Nafanan language

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Nafaanra
Spoken in: Ghana, Ivory Coast
Total speakers:
Language family: Nnijer–Kongo
 Nafaanra
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2:
ISO 639-3: nfr

Nafaanra (mgbe ụfọdụ a na-ede Nafaara, a na-akpọ ) ma ọ bụ Nafanan bụ asụsụ Senufo a na-asụ n'ebe ugwu ọdịda anyanwụ Ghana, n'akụkụ ókèala ya na Ivory Coast, n'ebe ọwụwa anyanwụ nke Bondoukou. Ihe dị ka mmadụ puku iri isii na otu na-asụ ya.[1] Ndị na-ekwu okwu ya na-akpọ onwe ha Nafana, mana ndị ọzọ na-akpọ ha Banda ma ọ bụ Mfantera. Dị ka asụsụ Senufo ndị ọzọ, Nafaanra bụ asụsụ ụda olu. Ọ bụ ihe dị iche na asụsụ Senufo, ya na ndị ikwu ya kacha nso, asụsụ Southern Senufo TagwanańDjini, ihe dịka kilomita narị abụọ (120 mi) n'ebe ọdịda anyanwụ, n'akụkụ nke ọzọ nke Ogige Ntụrụndụ Comoé.

Usoro okwu bụ isi bụ isiokwu, dị ka Latin na Japanese. Dị ka asụsụ ndị ọzọ nke Niger, ọ nwere usoro klas aha, na aha ndị e kewara dịka klas ise dị iche iche, nke na-emetụtakwa nnọchiaha, adjectives na copulas. Phonology na-egosipụta ọdịiche dị n'etiti ogologo ụdaume na ma ha bụ ọnụ ma ọ bụ imi (dị ka na French ma ọ bụ Portuguese). E nwekwara ụda atọ dị iche iche, ihe jikọrọ ya na asụsụ Senufo ndị ọzọ. Asụsụ Nafaanra na-egosipụta ma oge na akụkụ nke a na-eji ụmụ irighiri ihe akara. A na-emepụta ọnụọgụ site na ịgbakwunye ọnụọgụ cardinal na ọnụọgụ ise na site n'ịbawanye ọnụọgụ iri, iri abụo na otu narị.

Ọdịdị ala na ọnụ ọgụgụ mmadụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Asụsụ Kulango gbara Nafaanra gburugburu n'ebe ọdịda anyanwụ, ebe Deg (asụsụ Gur) na Gonja (Kwa) dị n'ebe ugwu na n'ebe ọwụwa anyanwụ. Onye agbata obi kacha nso n'ebe ọwụwa anyanwụ bụ asụsụ Mande Ligbi, nke a na-akpọkwa ndị na-asụ ya Banda) nke, dị ka Nafaanra, bụ ihe dị iche na ezinụlọ nke ya. Ndịda ọwụwa anyanwụ na ndịda Nafaanra na Ligbi, a na-asụ asụsụ Akan Abron (nke a na-akpọkwa Bron ma ọ bụ Brong).

Ndị Nafana bi n'akụkụ ugwu ọdịda anyanwụ nke mpaghara Brong-Ahafo nke Ghana, na-elekwasị anya na Sampa (isi obodo nke Jaman North district) na Banda. E nwere ụdị asụsụ abụọ nke Nafaanra: Pantera nke Banda, na Fantera nke Sampa.[2] Bendor-Samuel na-enye mmekọrịta iri asaa na itoolu na ndepụta Swadesh n'etiti olumba abụọ ahụ, nke pụtara na ha nwere ọtụtụ okwu ndị bụ isi.[3] A na-ewere ire okwu Banda dị ka etiti. Okwu "Fantera" na "Pantera" sitere n'aka ndị ọzọ ma ndị Nafana na-ewere ha dị ka ndị na-emebi ihe.[2]

Ndị Nafana na-ekwu na ha si n'obodo a na-akpọ Kakala na Ivory Coast. Akụkọ ha na-ekwu na ụfọdụ n'ime ndị ha ka nọ ebe ahụ, ma ọ bụrụ na ha alaghachi, a gaghị ekwe ka ha pụọ ọzọ.[4] Ha rutere n'ógbè Banda mgbe ndị Ligbi, ndị si Begho (Bigu, Bighu) bịa n'óù ahụ na mmalite narị afọ nke iri na asaa.[5]

Ọtụtụ Nafana na-asụ asụsụ abụọ na Twi, asụsụ mpaghara, ruo n'ókè ụfọdụ. Dị ka SIL si kwuo, pasenti iri ise nke ndị mmadụ nwere ike "imezu ihe ndị ọha na eze chọrọ na ihe ndị a chọrọ na ngalaba ndị ọzọ", ebe pasenti iri abụo nwere ike ikwu Twi "n'ụzọ ziri ezi na okwu zuru oke iji sonye n'ụzọ dị irè n'ọtụtụ mkparịta ụka na nke na-enweghị isi na isiokwu ndị bara uru, mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya, na ọrụ". Pasenti iri atọ fọdụrụnụ nwere ike ịnọgide na-enwe naanị mkparịta ụka ihu na ihu dị mfe na isiokwu ndị a maara (pasenti iri na ise) ma ọ bụ enweghị ike ikwu Twi ma ọlị (pasenti iri na ise). pasenti iri na ise rụọ pasenti iri abụo na ise nke ndị Nafana gụrụ akwụkwọ na Twi, ebe ọ bụ naanị otu pasenti ruo pasenti ise gụrụ akwụkwọ n'asụsụ Nafaanra.[1][6]

Nafaanra bụ asụsụ nke abụọ nke ihe dị ka ndị Dompo iri asaa bi na nso Banda. Dompo bụ asụsụ mbụ ha, nke a na-eche na ọ kwụsịrị ruo mgbe njem ọrụ nke Blench na 1998 gosipụtara ihe dị iche.[7]

Nchịkọta[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Maurice Delafosse bụ onye ọkà mmụta asụsụ mbụ kpọtụrụ Nafaanra aha, na-akpọ ya "ebo Senufo gbasasịrị agbasa" na 1904.[8] Westermann na nhazi ya nke asụsụ West-Africa, jikọtakwara Nafaanra na Senufo, o doro anya na ọ dabere na ndepụta okwu a hụrụ na Rapp.[9] Bendor-Samuel kwadoro nkewa a, onye na-adabere na nkewa nke Senufo ya n'ime ndepụta okwu dị na Swadesh et al.[3][10]

Ọ bụghị ihe doro anya nke alaka Senufo Nafaanra nwere njikọ chiri anya. Bendor-Samuel na-enye pasenti isii mmekọrịta na ndepụta Swadesh na "Tenere" (asụsụ Senari nke ọdịda anyanwụ), pasenti iri ise na itoolu na "Central Senari" (asụsụ Sanari a na-asụ gburugburu Korhogo), na iri anọ na atọ na asụsụ ndị na-abụghị Senfo Mo (ma ọ bụ Deg), Kabre (ma ọ dị ka Kabiye), na Dogon.[3] Ọnụ ọgụgụ dị ala nke ihe dị ka pasenti iri isii na-egosi mmekọrịta dị anya. N'otu aka ahụ, Mensah na Tchagbale guzobere ihe jikọrọ ọnụ nke pasenti iri atọ na asatọ na "Tyebaara" (Senari), na-ekwubi na Nafaanra nwere njikọ dị anya na olumba a.[11] Manessy ejikọtala Nafaanra na Palaka (Kpalaga), ebe Mills na-atụ aro mmekọrịta ya na alaka TagwanańDjimini nke ndịda.[12][13]

Ụda[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mkpụrụedemede[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Nafaanra nwere ụdaume asaa na ụdaume ise. dịiche dị n'ogologo ụdaume nwere ike ime ka ọdịiche dị n"ihe ọ pụtara, dịka na sɛ, "ịga", vs.__wol____wol____wol__, "anyị" vs. oo, "anyị ga-eme". N'otu aka ahụ, a pụrụ ịhụ ọdịiche dị iche iche nke nasalization na sii, "ịmụ nwa," vs. s {\\displaystyle s} , "ịrụ".[14] Usoro ụdaume yiri nke asụsụ Senufo ndị ọzọ. Ọ dị ka asụsụ abụọ nke Northern Senufo Supyire na Mamara n'inwe naanị imi ise na ụdaume ọnụ asaa.[15] Na orthography, a na-egosi nasalization nke ụdaume site na ịgbakwunye mkpụrụedemede "n" mgbe ụdaume gasịrị.

Nchịkọta ụdaume na Nafaanra[16]
N'ihu Central Nlaghachi
N'akụkụ i • ĩ u • ũ
N'etiti etiti e o
Mepee n'etiti ɛ • ɛ̃ ɔ • ɔ̃
Emeghe a • ã

Mkpụrụ okwu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Na tebụl dị n'okpuru ebe a, a na-etinye akara orthographic n'etiti oghere oghere ma ọ bụrụ na ha dị iche na akara IPA. Rịba ama karịsịa ojiji nke "j" maka IPA [ɟ] na ojiji nke ""y" maka I PA [j], nke a na-ahụkarị na orthographies Africa.

Nchịkọta ụdaume nke ụdaume na Nafaanra na akara IPA[17]
egbugbere ọnụ alveolar ọnụ ọnụ anya egbugbere ọnụ<br id="mw0Q"><br><br><br> akpịrị
imi m n ɲ ⟨ny⟩ ŋ ŋ͡m
plosive enweghị olu p t c ⟨ch⟩ k k͡p
kwuru okwu b d ɟ ⟨j⟩ ɡ ɡ͡b
fricative enweghị olu f s ç ⟨sh⟩ h
kwuru okwu v z
trill r
ihe atụ l j ⟨y⟩ w

Usoro ụdaume nke Nafaanra yiri nke asụsụ Senufo ndị ọzọ. Nafaanra nwere naanị otu ihe akaebe nke fricative palatal, /ç/, na-anọ n'etiti asụsụ Northern Senufo (Mamara, Supyire) nke nwere //ç// na onye ya na ya na-ekwupụta /, na asụsụ Central na Southern Senufo (dịka. Karaboro, Senari, Djimini) nke na-enweghị fricatives palatal ma ọlị.[Nke a ga-abụ nchọpụta mbụ: Nafaanra Xinghń kwekọrọ na ụdaume glottal ọtụtụ asụsụ Senufo ndị ọzọ nwere, ma ọ bụ n'ụdị nkwụsị glottal /ʔ/ (Supyire, Senari, Karaboro) ma ọ bụ fricative glottal/ (Mamara)]

Ụda[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Dị ka asụsụ Senufo ndị ọzọ, Nafaanra nwere ụda atọ dị iche iche: High, Mid na Low. A naghị emekarị ụda na orthography Nafaanra. Ihe atụ bụ:[18]

  • kúfɔ̀ "yam" (Ebe Dị Elu)
  • dama "two pesewas (mkpụrụ ego)" (Mid)
  • maŋà "ụdọ" (Low)

Ụda etiti mgbe ụfọdụ nwere ihe na-arị elu, ụda dị elu mgbe ụfọdụ na-agbadata (usoro ụda nke na-eme ka ụda dị elu dị ala karịa ụda dị elu bu ụzọ), a na-ahụkwa ọkwa dị elu.[19] "Ihe na-arị elu" nke Mid nwere ike ịmekọrịta eziokwu ahụ bụ na a na-ahụ ụda abụọ dị iche iche nke Mid n'asụsụ Senufo ndị ọzọ (dịka. Sucite na Supyire).[15] Nkwado ụda dị elu (nke akara ngosi dị elu pụtara) na-eme n'ọnọdụ ndị a:[18]Àtụ:InterlinearO yikarịrị ka mbelata ụda a hụrụ n'ihe atụ a nwere njikọ na akara ụda dị ala nke a hụrụ na mmepụta oge n'ọdịnihu n'asụsụ Senufo ndị ọzọ. N'ezie, Supyire na-egosi ihe yiri nke ahụ na ihe owuwu oge n'ọdịnihu na ihe kpọmkwem (n'ihe owuwu oge ndị ọzọ n'ọdịnihu, a na-ahụ ụda dị ala).[20] Otú ọ dị, n'ozuzu, ọdịda dị ọtụtụ karịa na Supyire; a na-ahụ ihe yiri nke ahụ na Palaka, Tagwana, na Djimini.[21]

A na-ahụ ịrị elu n'oge dị mkpa nke ngwaa ụda dị elu:[22]Àtụ:Interlinear

Asụsụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mkpụrụ okwu Nafaanra nwere ụdaume na ụdaume atọ. Mkpụrụ okwu imi nwere ike ịpụta dị ka mkpụrụedemede n'onwe ya, n'ọnọdụ ahụ a na-akpọ ya mkpụrụedemede imi. Enwere ike ịsụgharị usoro mkpụrụedemede dị ka (C1)(C2)V(C3), na mmasị maka CV na CVV. Ọnọdụ C1 nwere ike ịnwe ụdaume ọ bụla, ọ bụ ezie na okwu mbido /r/ anaghị apụta. Ọnọdụ C2 nwere ike ịnwe naanị trills (/r/) ma ọ bụ approximants (/w, l, j/). Ọnọdụ C3 nwere ike ịnwe naanị imi (//m n ɲ ŋ//), n'ọnọdụ ahụ, a na-eme ka mkpụrụedemede ahụ dum bụrụ nke imi.[23]

Asụsụ Senufo nwere usoro aha aha nke Niger-Congo (ma ọ bụ okike). Suffixes na aha na-egosi onye otu n'ime aha ise. Ndị nnọchiaha, adjectives na copulas na-egosipụta aha nwoke na nwanyị nke aha ha na-ezo aka. Ọ bụ ezie na ọ dịghị nke ọ bụla n'ime isi mmalite na Nafaanra na-enye nkọwa ọ bụla, enwere ike ikwu site na ndepụta okwu dị mkpirikpi nke Jordan nyere na usoro aha aha Nafaanra yiri nke asụsụ Senufo ndị ọzọ.[24]

Usoro okwu bụ isi na Nafaanra bụ isiokwu, dịka a pụrụ ịhụ na ahịrịokwu na-esonụ:Àtụ:Interlinear

Aha nnọchiaha[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Jordan depụtara ndepụta ndị na-esonụ nke nnọchiaha, na-ekwu, "Ọ bụ ezie na usoro nnọchiaha yiri ka ọ dị mfe, ọ na-aghọ ihe mgbagwoju anya n'ihi na a na-egosi oge niile site na njikọta nke nnọchiahara gbakwunyere ihe. "[25]

Nkọwa aha Nafaanra
Jọdan 1980a:6 Otu Ọtụtụ
Onye nke mbụ ni o
Onye nke abụọ mu e
Onye nke atọ u pe

Oge na akụkụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A na-edekarị oge na akụkụ na Nafaanra n'ebe abụọ: na akụkụ pre-verbal na ụdị ngwaa. Nafaanra nwere oge gara aga, oge gara aga na oge ga-adịbeghị anya, na oge gafere n'ọdịnihu na akụkụ na-aga n'ihu. N'ime ahịrịokwu dị mfe, enwere ike ịsụgharị usoro nke ndị dị iche iche dị ka ndị a: SUBJECT • (NEGATION) • (TENSE) • (ASPECT) • VERB . Mgbe nsonaazụ -n na-adịghị mma dị, ọ dịghị ngwakọta nke akụkụ dị n'ihu. Nafaanra na-egosipụtakwa ụfọdụ ihe gbasara oge / akụkụ site na iji ngwaa oge ụfọdụ na ngwaa enyemaka.[26]

Oge gara aga na-egosi site na pre-bal particle (olu dị elu, dị iche na ụda dị ala na-aga n'ihu). A na-eji ihe na-eme n'ọdịnihu eme ihe site na ihe na-ekwu na ọ ga-adị. A na-akọwa ahịrịokwu dị mfe na-enweghị akụkụ dị n'oge na-adịbeghị anya (mgbe ụfọdụ a na-akpọ ozugbo). Ọ bụrụ na akara akụkụ adịghị, a na-akọwa ahịrịokwu dị mfe dị ka ihe zuru ezu.[27]Àtụ:InterlinearAkụkụ na-aga n'ihu (nke a na-akpọ mgbe ụfọdụ ọganihu) na-egosi omume na-aga aga n'ihu ma ọ bụ na-ekwughachi. A na-ejikarị akụkụ na-aga n'ihu eme ihe site na ihe na-adịghị mma na (olu dị ala) na mgbanwe nke ụdị ngwaa. Ngwaa sɛ́, "ga" nke e ji mee ihe na ahịrịokwu ndị dị n'okpuru nwere ụdị na-aga n'ihu síé. N'ime ahịrịokwu ebe ma ihe na-aga n'ihu na ihe na-esote na-aga na-aga, ha na-agwakọta iji nye ihe na-agbakọta ọnụ. N'ime ahịrịokwu dị n'oge gara aga, a na-ewepụ ihe na-aga n'ihu na-agafe agafe ma na-egosi akụkụ na-agagharị agafe naanị na ngwaa.[26]Àtụ:InterlinearNnukwu njikọta na-ewere ọnọdụ n'etiti isiokwu nnọchiaha na akụkụ ndị dị n'ihu. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, "PAST" na-agwakọta na pé, "ha", iji mepụta prá sɛ́ (ha-PAST na-aga-completive), "ha gara", na wè "FUTURE" na-ejikọta na pé na píè sɛ́ (Ha-FUTURÉ na-aga), "ha ga-aga".

Ajụjụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Enwere ike ịhazi ajụjụ n'ọtụtụ ụzọ na Nafaanra. A na-ewu ajụjụ ndị bụ isi site na ịgbakwunye akara ajụjụ ikpeazụ nke ahịrịokwu . Ajụjụ ndị mejupụtara (nke a na-akpọ mgbe ụfọdụ Wh-ajụjụ ma ọ bụ ajụjụ ajụjụ okwu) na-egosi okpukpu abụọ. Ha nwere okwu ajụjụ mbụ nke ahịrịokwu ma jiri akara ajụjụ ikpeazụ nke ahịrị okwu hin.[28]Àtụ:InterlinearÀtụ:Interlinear

Ọnụ ọgụgụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A na-egosi nọmba ndị na-enweghị akara ụda n'okpuru ebe a; ebe o kwere omume, a na-agbakwunye usoro ụda dabere na ndepụta dị na Rapp.[29][30] A na-enye ụfọdụ njikọ Supyire maka ntụnyere.[31] A na-enweta ọnụọgụ isii ruo itoolu site na ịgbakwunye ọnụọgụ otu na anọ na сло, "ise", site na njikọ na.

A na-emepụta ọnụọgụ iri na otu rụọ iri na itoolu site na ịgbakwunye otu ruo itoolu na iri site na njikọ mbɔ, dịka kɛmbɔnunu, "iri na otu", kɛmbɔkunɔ, "iri. Na iri na elu, usoro Nafaanra na Supyire dị iche. A na-eji mmụba nke fulo, "iri," na mgbakwunye nke kɛ, "iri", (site na njikọ ) eme ihe iji mepụta iri atọ ruo iri itoolu. Ikekwe ihe ijuanya, enwere nnukwu ọdịiche n'etiti Rapp (1933) na Jordan (1980) ebe a. Na Rapp's iri isii, iri asaa na iri asatọ, o yiri ka a na-eji féle eme ihe iji akara iri, nke jikọtara ya na ụdị isii

asaa 7 nasato 8iri isii60iri7asaa 0 niri asatọ80.

Rapp (1933) jiri ọnụọgụ Nafaanra maka atọ (táárɛ) na otu narị (lafaa) tụnyere eta na ke-lafa sitere na Mpre, asụsụ a na-amaghị aha ya site na Ghana. Mpre eta dị ka Kwa (cf. Brong esã, Ga etɛ), ebe ụdị Nafaanra táárɛ nwere njikọ doro anya na ụdị ndị a na-ahụ na asụsụ Senufo ndị ọzọ (na-abụghị Kwa) (dịka. [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] Nafaanra lafaa "otu narị" bụ ọnụọgụ Kwa a na-ahụkarị ma eleghị anya ọ gbaziri ya n'otu n'ime asụsụ Kwa gbara ya gburugburu (cf. Dunge na-eme ka ọ bụrụ ihe na-eme, Gonja na-eme ihe na-emeghị ka ọ bụrụ ebe a na-eme ya. N'ihi ya, mmetụta Rapp nke mmekọrịta dị n'etiti Mpre na Nafaanra yiri ka ọ bụghị ihe ezi uche dị na ya na ọkwa a.

Mgbanwe ọdịdị na-eme ebe a na ebe ahụ, ọkachasị mbelata nke kúnɔ, "ise" gaa na kɔ́ɔ̀ (na-echekwa usoro ụda) na mgbanwe site na lafaa gaa na lafɛɛ na ọtụtụ narị.

Nnyocha[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Map of two dozen locations in half a dozen regions. The central region's name, "NAFANA", is magnified in an inset. Other region names include "ABRON" and "NTAKIMA"; location names include "Bondoukou", the largest location in the NAFANA region.
Iberibe nke map asụsụ Delafosse (1904) na-egosipụta Nafaanra ("Nafana") na ókèala nke Ivory Coast na Ghana. A na-ahụ Bonduku n'aka ekpe.

E nwere obere akwụkwọ e bipụtara na ma ọ bụ n'asụsụ Nafaanra. Akwụkwọ asụsụ mbụ kpọtụrụ Nafaanra aha bụ Delafosse (1904), nke nwere ihe edeturu ụfọdụ gbasara ndị Nafana na ndepụta okwu Senufo buru ibu, ọ bụ ezie na ọ nweghị akara ụda ọ bụla. Rapp (1933) bụ ihe mgbakwunye na edemede banyere asụsụ Kulango nke nwere ndepụta okwu German-Nafaanra (Nafana-Sprache) nke ihe dị ka ihe otu narị, nke a chịkọtara n'oge awa anọ na Sampa. Rapp na-ekwu na a na-elebara anya pụrụ iche na akara nke ụda.[32]

Mgbe oge ịgbachi nkịtị na Nafaanra gasịrị, Painter (1966) pụtara, nke nwere ndepụta okwu ndị bụ isi nke asụsụ Pantera na Fantera. Onye ọkà mmụta asụsụ SIL Dean Jordan bipụtara edemede banyere okwu Nafaanra na 1978, ya na nwunye ya Carol Jordan mepụtara nsụgharị nke Agba Ọhụrụ, nke pụtara na 1984.[33] Mpempe akwụkwọ data asụsụ West African nke Kropp-Dakubu nke 1980 Vol II nwere peeji ole na ole na Nafaanra nke Dean na Carol Jordan jikọtara na ngwụcha afọ iri asaa, gụnyere phonology, ndepụta nke aha, ndepụta nke nnọchiaha, ndepụta nke nọmba, na ụfọdụ ihe atụ ahịrịokwu; ụda anaghị akara. Nkọwa okwu zuru ezu nke Nafaanra site na Jordan, nke nwekwara ndepụta Swadesh, pụtara na 1980. Summer Institute of Linguistics ebipụtala ọtụtụ akwụkwọ nke akụkọ ọdịnala Nafana. Mensah na Tchagbale na atlas asụsụ ha nke Ivory Coast nke afọ 1983 gụnyere ndepụta okwu Senufo nke ihe dị ka ihe otu narị na iri abụọ; Nafaanra nọ n'okpuru aha "Nafara nke Bondoukou". A gụnyere orthography nke Nafaanra, na-enweghị akara ụda, na Hartell (1993). Ebe a na-asụ Nafaanra abụwo isiokwu nke ọmụmụ ihe mgbe ochie na-adịbeghị anya (Stahl 2004).

Hụkwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Asụsụ Senufo
  • Map nke mpaghara asụsụ Senufo

Ihe edeturu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Ghana Institute for Linguistics, Literacy, and Bible Translation (GILLBT) 2003, as cited in Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Nafaanra: a language of Ghana. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Retrieved on 2007-04-10
  2. 2.0 2.1 Jordan 1980:1
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Bendor-Samuel 1971
  4. Jordan 1978:84n1
  5. Stahl 2004
  6. Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Introduction to the printed volume. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Retrieved on 2007-04-10
  7. Blench 1999
  8. Delafosse 1904:195
  9. Westermann 1970[1952]:56
  10. Swadesh et al. 1966
  11. Mensah and Tchagbale 1983:19
  12. Manessy 1981
  13. Mills 1984
  14. Minimal pairs from Jordan 1980b:13–15
  15. 15.0 15.1 Carlson 1994
  16. Jordan 1980b:16
  17. Jordan 1980a:5
  18. 18.0 18.1 Jordan 1980b:23
  19. Jordan 1980a,b
  20. Carlson 1994:334
  21. Mills 1984:xvi.
  22. Jordan 1980b:24
  23. Jordan 1980b:2
  24. Jordan 1980a:1–2
  25. Jordan 1980a:6
  26. 26.0 26.1 Jordan 1978
  27. Example sentences adapted from Jordan 1978:85–87.
  28. Examples adapted from Jordan 1980:NAF4
  29. Jordan 1980a:2
  30. Rapp 1933:66–67
  31. As given in Carlson 1994:169
  32. ...besondere Aufmerksamkeit wurde auf die Aufzeichnung der Tonhöhen verwandt, Rapp 1933:66
  33. International Bible Society 1984

Edensibia[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ebe ndị bụ isi e si nweta ya
  • Delafosse, Maurice (1904) Vocabularies comparatifs nke ihe karịrị asụsụ 60 ma ọ bụ olumba ndị a na-asụ na Côte d'Ivoire ma ọ bụ na mpaghara ndị gbara ya gburugburu (nke nwere nkọwa asụsụ na ethnological, bibliography na map). Paris: Leroux.
  • International Bible Society (1984): Nyiɛkpɔɔ nyu foto nanaŋgɔ.
  • [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] "Nke a na-akpọ Nafaara tense-aspect in the folk tale", na Joseph Grimes (ed.), Akwụkwọ na okwu. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics. .
  • Jordan, Carol & Jordan, Dean (1980a). "Nafaara", na Kropp-Dakubu, M.E. (ed.), mpempe akwụkwọ data asụsụ West Africa, Vol. Nke Abụọ. Leiden: West African Linguistic Society / African Studies Centre, 138á143.
  • Jordan, Dean (1980b). "Nchịkọta Field Reports on the Phonology of Nafaara", Nchịkọta Asụsụ Notes 17. Legon: Institute of African Studies, Mahadum nke Ghana.
  • Onye na-ese ihe, Colin (1966) Ndepụta okwu nke asụsụ Senufo abụọ: Fantera na Pantera. Legon: Mahadum nke Ghana. (30p)
  • Rapp, Eugen Ludwig (1933). Die Náfana-sprache auf der Elfenbeinküste und auf der Goldküste. [Asụsụ Náfana na Ivory Coast na Gold Coast], Mitteilungen des Seminars für Orientalische Sprachen (M.S.O.S.) 36, 3, 6669.