụlọ ha dị iche iche.

Ihe odide nke Iwu Milan[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Enwetụbeghị akwụkwọ ozi ndị ahụ n' ezie. Otú ọ dị, a na-ehota ha n' ụzọ zuru ezu na Lactantius's On the Deaths of the Persecutors (De mortibus persecutorum), nke na-enye ederede Latin nke iwu nnwere onwe Galerius dịka edepụtara na Nicomedia na 30 Eprel 311 n' akwụkwọ ozi Licinius nke nnwere onwe na nkwụghachi nke e degaara gọvanọ Bitinia ma zigara na Nicomidia na 13 June 313.[10] Nke ikpeazụ na-ekwu, sị:[11]   Iwu nke Milan bụ nke a na-emegide Maximinus Daza, Siza n' Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ bụ onye na-akpọ onwe ya Augustus n' oge ahụ. N' ịbụ onye natara ntụziaka nke eze ukwu Galerius iji kagbuo mkpagbu ahụ na 311, Maximinus nyere ndị nọ n' okpuru ya iwu ka ha kwụsị, mana ọ tọhapụghị Ndị Kraịst n'. ụlọ mkpọrọ ma ọ bụ ikpe ọnwụ n' ebe a na-egwupụta ihe, dịka Constantine na Licinius mere na West.[12]


Mgbe ọnwụ Galerius gasịrị, Maximinus enweghịzi ihe mgbochi; o ji ịnụ ọkụ n' obi maliteghachi mkpagbu n' ókèala ndị dị n' ebe ọwụwa anyanwụ n' okpuru nchịkwa ya, na-agba ume ka a rịọ Ndị Kraịst arịrịọ. Otu n' ime arịrịọ ndị ahụ, nke a na-agwa ọ bụghị naanị Maximinus kamakwa Constantine na Licinius, echekwara na ihe e dere na nkume na Arycanda na Lycia, ọ bụkwa "arịrịọ na Ndị Kraịst, ndị na-adịghị eguzosi ike n' ihe ogologo oge ma ka na-anọgide na-agbasi mbọ ike n'otu ebumnuche ọjọọ ahụ, ga-emecha mee ka ha ghara ịta ahụhụ site na ihe ọhụrụ ọ bụla na-enweghị isi iji mebie nsọpụrụ ahụ n'ihi chi. "[12]

A na-eche na iwu ahụ metụtara naanị Iso Ụzọ Kraịst, ọbụnakwa ime ka Iso Ụzọ Ụzọ Kraịst bụrụ okpukpe gọọmentị nke Alaeze Ukwu ahụ (nke emeghị ruo mgbe Iwu nke Tesalonaịka na 380). N' ezie, Iwu ahụ nyere nnwere onwe okpukpe ọ bụghị naanị Ndị Kraịst, bụ ndị a kpagburu n' ụzọ pụrụ iche, kamakwa ọ gara n' ihu ma nye nnwere onwe n' okpukpe niile:   Ebe ọ bụ na Licinius dere iwu ahụ na ebumnuche ibipụta ya n' ebe ọwụwa anyanwụ mgbe ọ na-atụ anya mmeri Maximinus, ọ na-egosipụta iwu okpukpe Licinius, onye ọgọ mmụọ, nabatara karịa nke Constantine, onye bụbu Onye Kraịst.[13][13] Iwu Constantine n' onwe ya karịrị nanị ịnabata Iso Ụzọ Kraịst: ọ nabatara ikpere arụsị na okpukpe ndị ọzọ, mana ọ na-akwalite Iso Ụzọ Ụzọ Kraịst.[13]

Ọ bụ ezie na a na-egosikarị Iwu Milan dị ka nnukwu omume mbụ nke Constantine dị ka eze ukwu Ndị Kraịst, a na-arụ ụka ma Iwu Milan bụ omume nke ezi okwukwe. Enwere ike ịhụ akwụkwọ ahụ dị ka nzọụkwụ mbụ Constantine n' ịmepụta njikọ aka na Chineke Ndị Kraịst, onye ọ weere dị ka chi kachasị ike.[14] N' oge ahụ, ọ na-echegbu onwe ya banyere nkwụsi ike ọha na eze na nchebe nke alaeze ukwu ahụ pụọ na iwe nke Chineke Ndị Kraịst: n' echiche a, iwu ahụ nwere ike ịbụ mkpebi ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị dị irè karịa mgbanwe okpukpe. Otú ọ dị, ihe ka ọtụtụ n'ime ndị ọkọ akụkọ ihe mere eme kwenyere na nnabata Constantine nke Iso Ụzọ Kraịst bụ eziokwu, nakwa na Iwu Milan bụ naanị ihe mbụ Constantine mere dị ka Onye Kraịst raara onwe ya nye. Echiche a na-akwado site na ihu ọma na-aga n' ihu nke Constantine maka Iso Ụzọ Kraịst n'oge ọchịchị ya fọdụrụnụ.[15]

Udo nke Chọọchị[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Iwu mbụ Galerius mere ihe ọ bụla iji weghachite ihe onwunwe ndị e weghaara nke Ndị Kraịst. A hapụrụ ya na Edict nke Milan iji mee nke a. E nyere ntụziaka maka ebe nzukọ Ndị Kraịst na ihe onwunwe ndị ọzọ ka e weghachite ya n' ụgwọ ọrụ nke steeti kwụrụ ndị nwe ya ugbu a:[16]   O nyere ndị majie mpaghara ntụziaka ka ha jiri ike niile mee iwu a n' otu oge ka e wee weghachite usoro ọha na eze na ịga n' ihu nke ihu ọma Chineke nwere ike "chekwaa ma nwee ọganihu na ihe ịga nke ọma anyị na ọdịmma nke steeti". Constantine nyere iwu na nkwụghachi ahụ ga-abụ na mmefu nke steeti. Maka Ndị Kraịst, nnwere onwe na nkwa dị n' ime iwu a nwere nsonaazụ kachasị mkpa. Na nke mbụ ya, ọ ga-ekwe omume idebe liturgy n'ihu ọha n' ụzọ zuru ezu, na n' ụzọ siri ike na n' obi iji gbalịa ịkpụzi ndụ nke alaeze ukwu ahụ dịka ụkpụrụ na ụkpụrụ Ndị Kraịst si dị. Eusebius gosipụtara ọṅụ nke Ndị Kraịst na mgbanwe a na ọnọdụ ọha na eze na "Church History" ya (X, ii). A makwaara oge a nke akụkọ ihe mere eme nke Chọọchị dị ka "Udo nke Chọọlụ". Eusebius na-ekwu na o kwuru, sị: "ọ masịrị anyị iwepụ ọnọdụ ọ bụla".[17] Iwu ahụ gara n' ihu chọọ ka ndị Rom ọ bụla dozie ihe ọ bụla na-adịghị mma megide Ndị Kraịst: "...a ga-eweghachi otu ihe ahụ nye Ndị Kraịst n' akwụghị ụgwọ ma ọ bụ nkwupụta ọ bụla nke ụgwọ ọrụ na-enweghị ụdị aghụghọ ma ọ bụ aghụghọ ọ bụla. "\.[17] Ịgba ume ka e dozie ihe ọjọọ ndị mere n' akụkọ ihe mere eme nwekwara ike igosipụta ọchịchọ ndị isi izere ihe ọjọọ dịka ọgba aghara na mmeri ndị ọzọ. Koszarycz na-ekwu na Constantine nwere nkwenkwe ụgha ma kwenyere na ịdị adị nke chi ndị na-abụghị Ndị Kraịst ka ha ghara ịchọ imebi nguzozi nke ezi ihe na ihe ọjọọ.[18] E kwenyere na, ozugbo ndị Rom weghachiri nguzozi a na Ndị Kraịst, ozugbo steeti ahụ ga-akwụsi ike.

A na-ejikwa okwu ahụ bụ "Udo nke Chọọchị" mee ihe na England na Ireland na njedebe nke mkpagbu nke sochiri Ọrụ nke Nnwere Onwe Katọlik (1778-1926). Na Germany, a na-etinyekwa ya na ndụ mgbe Kulturkampf gasịrị.

  • Constantine Onye Ukwu na Iso Ụzọ Kraịst
  • Mgbanwe Constantine
  • Udo nke Chineke
  • Popu n'oge ochie
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Frend, W. H. C. (1965). The Early Church. SPCK, p. 137.
  2. Lenski (2017). "The Significance of the Edict of Milan", in Siecienski: Constantine: Religious Faith and Imperial Policy. London: Routledge, 27–56. Retrieved on 21 May 2021. “Differences tabulated on pp. 39–40” 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Cross and Livingstone. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church 1974 art. "Milan, Edict of."
  4. Potter, D. Constantine the Emperor 2013 p. 148. He refers to the "Edict of Milan" as the so-called Edict of Milan in note 10 at the top of p. 329.
  5. Stevenson, J. A New Eusebius SPCK 1965, p. 302
  6. As David Potter states in his 2013 book Constantine the Emperor, "What is significant is that the document, once wrongly known as the Edict of Milan (there was never such a thing) and attributed to Constantine, is the product of a pagan emperor who had decided that Constantine's approach to the "Christian question" was correct. Although the 'Edict of Milan' is really a letter of Licinius to the governors of the eastern provinces, it still represents an important sea change in the direction of imperial policy." Potter p. 149
  7. For an overview of the representation of Roman religion in early Christian authors, see R.P.C. Hanson, "The Christian Attitude to Pagan Religions up to the Time of Constantine the Great" and Carlos A. Contreras, "Christian Views of Paganism" in Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt II.23.1 (1980) 871–1022.
  8. Frend, W.H.C. The Early Church SPCK 1965, p. 135
  9. Stevenson, J. A New Eusebius SPCK 1965, p. 296
  10. Lactantius, De mortibus persecutorum 34.1–35.1, 48.1–12
  11. MacDonald (1962). Early Christian & Byzantine architecture. New York: G. Braziller, 11. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 Inscription printed in Stevenson, J. A New Eusebius SPCK 1965, p. 297
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 Ollero (June 15, 2018). The Milan Edict. Vcoin Community.
  14. Sordi, Marta. The Christians and the Roman Empire. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1994. p. 134.
  15. Maier, Paul L. Eusebius: The Church History. Grand Rapids: Kegel Publications, 1999. p. 374.
  16. Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 5.15–17
  17. 17.0 17.1 "Paul Halsall, "Galerius and Constantine: Edicts of Toleration 311/313", Fordham University; Fordham.edu; Internet, accessed 13 October 2014.
  18. Yuri Koszarycz. Constantinian Christianity. The-orb.net. The Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies. Archived from the original on 15 February 2015. Retrieved on 14 October 2014.