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Nkwekọrịta Mba Nile Na-echebe Osisi

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NInternational Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) bụ nkwekọrịta multilateral nke 1951 nke United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation na-ahụ maka nke na-achọ ijide n'aka nhazi, ihe dị irè iji gbochie na ịchịkwa iwebata na mgbasa nke pesti nke osisi na ngwaahịa osisi. Nkwekọrịta ahụ gbatịpụrụ ihe nchebe nke ihe ọkụkụ a kụrụ n'ubi ruo na nchekwa nke ahịhịa ahịhịa na ihe ọkụkụ. Ọ na-elebakwa anya ma n'ụzọ ziri ezi na mmebi site na pests, ya mere ọ gụnyere ahịhịa. IPPC na-akwalite ụkpụrụ mba ụwa maka usoro ọmụmụ ihe ọmụmụ (ISPMs).[1]

Mgbakọ ahụ mepụtara otu ọchịchị nke nwere otu ọ bụla, nke a maara dị ka Commission on Phytosanitary Measures, nke na-ahụ maka mmejuputa nke mgbakọ ahụ (lee § CPM). N’ihe dị ka n’August 2017, mgbakọ ahụ nwere nnọkọ 183, bụ́ mba 180 ndị òtù United Nations na Cook Islands, Niue, na European Union. Nkwekọrịta nke World Trade Organisation (WTO) nabatara mgbakọ a na ntinye nke usoro Sanitary na Phytosanitary (Agreement SPS) dịka naanị otu ntọala ọkọlọtọ mba ụwa maka ahụike osisi.

Ihe mgbaru ọsọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ọ bụ ezie na isi ihe IPPC lekwasịrị anya na osisi na ngwaahịa osisi na-agagharị na azụmaahịa mba ụwa, mgbakọ ahụ na-ekpuchi ihe nyocha, ihe ndị na-achịkwa ihe ndị dị ndụ, ụlọ akụ germplasm, ụlọ ọrụ mgbochi, enyemaka nri, enyemaka mberede na ihe ọ bụla ọzọ nwere ike ịrụ ọrụ dị ka ihe na-ebute mgbasa nke ihe ọkụkụ - dịka ọmụmaatụ, akpa, ihe nkwakọba, ala, ụgbọala, arịa na ígwè.

Mba ndị so na Food and Agriculture Organization (UN FAO) mepụtara IPPC. IPPC na-ekwusi ike na isi mpaghara atọ: ntọala ọkọlọtọ mba ụwa, mgbanwe ozi na mmepe ikike maka mmejuputa IPPC na ụkpụrụ ọgwụ mkpofu mba ụwa. Secretariat nke IPPC dị na isi ụlọ ọrụ FAO na Rome, Ịtali, ọ bụkwa ya na-ahụ maka nhazi ọrụ ndị bụ isi n'okpuru usoro ọrụ IPPC.

N'ime afọ ndị na-adịbeghị anya, Commission of Phytosanitary Measures nke IPPC emepụtala usoro atụmatụ na ebumnuche nke:

  • ichebe ọrụ ugbo na-adịgide adịgide na ịkwalite nchekwa nri zuru ụwa ọnụ site na mgbochi nke mgbasa nke nje.
  • na-echebe gburugburu ebe obibi, oké ọhịa na ụdị dị iche iche site na ụmụ ahụhụ osisi;
  • na-eme ka mmepe akụ na ụba na azụmaahịa dị mfe site n'ịkwalite usoro ọgwụgwọ osisi dabere na sayensị, na:
  • ịzụlite ikike phytosanitary maka ndị otu iji mezuo ebumnuche atọ gara aga.

Site n'itinye mgbalị nke mgbakọ ahụ na ebumnuche ndị a, Commission on Phytosanitary Measures nke IPPC bu n'obi:

  • chebe ndị ọrụ ugbo pụọ na ntiwapụ nke ọrịa na ọrịa na-emebi akụ na ụba.
  • chebe gburugburu ebe obibi site na ọnwụ nke ụdị dị iche iche.
  • chebe usoro okike site na mfu nke ịdị irè na ọrụ n'ihi mwakpo nje.
  • chebe ụlọ ọrụ na ndị na-azụ ahịa site na ego nchịkwa ma ọ bụ mkpochapụ.
  • mee ka azụmahịa dị mfe site na International Standards nke na-achịkwa njem dị nchebe nke osisi na ngwaahịa osisi.
  • chebe ụzọ ndụ na nchekwa nri site na igbochi ịbanye na mgbasa nke nje ọhụrụ nke osisi n'ime mba.

 

Òtù Na-echebe Osisi[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'okpuru IPPC bụ Regional Plant Protection Organizations (RPPO). Ndị a bụ òtù gọọmentị na-ahụ maka imekọ ihe ọnụ na nchekwa osisi. E nwere òtù ndị a nke IPPC nabatara ma na-arụ ọrụ n'okpuru ya:[2]

N'okpuru IPPC, ọrụ nke RPPO bụ:

  • na-arụ ọrụ dị ka ndị na-ahazi ihe na mpaghara ndị a gụnyere, ga-ekere òkè n'ihe omume dị iche iche iji mezuo ebumnuche nke Nkwekọrịta a ma, ebe o kwesịrị, ga-anakọta ma gbasaa ozi.
  • soro odeakwụkwọ rụkọọ ọrụ iji mezuo ebumnuche nke Nkwekọrịta ahụ ma, ebe o kwesịrị, soro odeakwụkwọ na kọmitii rụkọọ ihe n'ịmepụta ụkpụrụ mba ụwa.
  • na-enwe ndụmọdụ teknụzụ oge niile nke ndị nnọchi anya ụlọ ọrụ nchekwa osisi mpaghara na:
    • na-akwalite mmepe na ojiji nke ụkpụrụ mba ụwa dị mkpa maka usoro ọgwụgwọ ahịhịa; na
    • na-agba ume imekọ ihe ọnụ n'etiti mpaghara n'ịkwalite usoro ọgwụgwọ ahịhịa maka ịchịkwa ụmụ ahụhụ na igbochi mgbasa na / ma ọ bụ iwebata ha.

 

Nzukọ Ahụike Osisi Mba Nile[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ọ bụ FAO haziri Nzukọ Ahụike Ọhịa nke mbụ kwa afọ ma mee ka Gọọmentị Finland kwado ya na Helsinki 28 June-July 1, 2021.[3][4] Otú ọ dị, na 9 Febụwarị 2021 ka a kagburu ya n'ihi ọrịa na-efe efe na-aga n'ihu.[5]

Kọmitii Na-ahụ Maka Nchebe Ọhịa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

E mere nnọkọ nke iri na ise nke Commission on Phytosanitary Measures (CPM) na 16 Machị, 18 Machị na 1 Eprel 2021 ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ Zoom.[6]

IPPC mepụtara ma na-achịkwa usoro ePhyto, ọkọlọtọ asambodo eletrọniki nke mba ụwa. A nabatara ePhyto n'ọtụtụ ebe - As of January 2023 [update] a gbanwere asambodo ePhyto nde atọ n'etiti mba ndị na-ebupụ na ndị na-ebunye.[7][8]

Ịdị irè[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Haack et al., 2014 chọpụtara na IPPC enweela ihe ịga nke ọma n'ibelata nsị na-agwụ ike nke ihe nkwakọba osisi na mbupu na-abanye na United States.[9]

Hụkwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • asambodo ọgwụ mkpá akwụkwọ
  • Usoro Nnyocha na Nnyocha nke asambodo ọgwụ (PCIT)
  • Afọ Mba Nile nke Ahụike Osisi (IYPH)

Ihe odide[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. Morin (2020). "Progress in Biological Control of Weeds with Plant Pathogens". Annual Review of Phytopathology 58 (1): 201–223. DOI:10.1146/annurev-phyto-010820-012823. ISSN 0066-4286. PMID 32384863. 
  2. Regional Plant Protection Organizations. International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC). Retrieved on 2021-05-05.
  3. International Plant Health Conference. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. Retrieved on 2021-02-09.
  4. International Plant Health Conference "Protecting Plant Health in a changing world". Viikki Plant Science Center, University of Helsinki (2019-12-10). Retrieved on 2021-02-09.
  5. International Plant Health Conference in Helsinki is cancelled amid continued COVID-19 restrictions. International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (2021-02-09). Retrieved on 2021-02-09.
  6. CPM 15. International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC). UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Retrieved on 2021-03-15.
  7. IPPC ePhyto Solutions (en). ePhyto. International Plant Protection Convention Secretariat (IPPC) (2023). Retrieved on 2023-01-25.
  8. International Plant Protection Convention Secretariat (IPPC). "New milestone reached as three million IPPC ePhyto certificates exchanged". Retrieved on 2023-01-25. (in en)
  9. Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Effectiveness

Njikọ mpụga[dezie | dezie ebe o si]