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Kanuri language

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Kanuri
Kànùrí
Spoken in: Nigeria, Niger, Chad, Cameroon , Sudan, Libya 
Region: Lake Chad
Total speakers: 8,845,500
Language family: Niluṣeḥrawit?
 Saharan
  Western Saharan
   Kanuri
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2:
ISO 639-3: kau

Kanuri (/kəˈnuːri/) bụ asụsụ na-aga n'ihu na-asụ na Naijiria, Niger, Chad na Cameroon, yana obere ndị na-erughị eru na ndịda Libya na ndị bi na Sudan.[1]

Ihe ndị mere n'oge gara aga[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

At the turn of the 21st century, its two main dialects, Manga Kanuri and Yerwa Kanuri (also called Beriberi, which its speakers consider to be pejorative), were spoken by 9,700,000 people in Central Africa. It belongs to the Western Saharan subphylum of Nilo-Saharan. Kanuri is the language associated with the Kanem and Bornu empires that dominated the Lake Chad region for a thousand years.

Usoro okwu bụ isi nke ahịrịokwu Kanuri bụ isiokwu. Ọ bụ ihe a na-adịghị ahụkebe n'otu oge nwere postpositions na post-nominal modifiers dịka ọmụmaatụ, "pot Bintu" ga-egosipụta dị ka nje Bintu-be, "pot Vintu-of".[2]

Kanuri nwere ụda atọ: elu, ala, na ọdịda. Ọ nwere usoro dị ukwuu nke consonantal lenition; dịka ọmụmaatụ, sa- "ha" + -buma "eri" → za-wuna "ha riri".[3]

Dị ka omenala, ọ bụ asụsụ a na-asụ n'ógbè ahụ, ojiji ya adaala n'ime iri afọ ndị na-adịbeghị anya. Ọtụtụ ndị na-asụ asụsụ mbụ na-asụrụ Hausa ma ọ bụ Arabic dị ka asụsụ nke abụọ. [citation needed]

Ebe a na-ekesa ya[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A na-asụ Kanuri karịsịa na ala dị ala nke Chad Basin, na ndị na-ekwu okwu na Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria, Sudan na Libya.

Ụdị dị iche iche[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ethnologue kewara Kanuri n'ime asụsụ ndị a, ebe ọtụtụ ndị ọkà mmụta asụsụ (dịka. Cyffer 1998) na-ewere ha dị ka olumba nke otu asụsụ. Ndị agbụrụ Kanuri na-asụ atọ mbụ ma chee ha dị ka olumba nke asụsụ ha.

  • Central Kanuri
  • Manga Kanuri
  • Tumari Kanuri
  • Bilma Kanuri (ma ọ bụ Bilms)
  • Kanembu
  • FADAWUU kanuri

A maara ụdị dị iche iche e gosipụtara na narị afọ nke iri na asaa dị ka Old Kanembu. N'ihe gbasara ịgụgharị na nkọwa okpukpe, a ka na-eji ihe sitere na nke a eme ihe nke ukwuu, nke a na-akpọ Tarjumo.

Ọmụmụ ụdaolu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mkpụrụ okwu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Akụkụ abụọ Ezé egbugbere ọnụ<br id="mwXg"><br><br><br> Alveolar Post-alveolar<br id="mwYw"><br><br><br> Palatal Velar Ọkụ
Plosive (p) b t d k ɡ ʔ
Africate t͡ʃ d͡ʒ
Ihe na-esiri ike (nke a na-akpọ β) f s z ʃ (ɣ) h
Ụgbọ imi m n (ŋ)
Akụkụ l (nke a na-akpọ)
Ihe na-atọ ụtọ r
Ihe atụ w j
  • Enwere ike ịnwe ụda ụdaolu /mb, nd, ŋɡ/, ọ bụ ezie na a maghị ma a na-ewere ha dị ka phonemic.
  • Ụda /p/ na-emekarị dị ka allophone nke /b/, mgbe ọ na-eso ụda ọzọ na-enweghị olu. Ọ pụkwara ịbụ na mgbanwe n'efu na /f/, Otú ọ dị; a ka na-anọchite anya ya na ọkọlọtọ orthography Kanuri.[4]
  • A na-ahụ fricative na-enweghị olu dị ka allophone nke /f/ mgbe ọ na-ebute ụdaume azụ /o, u/. A na-ekwupụta fricative [β] dị ka allophone nke /b/, mgbe ọ na-eme na ọnọdụ intervocalic. A voiced fricative [ɣ] na-eme dị ka allophone nke /ɡ/, mgbe ọ na-eme intervocalically n'etiti ụdaume etiti.
  • A na-anụ ụda retroflex n'akụkụ mgbe /l/ na-esote /i/.
  • [ŋ] na-apụta dị ka allophone nke /n/ mgbe ọ na-ebute ụdaume na-akwụsị akwụsị. Ọtụtụ mgbe, a na-ehichapụ ma ọ bụ nụ ụda nkwụsị, yabụ a na-anụkarị ụda imi [ŋ].[5]

Mkpụrụedemede[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'ihu Central Nlaghachi
N'akụkụ i (ɨ) u
N'etiti etiti na o
N'etiti ə
Mepee n'etiti Mmiri na-agụ
Emeghe a
  • A na-anụ [ɨ] dị ka allophone nke /ə/.

Ihe odide Kanuri[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

E dere Kanuri site na iji edemede Ajami Arabic, ọkachasị n'okpukpe ma ọ bụ n'ụlọ ikpe, ruo ma ọ dịkarịa ala narị afọ anọ. N'oge na-adịbeghị anya, a na-edekwa ya mgbe ụfọdụ na mkpụrụedemede Latin gbanwere. E mepụtara Oziọma Jọn nke e bipụtara na 1965 n'asụsụ Roman na Arabic.

Mkpụrụ akwụkwọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Otu orthography romanized (nke a maara dị ka Standard Kanuri Orthography na Naịjirịa) bụ nke Kanuri Research Unit na Kanuri Language Board mepụtara. Nkọwa ya, dabere na olumba nke Maiduguri, bụ nke Kọmitii Orthography nke Kanuri Language Board, n'okpuru Onye isi oche Abba Sadiq, Waziri nke Borno. Ọ kwadoro ya n'ụzọ iwu site na Kanuri Language Board na Maiduguri, Nigeria, na 1975.

Mkpụrụ akwụkwọ e ji mee ihe : a b c d e ǝ f g h i j k l m n ny o p r ː s sh t u w y z.

Aha nnọchiaha na Kanuri
  Otu Ọtụtụ
Onye mbụ wú, ú àndí
Onye nke abụọ nàndí, nàyí
Onye nke atọ tàndí, tàyí

Hụkwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ebe e si nweta ya[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Norbert Cyffer & John P. Hutchison (ed.) Dictionary of the Kanuri Language (Akwụkwọ n'asụsụ na asụsụ Africa, 13). Foris Publications 1990. .
  • Norbert Cyffer, We Learn Kanuri (akwụkwọ na 2 cassettes ọdịyo), , Rüdiger Köppe Verlag: Köln 1993.
  • [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji]
  • Norbert Cyffer, Ihe osise nke Kanuri. Rüdiger Köppe Verlag: Köln 1998.
  • Akwụkwọ maka njirimara ISO 639: kau

Edensibia[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh
  2. Pulse (2021-11-15). Kanuri: Bornu's most dominant culture (en). Pulse Nigeria. Retrieved on 2022-06-01.
  3. School. Learn Kanuri Free: 2 Online Kanuri Courses (en). Live Lingua. Retrieved on 2022-06-01.
  4. Hutchison (1981). The Kanuri Language: A Reference Grammar. .: University of Wisconsin. 
  5. Cyffer (1998). A sketch of Kanuri. Köln: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.. 

Ebe e si nweta ya[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] Schreiben bụ Prọfesọ. Lepsius uber die Beziehung der Kanori- und Teda-Sprachen. [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji]
  • [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] Nnyocha nke asụsụ Kanuri. na Advances in Kanuri Scholarship, ed. N. Cyffer na T. Geider. peeji nke 67 Cologne: Rudiger Koppe
  • [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] Gruppa Seda-kanuri (centraľnosaxarskaja) na ee genetičeskie vzaimootnošenija (ėtimologičeskij i fonologičesquij konki). Moscow: PhD. Nkwupụta (Rossijskij gosudarstvennyj gumanitarnyj universitet).
  • [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] Asụsụ Kanuri. Ntụziaka Grammar. Madison: Mahadum nke Wisconsin.
  • [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] Grammar nke Asụsụ Bornu ma ọ bụ Kanuri. London: Church Missionary Society.
  • [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] Okwu ndị Kanuri nke ngwụcha narị afọ nke iri na asaa. Akwụkwọ edemede African Studies, 12(46): 277X290.
  • [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] Nnyocha nke Asụsụ Kanuri. Asụsụ na Vocabulary. London: Oxford University Press.

Njikọ mpụga[dezie | dezie ebe o si]