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Kọmitii asọmpi nke India

Shí Wikipedia, njikotá édémédé nke onyobulạ


Kọmịsh nwanne nke India (CCI) bụ onye isi isi mba na India .  Ọ bụ ụlọ ọrụ iwu n'ime Ministry of Corporate Affairs ma na-ahụ maka ịmanye iwu, 2002 iji kwalite na ọrụ mmemme ndị nwere ike ike na-ahụ na India.  CCI na-eleba anya na ikpe wee kwuo ha ma ọ bụrụ na otu ahụ nwere ike ike na-ahụ.

E hiwere kọmitii a na 14 Ọktoba 2003. Ọ na-arụ ọrụ nke ọma na Mee 2009 yana Dhanendra Kumar dị ka onye isi oche mbụ ya.  [1] [2] Onye isi oche nke CCI ugbu a bụ Ravneet Kaur, onye ikera ka onye ọrụ na 2023.

Iwu asọmpi, 2002[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

[1]E chepụtara echiche nke Commission Competition ma weba ya n'ụdị nke echiche iwu, 2002 site n'aka ike Vajpayee .  Ọ dị mkpa iji kwalite na ụlọ ọrụ nkeonwe.

 Iwu ahụ amachibidoro echere na-anya, iji ụlọ ọrụ na-eme ihe n'ụzọ na- Iṣakoso isi ma na-achịkwa (ịnweta, njikwa na ngwaahịa na nnweta), nke na-akpata ma ọ bụ nwere ike ibu ụzọ .  n'uche ntụrụndụ na n'ime India. [2]

A na-achọ imezu nke omume ahụ site na Competition Commission of India (CCI), nke mmalite etiti hibere site na 14 Ọktoba 2003. CCI nwere onye isi oche na ndị otu isii nke ọrịa etiti.  Ọ bụ ọrụ nke kọmitii ahụ iji ike omume ndị na-enwe ike ngwaahịa na , kwalite na echebe, chebe nke ndị na-azụahụa ma hụ na akwụkwọ ahụ, akara India.  [1] Kọmishọna a chọkwara echiche echiche maka okwu n'akwụkwọ ntụaka enwetara n'aka ụlọ ọrụ iwu akwụkwọ n'okpuru iwu ọ ngo na-achọta azịza. [2]

ebumnobi[dezie | dezie ebe o si]


Okwu mmalite nke Iwu asọmpi[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

[2]Iwu iji nye, na-eburu n'uche akụ na-ahụ nke mba ahụ, maka Commission, iji iji omume ndị na-enwe ike ngwaahịa na, ìhè na-echebe n'ahịa, iji chebe ụfọdụ ndị na-azụ ahịa.  na iji hụ na ada onwe.  ahia nke ndị isi ụfọdụ n'ahịa, na India na-aga, yana maka ihe ngosi ya ma ọ bụ na ike

Iji mezuo ebumnuche ya, Commission Competition nke India na-agba mbọ ime ihe ndị a:

  • Mee ka ahịa na-arụ ọrụ maka abamuru na ọdịmma nke ndị na-azụ ahịa.
  • Gbaa mbọ hụ na asọmpi ziri ezi na ahụike na mmemme akụ na ụba na mba maka uto ngwa ngwa yana gụnyere mmepe na mmepe akụ na ụba.
  • Mejuputa atumatu asọmpi n'ebumnobi iji rụpụta ihe kacha arụ ọrụ nke akụrụngwa akụ na ụba.
  • Zụlite ma na-azụlite mmekọrịta dị irè na mmekọrịta ya na ndị na-ahụ maka ngalaba iji hụ na a kwadoro nke ọma nke iwu nhazi ngalaba na iwu asọmpi.
  • Mepụta nkwado asọmpi nke ọma ma gbasaa ozi gbasara uru asọmpi n'etiti ndị niile metụtara iji guzobe na ịzụlite omenala asọmpi na akụnụba India.

Ihe mejupụtara[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Competition Commission of India (CCI)
Shri Ashok Chawla, onye bụbu onye isi oche nke Commission Competition nke India, na Mr. Joaquin Almunia, osote onye isi oche nke European Commission, na-edebanye aha na Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in the Field of Competition Law na 21st November 2013. [3]

Kọmishana ahụ nwere onye isi oche na ọ bụghị ihe na- mmetụta mmadụ abụọ na ọ bụghị ihe isii ndị ọzọ na-egosi mgbaàmà.  Ravneet Kaur bụ onye isi oche nke CCI ogbugbu a.  [1] Ndị otu Commission Competition nke India bụ [4]

  1. Ravneet Kaur
  2. Anil Agarwal
  3. Sweta Kakkad
  4. Deepak Anurag

Okwu ikpe ama ama[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • In December 2010, CCI instituted a probe to examine if there was any cartelization among traders when onion prices touched 80 rupees, but did not find sufficient evidence of market manipulation.[5]
  • In June 2012, CCI imposed a fine of Àtụ:INRConvert on 11 cement companies for cartelisation. CCI claimed that cement companies met regularly to fix prices, control market share and hold back supply which earned them illegal profits.[6][7]
  • In January 2013, CCI modified clauses in agreements between real estate company DLF Limited and apartment buyers.[8] Business and finance portal Moneycontrol.com welcomed the order saying that, "This is a landmark ruling and will benefit property owners across the country". Some of the important modifications were:
    • The Builder cannot undertake any additional construction beyond the approved building plan given to the buyers.[8]
    • The builder will not have complete ownership of open spaces within the residential project area not sold.[8]
    • Not just the buyer but the builder will be liable for any defaults.[9]
    • All payments made by the buyers must be based on construction milestones and not "on demand".[9]
    • The builder will not have the sole power to form the owner’s association.[9]
  • On 8 February 2013, CCI imposed a penalty of Àtụ:INRConvert on the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) for misusing its dominant position. The CCI found that IPL team ownership agreements were unfair and discriminatory and that the terms of the IPL franchise agreements were loaded in favor of BCCI and franchises had no say in the terms of the contract. The CCI ordered BCCI to "cease and desist" from any practice in future denying market access to potential competitors and not use its regulatory powers in deciding matters relating to its commercial activities.[10][11]
  • In 2014, CCI imposed a fine of ₹10 million upon Google for failure to comply with the directions given by the Director General seeking information and documents.[12]
  • On 25 August 2014, CCI imposed a fine of ₹2544 crores on 14 Indian car manufacturers for failure to provide branded spare parts and diagnostic tools to independent repairers, hampering their ability to repair and maintain certain car models. The companies fined were Maruti Suzuki, Mahindra & Mahindra, Tata Motors, Toyota, Honda, Volkswagen, Fiat, Ford, General Motors, Nissan, Hindustan Motors, Mercedes Benz and Skoda.[13]
  • On 17 November 2015, CCI imposed a fine of ₹258 crores upon three airlines for cartelization in determining the fuel surcharge on air cargo. A penalty of Àtụ:INR was imposed on Jet Airways, while InterGlobe Aviation Limited (Indigo) and SpiceJet were levied Àtụ:INR and Àtụ:INR respectively.[14]
  • In May 2017, CCI ordered a probe into the functioning of the Cellular Operators Association of India following a complaint filed by Reliance Jio against the cartelization by its rivals Bharati Airtel, Vodafone India and Idea cellular.
  • On 8 February 2018, it had fined Google's parent company, Alphabet Inc. for Àtụ:INR for search bias.
  • On August 12, 2018, the CCI approved the Disney-Fox deal.[15]
  • In July 2018 the Commission imposed fines on the Federation of Gujarat State Chemists and Druggists Association, the Amdavad Chemist Association, the Surat Chemists and Druggists Association, the Chemists and Druggists Association of Baroda, Glenmark Pharmaceuticals, Hetero Healthcare Ltd, Divine Saviour and their staff and officers for breaches of the Competition Act 2002 by requiring No Objection Certificates before appointing stockists.[16]
  • In May 2019, Umar Javeed, Sukarma Thapar, Aaqib Javeed vs. Google LLC & Ors. the commission ordered an antitrust probe against Google for abusing its dominant position with Android to block market rivals.[17] In its Prima Facie opinion the commission held, "Mandatory Pre-installation of entire Google Mobile Services (GMS) suite under Mobile application distribution agreements MADA amounts to imposition of unfair condition on the device manufacturers. Leveraging of Google's dominance in Google Play Store to protect relevant markets such as online general search in contravention of Section 4(2)(e) of the Competition Act 2002".[17]
  • In June 2019, CCI issued letters to handset makers seeking details of terms and conditions of their agreement with Google. This is to ascertain if Google imposed any restrictions on them for using the company's apps in the past 8 years from 2011.[18]
  • In December 2021, CCI took a step back from approving Amazon's investment in a Future Group company, which had initially received its nod in November 2019. Amazon has been blamed for concealing the scope and complete information of its investment while seeking for the approval.[19]
  • On December 31, 2021, CCI ordered an investigation into Apple Inc. business practices, including the company's enforcement of a proprietary payment system, to be conducted within 60 days.[20]
  • In October 2022, CCI imposed a Àtụ:INRConvert penalty on Google for abusing its dominance in the licensing of Android OS for smartphones, app store market for Android, general web search services, non-OS specific mobile web browsers and online video hosting platforms in India. A week later, CCI levied a separate Àtụ:INRConvert penalty for abusing its Play Store policies. Additionally, it issued a cease-and-desist order directing Google to modify its policies, including allowing mobile application developers to use third-party payment services on its app store.[21][22]

Ntụaka[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

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Njikọ mpụga[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. "In fact: How India learnt to promote, and regulate, competition". Retrieved on 2 March 2017.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 The Competition Act – Act No. 12 of 2003. Competition Commission of India. Archived from the original on 27 June 2012. Retrieved on 10 October 2012. Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; name "The Competition Act - Act No. 12 of 2003" defined multiple times with different content
  3. admin (2015-08-03). International Cooperation. Competition Commission of India,Government of India. Retrieved on 2021-07-22.
  4. Kalra. "India names ex-government official, former WhatsApp exec as new antitrust members, sources say", Reuters, 2023-09-19. Retrieved on 2023-09-19. (in en)
  5. Venkatesh. "Competition panel to probe hoarding, onion price rigging", Hindustan Times, 15 August 2013. Retrieved on 16 August 2013.
  6. "Competition Commission of India imposes Rs 6,307 crore penalty on 11 cement companies", Economic Times, 22 June 2012. Retrieved on 4 January 2013.
  7. "Busted: 'Cartelising' cement firms", Business Standard, 26 June 2012. Retrieved on 4 January 2013.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 "Competition Commission of India modifies DLF-buyer agreements", Economic Times, 4 January 2013. Retrieved on 4 January 2013.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 "CCI ruling on DLF: Changing the builder-buyer equation?", Money Control, 4 January 2013. Retrieved on 4 January 2013.
  10. SS-Barmi-v-BCCI (8 February 2013). Retrieved on 8 February 2013.
  11. Competition watchdog slaps Rs.52.24 crore fine on BCCI. Live Mint (8 February 2013). Retrieved on 8 February 2013.
  12. CCI imposes a fine of Rs. 1 Crore upon Google for failure to supply information/ documents in the investigations.. PIB (27 March 2014). Retrieved on 1 April 2014.
  13. Competition panel fines 14 car makers Rs 2,554 crore. LiveMint (25 August 2014). Retrieved on 14 November 2018.
  14. "Cartelisation: CCI imposes Rs 258 crore fine on Jet Airways, IndiGo, SpiceJet", 18 November 2015. Retrieved on 12 November 2016.
  15. Malvania (August 12, 2018). Fox-Disney deal: CCI approves takeover of Murdoch's company in India. Smart Investor. Retrieved on August 18, 2018.
  16. "CCI fines chemist and druggist associations and pharma companies", Lexology, 3 January 2019. Retrieved on 11 February 2019.
  17. 17.0 17.1 Javeed (2021). "Data and Competition Law: Introducing Data As Non-Monetary Consideration and Competition Concerns in Data-Driven Online Platforms" (in en). SSRN Electronic Journal. DOI:10.2139/ssrn.3788178. ISSN 1556-5068. 
  18. Aulakh. "CCI asks handset companies for info on agreements with Google", The Economic Times, 2019-06-20. Retrieved on 2019-06-20.
  19. Bureau. "CCI slaps ₹200 crore fine on Amazon, freezes Future deal", The Hindu, 2021-12-17. Retrieved on 2021-12-18. (in en-IN)
  20. Singh (2021-12-31). India antitrust watchdog orders investigation into Apple's business practices (en-US). TechCrunch. Retrieved on 2022-01-02.
  21. "CCI slaps Rs 936-cr penalty on Google for abusing its dominant market position", The Indian Express, 2022-10-26.
  22. SN (2022-10-25). CCI imposes Rs 936.44 crore fine on Google for abusing its dominance on Play Store policies. Network18 Group.