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Nkwupụta nke Philadelphia

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Nkwupụta nke Philadelphia
asụsụ eji dee ọrụFrench language Dezie

 

Nkwupụta nke Philadelphia (10 May 1944) kwughachiri ebumnuche ọdịnala nke International Labour Organisation (ILO) wee pụta na ụzọ ọhụrụ abụọ: Centrality nke ikike mmadụ na amụma mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya, na mkpa maka atụmatụ akụ na ụba mba ụwa. [1] : 481–2 Na njedebe nke agha ụwa n'ihu, ọ gbalịrị ime ka ụkpụrụ nduzi nke ILO "na-eme ka ọnọdụ ọhụrụ na ọchịchọ ọhụrụ kpalitere site na olileanya maka ụwa ka mma." [2] : 287 A nabatara ya na ọgbakọ 26th nke ILO na Philadelphia, United States of America. [1] : 481 N'afọ 1946, mgbe Nzukọ Ezukọtara na Montreal na-edogharị ụkpụrụ iwu nke ILO, agbakwunyere nkwupụta nke Philadelphia na usoro iwu ma bụrụ akụkụ dị mkpa na ya site na Nkeji edemede 1. [2] : 287 

Nkwuputa a, n'uju, nkwupụta gbasara ebumnuche na ebumnuche nke International Labour Organisation, nke anabatara na nnọkọ nke iri abụọ na isii nke ILO, Philadelphia, 10 Mee 1944 bụ onye na-arụ ọrụ ILO Director, Edward J. Phelan, na C. Wilfred Jenks . [1] : 481 [3] Ọtụtụ n'ime ihe nkwuputa a chọrọ bụ n'ihi njikọ aka nke otu ndị ọrụ America na Western Europe na ndị odeakwụkwọ ILO. [1] : 481 

Okwu sara mbara na izugbe[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Nkwuputa a na-amalite site n'ebumnobi na ebumnuche izugbe maka ILO wee depụta mgbanwe ndị dị iche iche nke, n'adịghị ka ndị dị n'usoro iwu ILO mbụ, na-egosipụta n'ụzọ sara mbara iji gboo mkpa ozugbo na n'ọdịnihu na ọchịchọ na izere ndokwa ọ bụla ka ọ ghara imefu. [2] : 288–9 

Nkọwapụta[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Nkwuputa a lekwasịrị anya na usoro nke ụkpụrụ isi iji kwado ọrụ nke ILO. Ndị a gụnyere:

  • Ịrụ ọrụ abụghị ihe onwunwe . (I, a)
  • Nnwere onwe ikwu okwu na mkpakọrịta dị mkpa maka ọganihu na-aga n'ihu.
  • Ịda ogbenye n'ebe ọ bụla bụ ihe ize ndụ maka ọganihu n'ebe nile. (I, c)
  • agha megide ọchịchọ chọrọ ... ike na-adịghị akwụsị akwụsị ... (maka) nkwalite ọdịmma ọha mmadụ . (I, d)
  • Mmadụ niile, n'agbanyeghị agbụrụ, nkwenkwe ma ọ bụ mmekọahụ, nwere ikike ịchụso ma ọdịmma ihe onwunwe na mmepe ime mmụọ ha n'ọnọdụ nnwere onwe na ugwu, nchekwa akụ na ụba na ohere nha anya . (II, a)

Ntụle[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

ILO, dị ka ọ dị na ọtụtụ n'ime usoro Njikọ Mba, kwụsịrị na ngwụcha 1930s. Nkwupụta nke Philadelphia mere ka ọ dịghachi ndụ. [4] : 941 

Nkwupụta nke Philadelphia chepụtara ILO dị ka onye isi ụlọ ọrụ n'etiti ndị otu mba ụwa pụrụ iche, na-etinye ILO "n'otu ụgbọ elu UN dị ka onye mmekọ akụ na ụba nke òtù ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị ụwa ahụ." [1] : 482 [5] Kama nke ahụ, ọrụ ọ hụrụ maka ILO bụ nke United Nations Economic and Social Council weere ya. [1] : 482 [6] : 45 

Nkwuwapụta ahụ mesiri ike na ikike mmadụ bụ ịmịkwu mkpụrụ: ILO kwupụtara usoro nkwekọrịta na ndụmọdụ ndị metụtara nyocha ọrụ, nnwere onwe nke mkpakọrịta, ikike ịhazi na nkwekọ ọnụ, nha nhata, megide ọrụ mmanye na ịkpa ókè . [6]

Edensibia[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Norman F. Dufty, "Organizational Growth and Goal Structure: The Case of the ILO", (1972) 26 (3) International Organization 479 accessed 24 August 2011
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Joseph Sulkowski, "The Competence of the International Labor Organization Under the United Nations System", (1951) 45 (2) The American Journal of International Law 286 accessed 24 August 2011.
  3. International Labour Organization, Director-General's Office, "C. Wilfred Jenks", 9 February 2006 accessed 24 August 2011.
  4. Daniel J. Whelan and Jack Donnelly, "The West, Economic and Social Rights, and the Global Human Rights Regime: Setting the Record Straight" (2007) 29 (4) Human Rights Quarterly 908.
  5. Ernst Haas, Beyond the Nation State (1964) p 156 :""If the Philadelphia Declaration had been taken literally by those who voted for it, the ILO would have developed into the master agency among the emerging family of functional international bodies ...".
  6. 6.0 6.1 Richard A. Melanson, "Human Rights and the American Withdrawal from the ILO" (1979) 1 (1) Universal Human Rights 43 24 August 2011.

Njikọ mpụga[dezie | dezie ebe o si]