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Nkọwa nke Nosology

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Nosology (nke sitere na Greek Ancient νόσος (nosos) 'ọrịa', na -λογία (-logia) 'ọmụmụ nke') bụ ngalaba sayensị ahụike na-ahụ maka nhazi nke ọrịa.  Ịkewa ọnọdụ ahụike n'ụzọ zuru ezu na-achọ ịmara ihe kpatara ya (na ọ bụ naanị otu ihe kpatara ya), mmetụta ọ na-enwe n'ahụ, mgbaàmà ndị a na-emepụta, na ihe ndị ọzọ.  Dịka ọmụmaatụ, a na-ekewa influenza dị ka ọrịa na-efe efe n'ihi na ọ bụ nje na-akpata ya, a na-ekewakwa ya dị ka ọrịa iku ume n'ihi na nje ahụ na-ebute ma na-emebi ụfọdụ anụ ahụ dị na traktị iku ume.  Ka a na-amatakwu banyere ọrịa ahụ, otú ahụ ka a ga-esi ekewa ọrịa ahụ n'ụdị nosologically.

Nosography bụ nkọwa nke ebumnuche ya bụ ime ka a tinye akara nchọpụta na ọnọdụ ahụ.[1][2] N'ihi nke a, ihe na-ahụ maka ihe ndị dị na ya ekwesịghị inwe otu ihe kpatara ya. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, enweghị ike ikwu okwu n'ihi ọrịa uche dị elu na enweghị ike ikwu ihe n'ihi strok nwere ike ịdị iche n'ụzọ dị iche ma n'ụzọ na-adịghị mma.

Ụdị nkewa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Enwere ike ịkewa ọrịa site na kpatara ya, pathogenesis (usoro ọrịa ahụ na-aga n'ihu), ma ọ bụ site na mgbaàmà (s).

N'aka nke ọzọ, enwere ike ịkewa ọrịa dabere na usoro akụkụ ahụ, ọ bụ ezie na nke a na-agbagwoju anya ebe ọ bụ na ọtụtụ ọrịa na-emetụta ihe karịrị otu akụkụ ahụ.

A na-akọwa ọrịa dị ka ọrịa site na mgbaàmà ha. Mgbe enwere ozi ndị ọzọ, a na-akọwa ha site na mmebi ha na-emepụta. Mgbe a maara ihe kpatara ya, a na-akọwa ha nke ọma site na ihe kpatara ya. Nke a na-eduga na ọdịiche dị iche iche nke nwere ike ịghọta ọrịa (usoro nke ihe ịrịba ama na mgbaàmà) dị ka nchọpụta na-abụghị nke a kapịrị ọnụ nke otu ọrịa ma ọ bụ endotypes. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, echiche ndị dị ka murrain na influenza nke a na-apụghị ịmatacha n'oge gara aga ma si otú a ghọta ya dị ka otu ọrịa mgbe e mesịrị nwere ike iwepụ ya dị ka ọrịa dị iche iche nwere ihe ngosi ahụike yiri ya. Ya mere, nosology dị ike, na-agbanwe ka sayensị na-aga n'ihu.

Ọbịbịa nke molecular biology wetara ikike ọzọ nke reclassification na echiche nke ọrịa akọwapụtara na molekụl, akọwapụtara site na njirimara molekụl ha. E webatara echiche a na 1949, na akwụkwọ dị mkpa, "Sickle Cell Anemia, a Molecular Disease", na magazin Science, Linus Pauling, Harvey Itano na ndị ha na ha na-arụkọ ọrụ tọrọ ntọala maka iguzobe ngalaba nke ọgwụ molecular.[3] Ọgwụ mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa, na njikọ ya na mkpụrụ ndụ ihe ọkụkụ na genomics dị ka akụkụ nke mkpụrụ ndụ ihe ndị dị ndụ, nyere ihe ọhụrụ nke isiokwu ahụike nke ụmụ mmadụ na-akọwabu dị ka otu ọrịa nwere ike ịhazi n'ime otu ìgwè ọrịa ma ọ bụ endotypes. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, ọtụtụ ntinye nchekwa data OMIM na-egosi usoro nke aha ọrịa XYZ na ụdị ndị a chọpụtara dị ka XYZ1 (na-etinye ụdị dị iche iche na mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa A), XYZ2 (na-emetụta ụdị dị iche na mkpụrụedemede B), XY Z3 (na-agụnye ụdị dị iche dị iche iche iche na Mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nkịta C), XYz4 (na-ezo aka na ụdị dị iche n'usoro na mkpụrụ ndụ B na C), na nketa C), na ya na ya.

BUsoro koodu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'akụkọ ihe mere eme atụpụtala ọtụtụ nhazi nke ọrịa, na mgbe niile, ha niile na-ekenye koodu maka ọrịa ọ bụla akwadoro.  Ụfọdụ n'ime ha na-edekọ ọrịa na-eso ụzọ nke osisi nhazi, na ndị ọzọ dị ka SNOMED na-eji usoro nhazi multifactor.

Usoro nzuzo a kacha mara amara bụ World Health Organisation ICD-Series, mana enwere nhazi ọkwa ndị ọzọ anabatara dị ka DOCLE, NANDA ma ọ bụ SNOMED.[1]  N'akụkọ ihe mere eme, enwere ndị ọzọ dị ka Sistemụ koodu Berkson nke anaghị echekwa ya ọzọ.  [Ihe ndekọ achọrọ]

Enwekwara usoro koodu maka mgbaàmà ndị dị na ọrịa na nchọpụta nke ihe ndị dị ndụ. A na-etinyekarị ha na akwụkwọ ọkọwa okwu ahụike, yana usoro koodu. Ụfọdụ n'ime ha bụ MeSH (Headings Medical Subject), COSTART (Coding Symbols for Thesaurus of Adverse Reaction Terms) ma ọ bụ MedDRA (Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities) Usoro ndị ọzọ dị ka Current Procedural Terminology anaghị emeso ọrịa ozugbo kama na usoro ndị metụtara ya.[4]

Nkọwa zuru oke na ọnọdụ ahụike n'ozuzu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'echiche sara mbara, nosology na-emetụta ọ bụghị naanị ọrịa, kamakwa ụdị ọrịa ọ bụla, dị ka mmerụ ahụ, mmerụ ahụ ma ọ bụ nsogbu.[5][6]

Enwere ike ịkọwa ọnọdụ ahụike, dị ka ọrịa, site na ihe kpatara ya, pathogenesis (usoro nke na-akpata ọrịa ahụ), ma ọ bụ site na nchịkọta nke mgbaàmà, ihe ịrịba ama ahụike na biomarkers, ọkachasị mgbe nkọwa abụọ ndị ọzọ adịghị (ọrịa idiopathic).

Site n'echiche nke nosological, enwere ike kewaa ọnọdụ ahụike na nsogbu, ọrịa, ọrịa, mmerụ ahụ na mmerụ ahụ, nke ọ bụla nwere ihe ụfọdụ, dịka edepụtara na Disease § Terminology.

Akụkọ ihe mere eme[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Akwụkwọ ahụike oge ochie nwere ụzọ dị iche iche nke ịhazi na ịhazi ọrịa. Ihe odide ndị China dị ka Huangdi Neijing kewara ọrịa nke e kwenyere na ọ bụ ya kpatara ha.[7] Ọtụtụ ndị edemede Gris, Mesopotamian, Rom, na ndị Ijipt oge ochie kewara ọrịa site na akụkụ ahụ ha metụtara, ebe ndị ọzọ kewara ọrịa n'ime ọrịa siri ike ma ọ bụ ọrịa na-adịghị ala ala.[8] A na-ekewa nsogbu uche n'ụdị dị ka mania na paranoia site na Hippocrates, ndị edemede mechara jiri usoro a mee ihe dị ka Najib ad-Din Samarqandi.[9][10]

Ọtụtụ usoro nkewa nke ọrịa oge ochie na-ewu ewu dabere n'ụzọ dị ukwuu na ọchị, nke dugara n'oge etiti oge.[8] Jean Fernel mere mgbalị mbụ iji mepụta ụzọ zuru oke maka nkewa nke ọrịa na narị afọ nke iri na isii.[11] Mgbalị ndị e mere n'oge a na-eme n'oge na-adịbeghị anya na-achịkọta ọrịa site na mgbaàmà ha, ebe usoro nke oge a na-elekwasị anya n'ịchịkọta ọrịa site n'ọdịdị ahụ na ihe kpatara ya.

Na narị afọ nke iri na asaa, onye dọkịta Bekee bụ Thomas Sydenham bụ onye mbụ tụpụtara nhazi nke ọrịa dabere na ọrịa. Maka Sydenham, ọrịa na ọrịa bụ echiche yiri ibe ya.[12]

na narị afọ nke 18, onye taxonomist Carl Linnaeus, Francois Boissier de Sauvages, na ọkachamara n'akparamàgwà mmadụ Philippe Pinel mepụtara nhazi mmalite nke ọrịa anụ ahụ.  N'ọgwụgwụ narị afọ nke 19, Emil Kraepelin na Jacques Bertillon mepụtara echiche nke onwe ha.  Ọrụ Bertillon, nkewa ihe kpatara ọnwụ, bụ ihe mmalite nke usoro koodu ọgbara ọhụrụ, nhazi ọkwa nke ọrịa mba ụwa.

Ngwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • A na-eji Nosology eme ihe nke ukwuu na ahụike ọha na eze, iji nye ohere ọmụmụ ọrịa na-efe efe nke nsogbu ahụike ọha. Nnyocha nke asambodo ọnwụ chọrọ koodu nosological nke ihe kpatara ọnwụ.
  • A na-eji nkewa nke Nosological eme ihe na nlekọta ahụike, dị ka itinye akwụkwọ mkpuchi ahụike, na ndekọ ndị ọrịa.

Hụkwa zie[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Usoro ọgwụgwọ
  • Koodu nchọpụta
  • Nchọpụta dị iche iche
  • International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD)
    • ICD-10 (ICD 10th Revision)
  • Nchịkọta ahụike
  • Pathology (nnyocha nke ọrịa)
  • Ụdị: Ọrịa na nsogbu (Nchịkọta ọrịa nke Wikipedia)
  • Symptomatology - ọmụmụ nke mgbaàmà ọ bụla

Edensibia[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. Stanghellini (2013-07-04). One Century of Karl Jaspers' General Psychopathology (in en). OUP Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-150647-5. “The aim of nosography is the description of single illnesses to allow their diagnosis. Nosography outlines provisional and conventional characteristics of a syndrome and thereby serves the goal of an empirical diagnosis.” 
  2. Schramme (2012-08-09). Philosophy and Psychiatry (in en). Walter de Gruyter, 1. ISBN 978-3-11-090576-2. 
  3. L Pauling, H Itano, SJ Singer, I Wells. "Sickle Cell Anemia, a Molecular Disease". Science, 25 November 1949, vol. 110, no. 2865, pp. 543–548.
  4. Babre (1 January 2010). "Medical Coding in Clinical Trials". Perspect Clin Res 1 (1): 29–32. PMID 21829779. 
  5. Starkstein S E, Leentjens A F G (2008). "The nosological position of apathy in clinical practice". J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 79 (10): 1088–1092. DOI:10.1136/jnnp.2007.136895. PMID 18187477. 
  6. Abenhaim, Lucien et al. The Prognostic Consequences in the Making of the Initial Medical Diagnosis of Work-Related Back Injuries. Spine Journal, 1995
  7. Leung (2009). Leprosy in China: A History. Columbia University Press, 17–22. ISBN 9780231123006. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 Amneris Roselli (2018). "Nosology", in Peter E. Pormann: The Cambridge Companion to Hippocrates. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107068209. 
  9. Kleisiaris (2014). "Health care practices in ancient Greece: The Hippocratic ideal". Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine 7. PMID 25512827. 
  10. Murthy (22 April 2002). "Psychiatric Diagnosis and Classification in Developing Countries", in Mario Maj: Psychiatric Diagnosis and Classification. Wiley. ISBN 978-0471496816. 
  11. Moriyama (2011). "Development of the Classification of Diseases", History of the Statistical Classification of Diseases and Causes of Death. CDC. 
  12. Smith (13 April 2002). "In search of "non-disease"". BMJ 324 (7342): 883–885. DOI:10.1136/bmj.324.7342.883. PMID 11950739. 

Ịgụ ihe ọzọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Njikọ mpụga[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) site na World Health Organization