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Nkwupụta Banyere Ikpochapụ Ime Ihe Ike megide Ụmụ nwanyị

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Nkwupụta maka iwepụ nmegide ana emegidi ụmụ nwanyị (nke a na-akpọ DEVAW [1]) ka Nzukọ Ezumezu nke Mba Ndị Dị n'Otu nabatarala na-enweghị ntụli aka ọbula [2] na mkpebi 48/104 nke 20 Disemba 1993. Ihe dị n'ime ya bụ nkwenye nke "mkpa dị ngwa maka itinye n'ọrụ zuru ụwa ọnụ nye ụmụ nwanyị nke ikike na ụkpụrụ gbasara ịha aha, na-chekwa, nnwere onwe, igwuzosi ike n'ezi ihe na ùgwù nke ụmụ mmadụ niile". [3] Ọ na-echeta ma na-egosipụta otu ikike na ụkpụrụ ndị ahụ dị ka ndị e debere na ngwá ọrụ ndị dị ka Universal Declaration of Human Rights, na Isiokwu 1 na 2 na-enye nkọwa a na-ejikarị ime ihe ike megide ụmụ nwanyị. [4][5]

Nkwado mba ụwa ñile nke n'egosi na ụmụ nwanyị nwere ikike ibi ndụ na-enweghị nmegide ihe ike ọbụla bụ nke putara na oge na-adịbeghị anya, pụtara n'ihe dị ka afọ 1970. [6] N'akụkọ ihe gagoru aga, ọgụ ha eji gbanwo ime ihe ike, na enweghị ntaramahụhụ nke na-echebe ndị na-eme ya, na-ejikọta ya na ọgụ ha iji merie ịkpa ókè.[7] Kemgbe e guzobere otu Nzukọ Ezumezu nke Mba Ndị Dị n'Otu, na-echeba ichiche banyere ọganihu nke ikike ụmụ nwanyị site na ụlọ ọrụ ndị dị ka Nzukọ Ezumezu nke Mba Ndị Dị n'Otu akpọrọ United Nations Commission on the Status of Women (CSW), mana ọ bụghị kpọmkwem na ọnụ ọgụgụ dị elu nke ụmụ nwanyị ndị e ji ime ihe ike mee ihe ruo na mbido afọ 1990.   Nkwekọrịta 1979 maka mwepụ nke ụdị ịkpa ókè niile megide ụmụ nwanyị (CEDAW) [8] ekwughị banyere ime ihe ike megide ụmụ nwanyị; [9] June 1993 Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action (VDPA) [10] bụ akwụkwọ mba ụwa mbụ katọrọ ime ihe ike maka ụmụ nwanyị. [9][ihe odide 2] E mepụtara mkpebi DEVAW dị ka ndọtị nke CEDAW, ma kwuo n'ụzọ doro anya na ike na mmejuputa nke CEDАW bụ otu n'ime ebumnuche ya.[4][note 3]

Na ọnwa itolụ an afọ 1992, ka otu ogbakọ ụmụ nwanyị ana akpọ CSW họpụtara otu ọrụ pụrụ iche iji depụta kwadebe nkwupụta megide ana emegide ụmụ nwanyị .[6] Otu n'ime ebumnuche nke mkpebi ahụ bụ ịkagbu nguzo gọọmentị na megidi ana megide ụmụ nwanyị bụ ihe nzuzo, dị n'ezi n'ụlọ nke gọọmentị na-achọghị itinye aka maka na ogbasarọ steeti.[1] N'oge ahụ, a maara na iti nwunye ihe (nke a na-ejikarị eme ihe n'okpuru okwu "ihe ike n'ụlọ" ma ọ bụ "ihe ike nke onye mmekọ") bụ ụdị ihe ike a na-ahụkarị megide ụmụ nwanyị.[1] Dịka ọmụmaatụ, Levinson (1989) chọpụtara na, na 86% nke ọdịbendị iri itoolu a mụrụ, e nwere ime ihe ike nke ndị di na-eme megide ndị nwunye ha; ọmụmụ ndị ọzọ n'oge ahụ gosipụtara usoro ọdịbendị yiri nke ahụ.[1] Nsonaazụ ahụike nke ime ihe ike dị otú ahụ dị ukwuu; dịka ọmụmaatụ, na United States, ọ bụ isi ihe kpatara mmerụ ahụ n'ahụ ụmụ nwanyị, 22-35% nke ụmụ nwanyị gara n'Ụlọ mberede mere ya n'ihi mgbaàmà sitere na mmetọ di na nwunye, na iti nwunye ihe mere ka ọ bụrụ na ọ dị mkpa maka ọgwụgwọ uche ugboro 5 karịa na ụmụ nwanyị ndị ọzọ.[1] Ọzọkwa, a na-aghọtawanye ime ihe ike mmekọahụ gụnyere ndina n'ike dị ka nsogbu nke metụtara pasent dị ukwuu nke ụmụ nwanyị niile.[1] Iji mee emume Ụbọchị Ụmụ nwanyị nke Mba Nile na 8 Machị 1993, odeakwụkwọ ukwu, Boutros Boutros-Ghali, wepụtara nkwupụta na nkwadebe nke nkwupụta ahụ na-akọwa ọrụ UN na 'ịkwalite' na 'nchebe' nke ikike ụmụ nwanyị: [11]

Mgbalị maka ikike ụmụ nwanyị, na ọrụ nke ịmepụta Nzukọ Ezumezu nke Mba Ndị Dị n'Otu, nke nwere ike ịkwalite udo na ụkpụrụ ziri ezi nke ndị na-azụlite ma na-akwado ya, bụ otu. Taa - karịa mgbe ọ bụla - ihe kpatara ụmụ nwanyị bụ ihe kpatara ihe a kpọrọ mmadụ niile.

Nkọwa nke Ime Ihe Ike megide Ụmụ nwanyị[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Site na nkọwa ihe edere ede nke Jenụwarị 2012 nke otu nzukọ International Expert Group Meeting na ihe gbasara nmegidi ana emegide ụmụ nwanyị ndi nwe obodo an ụmụ agbọhọ n'etọ etọ (na-arụ ọrụ maka UNPFII), Isiokwu 1 na 2 nke DEVAW na-enye "nkọwa a na-ejikarị eme ihe ike megide ụmụ nwanyị na ụmụ agbọghọ"; [4] Jacqui True (2012). [5][note 2]

Isiokwu Mbụ: Maka ebumnuche nke nkwupụta a, okwu ahụ bụ "ime ihe ike megide ụmụ nwanyị" pụtara omume ọ bụla nke ime ihe ike megide madu maka na obu nwoke ma obu na obu nwanyi nke na-ebute, ma ọ bụ nwere ike ịkpata, mmerụ ahụ, mmekọahụ ma ọ bụ nke uche ma ọ bụ ahụhụ ụmụ nwanyị, gụnyere iyi egwu nke omume dị otú ahụ, nrụgide ma ọ bụ ịnapụ nnwere onwe, ma ọ na-eme n'ihu ọha ma ọ bụ na ndụ onwe.

Isiokwu nke Abụọ:

A ga-aghọta ime ihe ike megide ụmụ nwanyị ka ọ gụnye, mana ọ bụghị nanị, ihe ndị a:

(a) Ime ihe ike n'ahụ, mmekọahụ na nke uche na-eme n'ime ezinụlọ, gụnyere iti ihe, mmetọ mmekọahụ nke ụmụaka nwanyị n'ime ụlọ, ime ihe ike metụtara ego isi, ndina n'ike n'alụmdi na nwunye, igbupụ akụkụ ahụ nwanyị na omume ọdịnala ndị ọzọ na-emerụ ụmụ nwanyị, ime ihe ọjọọ na-abụghị nke di na nwunye na ime ihe ike ndị metụtara mmegbu.
(b) Ime ihe ike n'ahụ, mmekọahụ na nke uche na-eme n'ime obodo n'ozuzu, gụnyere ndina n'ike, mmetọ mmekọahụ, iyi egwu mmekọahụ n'ebe ọrụ, n'ụlọ akwụkwọ na ebe ndị ọzọ, ịzụ ahịa ụmụ nwanyị na ịgba akwụna a manyere.
(c) Ime ihe ike, mmekọahụ na nke uche nke gọọmentị mere ma ọ bụ kwado, n'ebe ọ bụla ọ na-eme.[3]

Nkwupụta maka iwepụ ime ihe ike megide ụmụ nwanyị (DEVAW) enweela mmetụta na mmepe nke ọtụtụ ngwaọrụ na ụlọ ọrụ ndị ọzọ gbasara ikike mmadụ:

  • United Nations Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women: DEVAW bụ otu n'ime akwụkwọ ndị UN Commission on Human Rights kpọrọ na Resolution 1994/45 nakweere na 4 Machị 1994, [12] nke o kpebiri ịhọpụta Radhika Coomaraswamy dị ka onye mbụ United Nations Special Report on Violence against Women, gụnyere ihe kpatara ya na ihe si na ya pụta. Rapporteur pụrụ iche nwere ikike ịnakọta ma nyochaa data sitere na gọọmentị, òtù nkwekọrịta, ụlọ ọrụ pụrụ iche, NGO, na ndị ọzọ nwere mmasị, yana imeghachi omume n'ụzọ dị irè na ozi dị otú ahụ. Ọzọkwa, ha nwekwara ọrụ n'inye aro na mba ụwa, mba na mpaghara, yana iso ndị ọzọ na-akọ akụkọ pụrụ iche, ndị nnọchi anya pụrụ iche, ìgwè ndị ọrụ na ndị ọkachamara onwe ha nke Commission on Human Rights. [13]
  • Nkwekọrịta Inter-American na mgbochi, ntaramahụhụ, na ikpochapụ ime ihe ike megide ụmụ nwanyị (Belém do Pará Convention): A kpọtụrụ DEVAW aha na mbido nke Nkwekọta Belém do Parà nke 9 June 1994.[14]
  • Ụbọchị Mba Nile Maka Ikpochapụ Ime Ihe Ike megide Ụmụ nwanyị: Mkpebi UN 54/134 nke 17 Disemba 1999, nke kwetara na 25 Nọvemba bụ Ụbọchị Mba Ụwa Maka Ikpochapụ Ihe Ike megide ụmụ nwanyị, kpọọ nkwupụta maka Ikpopụ Ihe Ike megide Ndị Inyom (Mkpebi UN 48/104) ugboro abụọ.[15]

Ọtụtụ ndị na-akwado ikike ụmụ nwanyị ndị kwenyere na ikike mmadụ egosila nchegbu na ọtụtụ n'ime ala ndị nkwupụta ahụ nwetara ejirila mmụba nke ndị ọzọ na-agbaso omenala n'ime mba ụwa yie egwu.[16] N'ọnwa Machị afọ 2003, n'oge nzukọ nke Kọmitii UN maka Ọnọdụ Ụmụ nwanyị, onye nnọchiteanya si Iran jụrụ itinye paragraf nke kpọrọ gọọmentị ka ha "katọ ime ihe ike megide ụmụ nwanyị ma zere ịkpọtụrụ omenala, ọdịnala, ma ọ bụ echiche okpukpe ọ bụla iji zere ọrụ ha gbasara iwepụ ya dịka edepụtara na nkwupụta nke iwepụ ime ihe ike na ndị nnọchiteanya sitere na Egypt, Pakistan, Sudan na US welitere mmegide; na-eme ka ọ bụrụ ọdịda mbụ na Kọmitii Mba UN maka Ọnụọ nke ụmụ nwanyị.[17]

Kwa afọ, Ụbọchị Mba Nile Maka Ikpochapụ Ime Ihe Ike megide Ụmụ nwanyị na-egosi mmalite nke Ụbọchị 16 nke Ịrụsi Ike megide Ime Ihe Ike dabere na Mmekọahụ.[18] Òtù ndị na-ahụ maka ihe ndị ruuru mmadụ dị ka Center for Women's Global Leadership, Unifem, Women Won't Wait, Women for a Change, Women's Aid, na ndị ọzọ na-agbakọta ọnụ iji kwuo okwu megide ime ihe ike nwoke na nwanyị na ịkwalite ikike na ụkpụrụ nke nkwupụta ahụ.[19] A malitere nzọụkwụ dị ịrịba ama nke e mere iji kwụsị ime ihe ike ụmụ nwanyị na-eche ihu na 2008 ma mara ya dị ka "Ịdị n'otu iji kwụsị imebi ihe ike megide ụmụ nwanyị". Ebumnuche nke a bụ ịkwalite mmata ọha na eze banyere nsogbu ahụ na ịkwụsị ime ihe ike ụmụ nwanyị na ụmụ agbọghọ na-eche ihu gburugburu ụwa. Ebe ọ bụ na a ka nwere ohere dị ukwuu maka mgbanwe taa, ọ bụ naanị mba abụọ n'ime mba atọ machibidoro ime ihe ike n'ụlọ na mba iri atọ na asaa na-anapụ ndị na-eme ka mmekọahụ ghara ikpe ma ọ bụrụ na ha lụrụ onye ahụ ma ọ bụ ga-alụ onye ahụ n'oge na-adịghị anya. E nwekwara mba iri anọ na itoolu na-enweghị iwu ga-echebe ụmụ nwanyị pụọ na ime ihe ike n'ụlọ.[20]

N'abalị iri n'ọnwa Eprel afọ 2009, Amnesty International mere ngagharị iwe na Narayanghat, Nepal, iji mee ka nsogbu nke ndị na-ahụ maka ihe ndị ruuru ụmụ nwanyị pụta ìhè mgbe steeti Nepal na-echebe ndị na-eme ngagharị iwe abụọ pụọ na mwakpo ime ihe ike na, n'ikpeazụ, ogbugbu ha.[21] N'agbanyeghị na ọ kwadoro nkwupụta ahụ, Nepal agbasoghị na Nkeji edemede 4-c nke na-ekwusi ike na iwu doro anya nke steeti: [3]

Na-arụsi ọrụ ike iji gbochie, nyochaa ma, dịka iwu mba si dị, na-ata ntaramahụhụ maka ime ihe ike megide ụmụ nwanyị, ma ọ bụ site na steeti ma ọ bụ ndị mmadụ.

  1. Manjoo (2018). The Legal Protection of Women From Violence: Normative Gaps in International Law. Abingdon: Routledge. ISBN 9781351732833. Retrieved on 14 March 2020. 
  2. RESOLUTIONS: General Assembly, 48th session. un.org. Archived from the original on January 16, 2014. Retrieved on May 14, 2014.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 A/RES/48/104 – Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women – UN Documents: Gathering a body of global agreements. un-documents.net. Retrieved on February 24, 2010. Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; name "DEVAW text" defined multiple times with different content
  4. 4.0 4.1 Concept Note – International Expert Group Meeting on Combating violence against indigenous women and girls: article 22 of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii. United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (20 January 2012). Retrieved on 10 March 2021. Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Concept Note" defined multiple times with different content
  5. 5.0 5.1 True (2012). The Political Economy of Violence Against Women. New York: Oxford University Press USA, 8–9. ISBN 9780199755912. Retrieved on 10 March 2021.  Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; name "True" defined multiple times with different content
  6. 6.0 6.1 Heise (1993). "Violence Against Women: The Hidden Health Burden". World Health Statistics Quarterly 46 (1): 78–85. Retrieved on 9 March 2021.  Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Heise" defined multiple times with different content
  7. Ending Impunity for Violence Against Women and Girls. United Nations Department of Public Information (8 March 2007). Retrieved on 9 March 2021.
  8. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. un.org. Retrieved on February 24, 2010.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Korey (2001). NGO's and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: A Curious Grapevine. New York: Palgrave. ISBN 9780230108165. Retrieved on 10 March 2021. 
  10. Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, Part II, paragraf 38. refworld.org. Retrieved on June 24, 2017.
  11. Secretary-General, in International Women's Day message, sys promotion and protection of women's rights central to work of United Nations. un.org (WomenWatch) (1993). Retrieved on 24 February 2010.
  12. 1994/45. Question of integrating the rights of women into the human rights mechanisms of the United Nations and the elimination of violence against women. ohchr.org. Retrieved on 10 March 2021.
  13. Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences. www2.ohchr.org. Retrieved on February 24, 2010.
  14. Inter-American Convention on the Prevention, Punishment, and Eradication of Violence against Women (Convention of Belém do Pará). oas.org. Organization of American States (9 June 1994). Retrieved on 11 March 2021. “...RECALLING the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, adopted by the Twenty-fifth Assembly of Delegates of the Inter-American Commission of Women...”
  15. International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women : resolution / adopted by the General Assembly. United Nations Digital Library. United Nations (7 February 2000). Retrieved on 11 March 2021. “The General Assembly, Recalling the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women, adopted by the General Assembly in its resolution 48/104 of 20 December 1993, (...) Reiterating that, according to article 1 of the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, the term “violence against women” means any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life, 1. Decides to designate 25 November as the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women...”
  16. Reilly (2008-02-12). Violence against Women. awid.org. Archived from the original on 2014-07-14. Retrieved on June 24, 2017.
  17. Freeburg. "U.N. Pact Sinks on Issue of Violence Against Women | Women's eNews", womensenews.org, 2003-04-23. Retrieved on February 24, 2010.
  18. 16 Days of Activism Against Gender Violence. who.int. Archived from the original on November 3, 2013. Retrieved on June 24, 2017.
  19. 16 Days of Activism Against Gender-Based Violence Campaign. rutgers.edu. Retrieved on June 3, 2017.
  20. International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women, 25 November (en). www.un.org. Retrieved on 2020-10-23.
  21. Nepal: Two Women's rights's rightss rights's rights's rights's rights human rights activists murdered after government fails to protect them from violent attacks. amnesty.org.uk (April 10, 2009). Retrieved on June 24, 2017.