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Nnyocha Bio

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Bioassay bụ usoro nyocha iji chọpụta ntinye ma ọ bụ ike nke ihe site na mmetụta ya na anụmanụ ma ọ bụ osisi (na vivo), ma ọ bụ na mkpụrụ ndụ dị ndụ ma ọ bụ anụ ahụ (in vitro).[1][2] Nnyocha nke ndụ nwere ike ịbụ ma ọ bụ nke buru ibu ma ọ bụ ọnụ ọgụgụ, kpọmkwem ma ọ bụ na-apụtaghị ìhè.[3] Ọ bụrụ na nzaghachi a tụrụ bụ binary, nnwale ahụ bụ ọnụọgụ, ma ọ bụrụ na ọ bụghị, ọ bụ ọnụọụọgụ.[3]

Enwere ike iji bioassay chọpụta ihe egwu dị ndụ ma ọ bụ nye nyocha maka ogo ngwakọta.[4] A na-ejikarị nyocha ndụ eme ihe iji nyochaa ogo mmiri yana mmiri na-adịghị mma na mmetụta ya na gburugburu.[5] A na-ejikwa ya nyochaa mmetụta gburugburu ebe obibi na nchekwa nke teknụzụ na ụlọ ọrụ ọhụrụ.

Ụkpụrụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Bioassay bụ nnwale biochemical iji tụọ ike nke ngwakọta ihe atụ. Ọtụtụ mgbe, enwere ike tụọ ike a naanị na ngwakọta ọkọlọtọ.[3][1] Nnyocha nke anụ ahụ na-agụnye ihe na-akpali akpali (dịka ọgwụ) nke a na-etinye na isiokwu (dịka anụmanụ, anụ ahụ, osisi). Nzaghachi kwekọrọ (dịka ọnwụ) nke isiokwu ahụ na-akpali ma tụọ ya.[6]

Akụkọ ihe mere eme[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

KọOjiji mbụ nke bioassay malitere na ngwụcha narị afọ nke 19, mgbe onye dọkịta Germany bụ Paul Ehrlich tọrọ ntọala nke bioassays.[7] O webatara echiche nke nhazi site na mmeghachi omume nke ihe dị ndụ.[7][6] Nnyocha ndụ ya na diphtheria antitoxin bụ nyocha mbụ natara mmata.[8] Ojiji o jiri bioassay mee ka o doo anya na iji nwayọọ nwayọọ na-abawanye dose nke diphtheria na anụmanụ kpaliri mmepụta nke antiserum..[9]

Otu ihe atụ a ma ama nke bioassay bụ nnwale "canary in the coal mine".[10] Iji nye ịdọ aka ná ntị tupu oge eruo maka ọkwa dị ize ndụ nke methane dị n'ikuku, ndị na-egwuputa ihe ga-ebuba canary ndị nwere mmetụta nke methane n'ime ebe a na-egwupụta coal. Ọ bụrụ na canary ahụ anwụọ n'ihi mmụba nke methane, ndị na-egwuputa ihe ga-ahapụ ebe ahụ ngwa ngwa o kwere mee.

Na nyocha kpọmkwem, mkpali a na-etinye na isiokwu ahụ bụ kpọmkwem na a na-atụle ya, a na-edekwa nzaghachi nke mkpali ahụ. Mgbanwe nke mmasị bụ mkpali a kapịrị ọnụ achọrọ iji mepụta nzaghachi nke mmasị (dịka ọnwụ nke isiokwu ahụ[11]

Site n'afo nke 1940s ruo 1960s, a na-eji nyocha anụmanụ eme ihe iji nwalee nsị na nchekwa nke ọgwụ, ihe mgbakwunye nri, na ọgwụ ahụhụ.[11]

Na nyocha kpọmkwem, mkpali a na-etinye na isiokwu ahụ bụ kpọmkwem na a na-atụle ya, a na-edekwa nzaghachi nke mkpali ahụ. Mgbanwe nke mmasị bụ mkpali a kapịrị ọnụ achọrọ iji mepụta nzaghachi nke mmasị (dịka ọnwụ nke isiokwu ahụ.[11]

Nchịkọta[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Nnyocha kpọmkwem[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'ime nnwale kpọmkwem, ihe mkpali a na-etinye na isiokwu ahụ bụ kpọmkwem na nke a na-atụle kpọmkwem, a na-edekọkwa nzaghachi nye ihe ahụ. Mgbanwe nke mmasị bụ ihe mkpali a chọrọ iji mepụta nzaghachi nke mmasị (dịka ọnwụ nke isiokwu ahụ).[6][12]

Nnyocha na-apụtaghị ìhè[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'ime nnwale na-apụtaghị ìhè, a na-edozi ihe mkpali ahụ tupu oge eruo ma tụọ nzaghachi na isiokwu ahụ. Mgbanwe nke mmasị na nnwale ahụ bụ nzaghachi maka ihe na-akpali mmasị.[6][12]

  • Nzaghachi ọnụọgụ: Nlele nke nzaghachi na ihe na-akpali akpali dị na ọkwa na-aga n'ihu (dịka shuga dị n'ọbara).[12]
  • Nzaghachi Quantal: Nzaghachi ahụ bụ binary; ọ bụ mkpebi ma ihe omume ọ na-eme ma ọ bụ na ọ bụghị (dịka ọnwụ nke isiokwu ahụ).[12]

Ihe Nlereanya[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay)[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Efere ELISA nwere ọkwa cortisol dị iche iche

ELISA bụ usoro nyocha nke na-atụle absorbance nke mgbanwe agba site na mmeghachi omume antigen-antibody (dịka. Direct, indirect, sandwich, asọmpi).[13] A na-eji ELISA atụ ihe dịgasị iche iche n'ime ahụ mmadụ, site na ọkwa cortisol maka nrụgide ruo ọkwa glucose maka ọrịa shuga.

Nnyocha gburugburu ebe obibi na-abụkarị nyocha sara mbara nke nsị.[14] A na-eme nyocha nchọpụta nke nsị iji chọpụta ihe nsị ndị dị mkpa bụ. Ọ bụ ezie na bioassays bara uru n'ịchọpụta ọrụ nke ihe ndị dị ndụ n'ime ihe dị ndụ, ha nwere ike na-ewe oge ma na-arụsi ọrụ ike. Ihe ndị a kapịrị ọnụ nwere ike ịkpata data ndị na-emetụtaghị ndị ọzọ na ụdị ahụ. N'ihi ihe ndị a, a na-ejikarị usoro ndị ọzọ nke ihe ndị dị ndụ, gụnyere nyocha redio. Lee bioindicator.

Ihe achọrọ maka njikwa mmetọ mmiri na United States chọrọ ụfọdụ ụlọ ọrụ mmepụta ihe na ụlọ ọrụ nhicha nsị obodo iji mee bioassays. Usoro ndị a, nke a na-akpọ nyocha nsị zuru oke, gụnyere nyocha nsị siri ike yana usoro nyocha na-adịghị ala ala.[5] Ụzọ ndị a na-agụnye ikpughe ihe ndị dị ndụ dị n'ime mmiri na samples nke mmiri na-adịghị mma maka oge a kapịrị ọnụ.[15] Ihe atụ ọzọ bụ bioassay ECOTOX, nke na-eji microalgae Euglena gracilis iji nwalee nsị nke mmiri.[16] (Lee Bioindicator#Microalgae dị ka bioindicators na ogo mmiri)

  • Nnyocha
  • Nnyocha nke Immunoassay
  • Umu Chromotest

Ihe odide[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Hoskins (1962-01-01). "Uses of Bioassay in Entomology". Annual Review of Entomology 7 (1): 437–464. DOI:10.1146/annurev.en.07.010162.002253. ISSN 0066-4170. PMID 14449182. 
  2. Guidance for Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (January 2011).
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Laska (1987-04-01). "Statistical Methods and Applications of Bioassay". Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 27 (1): 385–397. DOI:10.1146/annurev.pa.27.040187.002125. ISSN 0362-1642. PMID 3579242. 
  4. Prinsloo (2017). "In vitro bioassays to evaluate beneficial and adverse health effects of botanicals: promises and pitfalls". Drug Discovery Today 22 (8): 1187–1200. DOI:10.1016/j.drudis.2017.05.002. PMID 28533190. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 Permit Limits-Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET). National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2021-10-11).
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Saha (29 November 2002). Design and Analysis for Bioassays. Kolkata: Indian Statistical Institute, 61–76. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 Van Noordwijk (1989). "Bioassays in whole animals". Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 7 (2): 139–145. DOI:10.1016/0731-7085(89)80077-9. PMID 2488614. 
  8. (1984) Analysis of foods and beverages : modern techniques, Charalambous, George, 1922-1994., Orlando: Academic Press. ISBN 0121691608. OCLC 9682930. 
  9. Bosch (2008). "The Contributions of Paul Ehrlich to Pharmacology: A Tribute on the Occasion of the Centenary of His Nobel Prize" (in en). Pharmacology 82 (3): 171–179. DOI:10.1159/000149583. ISSN 0031-7012. PMID 18679046. 
  10. Environmental Inquiry - How Are Bioassays Used in the Real World?. ei.cornell.edu. Retrieved on 2017-12-01.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 Beyer (2011-04-01). "Historical perspective on the use of animal bioassays to predict carcinogenicity: Evolution in design and recognition of utility". Critical Reviews in Toxicology 41 (4): 321–338. DOI:10.3109/10408444.2010.541222. ISSN 1040-8444. PMID 21438739. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 Le. Direct Bioassays & Estimation of Ratios. Archived from the original on 12 April 2022. Retrieved on 15 June 2021.
  13. Aydin (2015). "A short history, principles, and types of ELISA, and our laboratory experience with peptide/protein analyses using ELISA". Peptides 72: 4–15. DOI:10.1016/j.peptides.2015.04.012. PMID 25908411. 
  14. (January 2023) "Cytotoxic Activity of Herbal Medicines as Assessed in Vitro: A Review". Chemistry & Biodiversity 20 (2): 3–27. DOI:10.1002/cbdv.202201098. PMID 36595710. 
  15. Whole Effluent Toxicity Methods. Clean Water Act Analytical Methods. EPA (2020-08-01).
  16. Tahedl (1999). "Fast examination of water quality using the automatic biotest ECOTOX based on the movement behavior of a freshwater flagellate". Water Research 33 (2): 426–432. DOI:10.1016/s0043-1354(98)00224-3.