Nkwụsị ọhịa

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Ugwu Jizera na Central Europe na 2006
Osisi nwụrụ n'ihi ụkọ mmiri ozuzo na-adịgide adịgide na Saxonian Vogtland na 2020

Ọhịa ọnwụ (nke a naakpọkwa "Waldsterben", okwu mgbazinye German) bụ ọnọdụ dị n'osisi ma ọ bụ osisi osisi nke a nagbu akụkụ ndị dịpụrụ adịpụ, ma ọ bụ site na pathogens, parasites ma ọ bụ ọnọdụ dị ka mmiri ozuzo acid, ụkọ mmiri ozuzo, na ihe ndị ọzọ.[1] Ihe omume ndị a nwere ike inwe ọdachi dị ka mbelata ike nke gburugburu ebe obibi, na-apụ nanya mmekọrịta mmekọrịta dị mkpa na ọnụ ụzọ.[2][3][4] Ụfọdụ ihe ndị naagbanwe agbanwe maka nnukwu amụma mgbanwe ihu igwe na narị afọ naesote nwere njikọ kpọmkwem na ọnwụ ọhịa.[5]

Nkọwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ọhịa ọnwụ naezo aka n'ihe omume nke osisi naenweghị ahụike ma naanwụ nenweghị ihe doro anya kpatara ya. A makwaara ọnọdụ a dị ka mbelata ọhịa, mmebi ọhịa, ọnụọgụ ọnụọgụ, na ọnụọgụ nke iguzo.[6] Nke a naemetụtakarị ụdị osisi ọ bụla, mana ọ pụkwara imetụta ọtụtụ ụdị. Dieback bụ ihe omume naeme noge naadịghị anya ma nwee ike ịnwe ọtụtụ ebe na ọdịdị.[6] Ọ nwere ike ịdị nakụkụ gburugburu, nebe dị elu, ma ọ bụ gbasasịa n'ime ọhịa.[7]

Ọhịa naegosi onwe ya nọtụtụ ụzọ: ịdakwasị akwụkwọ na agịga, decolouration nke akwụkwọ na agwọ, belata nke okpueze osisi, osisi nwụrụ anwụ nke afọ ụfọdụ, na mgbanwe na mgbọrọgwụ osisi. O nwekwara ọtụtụ ụdị dị ike. Ogwe osisi nwere ike igosi obere mgbaàmà, mgbaàmà siri ike, ma ọ bụ ọbụna ọnwụ. Enwere ike ile mbelata ọhịa anya dị ka nsonaazụ nke naaga nhu, gbasaa, na ọnwụ siri ike nke ọtụtụ ụdị nime ọhịa.[6] Enwere ike ịkọwa mbelata ọhịa ugbu a site na: mmepe ngwa ngwa na osisi ọ bụla, ihe naeme nụdị ọhịa dị iche iche, ihe na'ime ogologo oge (ihe karịrị afọ 10), na ihe na-apụta n'ebe niile nke ụdị ndị metụtara.[7]

Akụkọ ihe mere eme[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

E mere ọtụtụ nnyocha nafọ ndị 1980 mgbe ajọ ọnwụ mere na Germany na Northeast United States. Ọnwụ ndị gara aga nwere oke mpaghara, Otú ọ dị, malite na ngwụcha afọ ndị 1970, mbelata weghaara ọhịa dị na Central Europe na akụkụ ụfọdụ nke North America. Mmebi ọhịa na Germany, kpọmkwem, dị iche n'ihi na mbelata ahụ siri ike: mmebi ahụ gbasara nọtụtụ ụdị osisi dị iche iche. Pasentị nke osisi ndị metụtara mụbara site na 8% na 1982 ruo 50% na 1984 ma nọrọ na 50% ruo 1987.[7] A tụwo aro ọtụtụ echiche maka ọnwụ a, lee n'okpuru ebe a.

Na narị afọ nke iri abụọ, e ji osisi siri ike ise mee ihe na North America. Ha mere mgbe oké ọhịa ahụ toro ma ihe omume ọ bụla were ihe dị ka afọ iri na otu. Oké ọhịa kachasị njọ naelekwasị anya na osisi birch na-acha ọcha na osisi birh na-acha odo odo. Ha nwere ihe omume nke malitere netiti 1934 na 1937 ma kwụsị n'etiti 1953 na 1954. Nke a gbasoro usoro ebili mmiri nke pụtara na mpaghara ndịda wee kwaga na mpaghara ndị dị nebe ugwu, ebe ebili mmiri abụọ pụtara ìhè n'etiti 1957 na 1965 na Northern Quebec.[8]

Dieback nwekwara ike imetụta ụdị ndị ọzọ dịka ash, oak, na maple. Sugar maple, karịsịa, nwere oke ọnwụ nakụkụ ụfọdụ nke United States noge afọ 1960. Ifufe nke abụọ mere na Canada n'afọ ndị 1980, mana o jisiri ike rute na United States. A naenyocha ọnụọgụ ndị a iji wepụ ọnwụ osisi. A naeche na oké ọhịa tozuru etozu nwere ike ịnwe nnukwu nsogbu gburugburu ebe obibi.[8]

Ihe ndị nwere ike ibute ọnwụ noké ọhịa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ihe ndị mejupụtara usoro okike ọhịa dị mgbagwoju anya ma ịchọpụta mmekọrịta kpọmkwem naakpata ya n'etiti ọnwụ na gburugburu ebe obibi bụ usoro siri ike. Kemgbe ọtụtụ afọ, e meela ọtụtụ nnyocha ma kweta na ụfọdụ echiche dịka:

  • Beetle Bark: Beetle Barc naeji anụ ahụ dị nro nke osisi maka ebe mgbaba, ihe oriri na akwụ́. Ọbịbịa ha naagụnyekarị ihe ndị ọzọ dị ka fungi na nje bacteria. Ha jikọtara aka mepụta mmekọrịta mmekọrịta ebe ọnọdụ osisi ahụ naakawanye njọ.[9] Usoro ndụ ha naadabere na ọnụnọ nke osisi ka ha na-eyi àkwá ha nime ha. Ozugbo a mụrụ ya, igurube ahụ nwere ike ịmepụta mmekọrịta parasitic na osisi ahụ, ebe ọ naebi na ya ma naebelata mgbasa nke mmiri na ihe oriri site na mgbọrọgwụ gaa na osisi.[9]
  • Ọnọdụ mmiri dị n'okpuru ala: Nnyocha e mere na Australia chọpụtara na ọnọdụ ndị dị ka omimi na nnu nwere ike inye aka ịkọ ọdịnihu tupu ha emee. N'otu mpaghara, mgbe omimi na nnu mụbara, osisi ndị kwụ ọtọ mụbara. Otú ọ dị, na mpaghara ọzọ dị n'otu ebe ọmụmụ ihe ahụ, mgbe omimi mụbara mana mmiri ahụ nwere ọnụ ọgụgụ dị ala nke nnu (ya bụ mmiri dị ọcha), diebacks mụbara.[10]
  • Oké ọkọchị na nrụgide okpomọkụ: A na-eche na ụkọ mmiri ozuzo na nrụgide ọkụ naakpata ọnwụ. Ihe doro anya kpatara ha sitere na usoro abụọ.[2] Nke mbụ, ọdịda mmiri, naakpata ọdịda njem nke mmiri site na mgbọrọgwụ gaa na mgbọrọgba osisi.[2] Nke a nwere ike ịkpata akpịrị ịkpọ nkụ na ikekwe ọnwụ.[11] Nke abụọ, ụnwụ nri carbon, naeme ka mmeghachi omume nke osisi na okpomọkụ bụ imechi stomata ya.[2] Ihe omume a na-egbochi carbon dioxide ịbanye, si otú a naeme ka osisi ahụ dabere na ihe echekwara dị ka shuga. Ọ bụrụ na ihe omume okpomọkụ dị ogologo ma ọ bụrụ na osisi ahụ enweghị shuga, ọ gaanwụ ma nwụọ.[11]
  • Pathogens naakpata ọtụtụ ọnwụ. O siri ike ike ike ikewapụ ma mata kpọmkwem ihe pathogens naakpata na otu ha si emekọrịta ihe na osisi. Dịka ọmụmaatụ Phomopsis azadirachtae bụ fungus nke ụdị Phomopsis nke a chọpụtara na ọ bụ ya kpatara ọnwụ na Azadirachta indica (Neem) na mpaghara India.[12] Ụfọdụ ndị ọkachamara na-ele ọnwụ anya dị ka otu ọrịa nwere mmalite a naaghọtaghị nke ọma nke ihe ndị naeme ka osisi ndị nọ n'okpuru nrụgide nwee ike ịwakpo.[6]

Echiche ụfọdụ ndị ọzọ nwere ike ịkọwa ihe kpatara ya na mmetụta nke ọnwụ. Dị ka e kwekọrịtara n'etiti mgbanwe sayensị nke Germany na United States na 1988:[7]

  • Acidification / toxicity nke ala: Ka ala na-aghọwanye acid, a na-ahapụ aluminum, naemebi mgbọrọgwụ osisi ahụ. Ụfọdụ n'ime mmetụta ndị a hụrụ bụ: mbelata nke ịmịkọrọ na ibugharị ụfọdụ cations, mbelata nke iku ume mgbọrọgwụ, mmebi nke mgbọrọgwụ na ọdịdị mgbọrọgwụ mgbọrọgwụ. Prọfesọ Bernhard Ulrich chepụtara nke a na 1979.[7]
  • Ọrịa dị mgbagwoju anya: Njikọ nke ọkwa ozone dị elu, nkwụsị acid na ụkọ ihe oriri na elu naegbu osisi. Ọnụ ọgụgụ dị elu nke ozone na-emebi akwụkwọ na agịga nke osisi na ihe oriri naesi na akwụkwọ osisi apụta. Usoro ihe omume naeto eto ka oge na-aga. Nke a bụ otu ndị prọfesọ: Bernhard Prinz, Karl Rehfuess, na Heinz Zöttl chepụtara.[7]
  • Ọrịa Red-needle nke spruce: Ọrịa a na-akpata ọdịda agịga na nkwụsị nke okpueze. Agịga naeme ka ụcha nchara ma daa. Nke a naakpata site na fungi foliar, nke bụ nje ndị ọzọ naawakpo osisi ndị na-adịghị ike. Ọ bụ Prọfesọ Karl Rehfuess chepụtara nke a.[7]
  • Mmetọ: Mmụba nke mmetọ ikuku naemerụ usoro mgbọrọgwụ ahụ ma naeduga n'ịchịkọta nsí na akwụkwọ ọhụrụ. Mmetụta nwere ike ịgbanwe uto, belata ọrụ photosynthetic, ma belata mmepụta nke metabolites nke abụọ. Ekwenyere na enwere ike iwere ọkwa dị ala dị ka ihe naegbu egbu. Nke a sitere n'aka otu ndị prọfesọ nke Peter Schütt duziri.[7]
    • Organic Air Pollutants: ngalaba a na-elekwasị anya na organic compounds. Ngwakọta atọ a tụlere nke ọma bụ ethylene, aniline, na dinitrophenol. Ọbụna na ọkwa dị ala, kemịkal ndị a emeela ka: ọdịda akwụkwọ osisi naadịghị mma, akwụkwọ osisi gbagọrọ agbagọ, na igbu mkpụrụ osisi. Nke a bụ Fritz Führ chepụtara.[7]
  • Nitrogen Deposition gabigara ókè: Ọnụ ọgụgụ dị elu nke nitrogen na ammonium, nke a naahụkarị na fatịlaịza, nwere ike inwe mmetụta ndị a: ọ nwere ike igbochi fungus bara uru, igbu oge mmeghachi omume kemịkal, mebie nguzozi dị mma n'etiti uto osisi na uto mgbọrọgwụ, ma mụbaa nsị ala. Agbanyeghị, enweghị ihe akaebe nnwale. Nke a bụ Carl Olaf Tamm chepụtara.[7] Hụkwa: Mmetọ naedozi ahụ

Nsonaazụ nke ọnwụ ọhịa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ọgwụgwụ ọhịa nwere ike ibute ọtụtụ ihe, Otú ọ dị, ozugbo ha mere, ha nwere ike inwe nsonaazụ ụfọdụ.

  • Obodo fungus: Ectomycorrhizal fungus naemepụta mmekọrịta symbiotic na osisi. Mgbe ntiwapụ nke ụgbụgbọ osisi, ọnwụ nwere ike ime. Usoro a nwere ike belata photosynthesis, nnweta ihe oriri na ọnụego na usoro ire ure. Ozugbo nke a mere, mmekọrịta symbiotic, nke a kpọtụrụ aha na mbụ, na-emetụta ya n'ụzọ naadịghị mma: obodo ectomycorrhizal fungi nabelata ma mgbe ahụ mmekọrịta ahụ na-apụ kpamkpam.[3] Nke a bụ nsogbu dịka osisi ụfọdụ na-adabere na ọnụnọ ha maka ịdị ndụ.[13]
  • Mmiri ọgwụ ala: Mmiri ọgwụ nke ala nwere ike ịgbanwe mgbe ọ nwụsịrị. Ọ nwere ike ịkpata mmụba nke saturation dị ka biomass hapụrụ n'azụ setịpụrụ ụfọdụ ion dị ka calcium, magnesium na potassium.[14] Enwere ike iwere nke a dị ka nsonaazụ dị mma dịka saturation dị mkpa maka uto osisi na ala na-eme nri.[15] Ya mere, nke a naegosi na kemịkalụ ala naesote ọnwụ nwere ike inye aka nịlaghachi n'ala acid.[14]

Mgbanwe ihu igwe[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mgbanwe nke okpomọkụ kwa afọ na ụkọ mmiri ozuzo bụ isi ihe naeme ka ọhịa nwụọ. Ka a naewepụta carbon karịa site na osisi ndị nwụrụ anwụ, ọkachasị nọhịa Amazon na Boreal, a na-ahapụ gas ndị ọzọ na ikuku. Ọnụ ọgụgụ naarịwanye elu nke gas naeme ka okpomọkụ nke ikuku dịkwuo elu. Atụmatụ maka ọnwụ dịgasị iche, mana egwu nke mgbanwe ihu igwe zuru ụwa ọnụ na-eguzo naanị iji mụbaa ọnụego ọnwụ.[9]

  • Mbelata ike ịnagide: Osisi nwere ike ịnaghachi. Otú ọ dị, nke ahụ nwere ike ịgbanwe mgbe usoro okike naemetụta ya na ụkọ mmiri ozuzo. Nke a naeme ka osisi naenwekwu ohere maka nje ụmụ ahụhụ, si otú a naakpata ihe omume ọnwụ.[2] Nke a bụ nsogbu dịka a naebu amụma na mgbanwe ihu igwe gaamụba ụkọ mmiri ozuzo na mpaghara ụfọdụ nke ụwa.[16]
  • Ọnụ ụzọ: Ọnụ ụzọ dị iche iche dị nihe gbasara ọdịda ọhịa dị ka "biodiversity ..., ọnọdụ gburugburu ebe obibi ... na ọrụ gburugburu ebe obibi".[4] Dị ka mgbanwe ihu igwe nwere ike ịkpata ọnwụ site na ọtụtụ usoro, ọnụ ụzọ ndị a naaghọwanye ihe a naenweta ebe, nọnọdụ ụfọdụ, ha nwere ikike ịkpata usoro nzaghachi dị mma: mgbe mpaghara dị n'ime gburugburu ebe obibi naebelata site na 50%, ụdị ọgaranya nke ectomycorrhizal fungi naesote.[4] Dị ka e kwuru na mbụ, ectomycorrhizal fungi dị mkpa maka ịdị ndụ nke osisi ụfọdụ, naagbanwe dieback nime usoro nzaghachi dị mma.[13]
  • Ihe ngosi: Ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị amaghị kpọmkwem ihe mgbanwe ihu igwe ma nwee ike ịtụle oge. Mgbe a naeru ebe nkwụsịtụ, obere mgbanwe na ọrụ mmadụ nwere ike inwe mmetụta na-adịte aka na gburugburu ebe obibi. Abụọ n'ime ebe itoolu maka nnukwu mgbanwe ihu igwe maka narị afọ na-esote nwere njikọ kpọmkwem na ọnwụ ọhịa.[5] Ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị na-echegbu onwe ha na oké ọhịa naanwụ n'oké ọhịa[17] mmiri ozuzo Amazon na oké ọhịa Boreal evergreen gaakpata oge nkwụsịtụ n'ime afọ 50 naesote.[18][19]

Hụkwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Ụgbụgbọ
  • Birch nwụrụ
  • Ọrịa ọhịa
  • Oké okpomọkụ
  • Hymenoscyphus fraxineus - ihe na-akpata ntụ nwụrụ
  • Kauri nwụrụ
  • Ebe na-akpụ akpụ

Ihe odide[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. Climate-induced forest dieback: an escalating global phenomenon?. Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) (2009). Retrieved on March 16, 2010.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 (December 2015) "Reduced growth sensitivity to climate in bark-beetle infested Aleppo pines: Connecting climatic and biotic drivers of forest dieback". Forest Ecology and Management 357: 126–137. DOI:10.1016/j.foreco.2015.08.017. ISSN 0378-1127.  Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Sangüesa-Barreda_2015" defined multiple times with different content Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Sangüesa-Barreda_2015" defined multiple times with different content
  3. 3.0 3.1 (September 2014) "When the forest dies: the response of forest soil fungi to a bark beetle-induced tree dieback". The ISME Journal 8 (9): 1920–31. DOI:10.1038/ismej.2014.37. PMID 24671082.  Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Stursová_2014" defined multiple times with different content
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 (July 2017) "Thresholds of biodiversity and ecosystem function in a forest ecosystem undergoing dieback". Scientific Reports 7 (1): 6775. DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-06082-6. PMID 28754979.  Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Evans_2017" defined multiple times with different content
  5. 5.0 5.1 (February 2008) "Tipping elements in the Earth's climate system". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105 (6): 1786–93. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0705414105. PMID 18258748.  Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Lenton_2008" defined multiple times with different content
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 (1994) Decline and dieback of trees and forests: A global overview.. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.  Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Ciesla_1994" defined multiple times with different content Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Ciesla_1994" defined multiple times with different content
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 (1988) Forest Decline: Cause-Effect Research in the United States of North America and Federal Republic of Germany.. Germany: Assessment Group for Biology, Ecology and Energy of the Julich Nuclear Research Center.  Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Krahl_1988" defined multiple times with different content Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Krahl_1988" defined multiple times with different content Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Krahl_1988" defined multiple times with different content Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Krahl_1988" defined multiple times with different content
  8. 8.0 8.1 (1997) Principle Forest Dieback Episodes in Northern Hardwoods: Development of Numeric Indices of Aereal Extent and Severity.. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.  Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Auclair19973" defined multiple times with different content
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Bark Beetle Outbreaks in Western North America: Causes and Consequences.. US Forestry Service (2005). Retrieved on 17 March 2021. Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Allen_2005" defined multiple times with different content
  10. (2011-02-21) "Groundwater change forecasts widespread forest dieback across an extensive floodplain system". Freshwater Biology 56 (8): 1494–1508. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2427.2011.02585.x. ISSN 0046-5070. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 (September 2017) "A multi-species synthesis of physiological mechanisms in drought-induced tree mortality". Nature Ecology & Evolution 1 (9): 1285–1291. DOI:10.1038/s41559-017-0248-x. PMID 29046541. 
  12. Prasad (2009-02-01). "Detection of Phomopsis azadirachtae from dieback affected neem twigs, seeds, embryo by polymerase chain reaction". Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection 42 (2): 124–128. DOI:10.1080/03235400600982584. ISSN 0323-5408. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 (2020-08-06) "Back to Roots: The Role of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi in Boreal and Temperate Forest Restoration". Frontiers in Forests and Global Change 3: 97. DOI:10.3389/ffgc.2020.00097.  Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Policelli_2020" defined multiple times with different content
  14. 14.0 14.1 (February 2019) "Tree dieback and related changes in nitrogen dynamics modify the concentrations and proportions of cations on soil sorption complex". Ecological Indicators 97: 319–328. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolind.2018.10.032. ISSN 1470-160X. 
  15. Cation Exchange Capacity and Base Saturation | UGA Cooperative Extension. extension.uga.edu. Retrieved on 2021-03-29.
  16. Earth's Freshwater Future: Extremes of Flood and Drought. Climate Change: Vital Signs of the Planet. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved on 2021-03-29.
  17. (March 2011) "Amazon dieback and the 21st century.". BioScience 61 (3): 176–82. DOI:10.1525/bio.2011.61.3.3. 
  18. (May 1997) "Global climate change adaptation: examples from Russian boreal forests.". Climatic Change 36 (1): 197–215. DOI:10.1023/A:1005348614843. 
  19. (February 2008) "Tipping elements in the Earth's climate system". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105 (6): 1786–93. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0705414105. PMID 18258748.