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Okwu kwa nkeji

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okwu kwa nkeji, nke a na-emekarị ka ọ bụrụ 'WPM' (mgbe ụfọdụ, WPM dị elu), ịgụ ihe a na-ahazi n'ime nkeji, nke na-ejikarị eme ihe dị ka ihe atụ nke ọsọ nke ịde, ịgụ ma ọ bụ Morse koodu izipu na ịnata.

Ntinye mkpụrụ akwụkwọ na nọmba[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ebe ọ bụ na okwu dịgasị iche iche n'ogologo, maka ebumnuche nke ịtụle ederede ederede ederede nkọwa nke "okwu" ọ bụla na-abụkarị mkpụrụedemede ise ma ọ bụ mkpịsị ugodi ogologo na Bekee, gụnyere oghere na akara edemede. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, n'okpuru usoro dị otú ahụ a na-etinye n'ihe odide Bekee doro anya, ahịrịokwu "M na-agba ọsọ" na-agụ dị ka otu okwu, mana "rhinoceros" na "ka anyị kwuo okwu" ga-agụ dị iche iche dị ka abụọ.

Karat et al. chọpụtara n'otu nnyocha nke ndị ọrụ kọmputa na 1999 na nkezi ọnụego maka transcription bụ okwu 32.5 kwa nkeji, na okwu 19.0 kwa nkeji maka ihe mejupụtara. N'otu nnyocha ahụ, mgbe e kewara otu ahụ n'ime "ngwa ngwa", "nke dị nro", na "nke dị nwayọ", nkezi ọsọ bụ 40 wpm, 35 wpm, na 23 wpm, n'otu n'otu.

Site na mmalite nke oge kọmputa desktọọpụ, nkà ide ngwa ngwa ghọrọ ihe zuru ebe niile.

Dị ka ọ na-adịkarị, ndị ọkachamara na-ede akwụkwọ na ọsọ nke 43 ruo 80 wpm, ebe ọnọdụ ụfọdụ nwere ike ịchọ 80 ruo 95 (na-abụkarị nke kacha nta achọrọ maka ọnọdụ izipu na ọrụ ndị ọzọ na-emetụta oge), na ụfọdụ ndị na-ede ihe dị elu na-arụ ọrụ na ọsọ karịrị 120 wpm. Ndị na-ede akwụkwọ mkpịsị aka abụọ, mgbe ụfọdụ a na-akpọkwa ndị na-ede ihe "ịchụ nta na ịpị", na-erute ọsọ dị elu nke ihe dị ka 37 wpm maka ederede eburu n'isi na 27 wpm mgbe ị na-edepụtaghachi ederede, mana na mgbawa nwere ike iru ọsọ dị elu. [1]Site na 1920s ruo 1970s, ọsọ ederede (yana ọsọ mkpirisi) bụ nzere odeakwụkwọ dị mkpa, asọmpi ederede na-ewu ewu ma na-agbasawanye site na ụlọ ọrụ typewriter dị ka ngwá ọrụ nkwalite.

Ụdị ihe osise[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. Brown (1988). Human-computer interface design guidelines. USA: Ablex Pub. Corp. ISBN 0893913324. 

Ngwunye Stenotype na-enyere onye ọrụ a zụrụ azụ aka itinye ederede ngwa ngwa dị ka 360 wpm na nkenke dị elu maka oge dị ogologo, nke zuru ezu maka ọrụ oge dị ka akụkọ ụlọ ikpe ma ọ bụ nkọwa mechiri emechi. Ọ bụ ezie na ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị na-ahapụ ọzụzụ dị elu - n'ọnọdụ ụfọdụ naanị 10% ma ọ bụ ọbụna obere ndị gụsịrị akwụkwọ - ụmụ akwụkwọ stenotype na-enwekarị ike iru ọsọ nke 100-120 wpm n'ime ọnwa isii, nke dị ngwa karịa ọtụtụ ndị na-ede akwụkwọ.   Guinness World Records na-enye 360 wpm na 97.23% ziri ezi dị ka ọsọ kachasị elu site na iji stenotype.[1]

Ntinye ọnụ ọgụgụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ntinye ọnụọgụ ma ọ bụ ọsọ 10 bụ ihe atụ nke ikike mmadụ nwere ịchịkwa mkpịsị ọnụọgụ dị na ọtụtụ mkpịsị kọmputa dị iche iche nke oge a. A na-eji ya atụ ọsọ maka ọrụ dịka ntinye data nke ozi nọmba na ihe dịka ndụmọdụ mbupu, ụgwọ, ma ọ bụ akwụkwọ ndọrọ ego, dị ka etinye ya na igbe mkpọchi. A na-atụle ya na mkpịsị ugodi kwa awa (KPH). Ọtụtụ ọrụ chọrọ ụfọdụ KPH, mgbe mgbe 8,000 ma ọ bụ 10,000.   [citation needed]

Ihe odide aka[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Maka ndị toro eto (afọ 18-60) nkezi ọsọ nke iṅomi bụ mkpụrụedemede 40 kwa nkeji (ihe dịka 8 wpm), na nso site na opekata mpe 26 ruo 113 mkpụrụedemede kwa nkeji (ihe dịka 5 ruo 20 wpm).   [citation needed]

Nnyocha nke ndekọ ajụjụ ọnụ ndị uwe ojii gosipụtara na ọsọ kachasị elu dara na mkpụrụedemede 120-155 kwa nkeji, njedebe kachasị elu nwere ike ịbụ mkpụrụedemede 190 kwa nkeji.[2]

Dabere na ọmụmụ ihe dị iche iche ọsọ nke ederede aka nke ndị gụsịrị akwụkwọ 3-7 dịgasị iche site na mkpụrụedemede 25 ruo 94 kwa nkeji.[3]

N'iji usoro stenography (nke dị mkpirikpi), ọnụego a na-abawanye nke ukwuu. E nwetala ọsọ ederede aka ruo 350 okwu kwa nkeji na asọmpi mkpirisi.[4]

Ịgụ na nghọta[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Okwu kwa nkeji ịgụ ihe a na-ahụkarị maka ịtụle ọsọ ọgụgụ ma na-ejikarị ya eme ihe n'ihe gbasara nyocha nkà, yana n'ihe metụtara ịgụ ọsọ, ebe ọ bụ ihe arụmụka nke arụmọrụ ọgụgụ.

Okwu dị n'ihe a bụ otu ihe ahụ dị n'okwu.

Nnyocha e mere na 2012 tụrụ ọsọ nke ndị na-agụ akwụkwọ na-agụ ederede n'olu dara ụda, wee chọpụta na ọsọ ọsọ dị iche iche gafee asụsụ 17 dị iche iche bụ 184±29 wpm ma ọ bụ 863±234 mkpụrụedemede kwa nkeji. [5]Otú ọ dị, ọnụ ọgụgụ wpm dịgasị iche n'etiti asụsụ, ọbụlagodi maka asụsụ ndị na-eji mkpụrụ akwụkwọ Latin ma ọ bụ Cyrillic: dị ala dị ka 161±18 maka Finnish na dị elu dị ka 228±30 maka Bekee. Nke a bụ n'ihi na asụsụ dị iche iche nwere ogologo okwu dị iche iche (okwu ndị dị ogologo n'asụsụ ndị dị ka Finnish na okwu ndị dị mkpirikpi na Bekee). Otú ọ dị, ọnụ ọgụgụ nke mkpụrụedemede kwa nkeji na-abụkarị ihe dị ka 1000 maka asụsụ niile a nwalere. Maka asụsụ ndị Eshia a nwalere nke na-eji usoro edemede ụfọdụ (Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese) ọnụọgụ ndị a dị ala.

Nnyocha sayensị egosila na ịgụ - akọwapụtara ebe a dị ka ijide na ịkọwa okwu niile dị na ibe ọ bụla - ngwa ngwa karịa 900 wpm agaghị ekwe omume n'ihi oke nke anatomy nke anya setịpụrụ.[6]

Mgbe ha na-agụ ihe, ndị mmadụ nwere ike ịgụ Bekee na 200 wpm na akwụkwọ, na 180 wpm na nyocha. [7][Nọmba ndị ahụ sitere na Ziefle, 1998, bụ maka ọmụmụ ihe ndị jiri monitors mee ihe tupu 1992. Lee Noyes & Garland 2008 maka ọhụụ teknụzụ nke oge a nke nhata.]

Okwu na ige ntị[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A na-atụ aro ka Akwụkwọ ndị a na-ege ntị bụrụ okwu 150-160 kwa nkeji, nke bụ ihe ndị mmadụ na-anụ ma na-ekwu okwu.[8]

Ihe ngosi slide na-adịkarị nso na 100-125 wpm maka ọsọ dị mma, ndị na-ere ahịa nwere ike ikwu okwu na ihe dị ka 250 wpm.[9] na ndị na-ekwu okwu ngwa ngwa na iwu na-ekwu site na 350 ruo ihe karịrị 500 okwu kwa nkeji. [citation needed][10][11]Ndị na-agbakọ okwu n'ịntanetị na-egosi na ihe dị iche iche na-emetụta okwu kwa nkeji gụnyere ụjọ.   

Ihe atụ nke Asụsụ aglutinative, a na-akọ na nkezi ọnụ ọgụgụ nke okwu Turkish bụ ihe dịka mkpụrụedemede 220 kwa nkeji. Mgbe ewepụrụ oge a na-etinye maka akụkụ ndị na-adịghị ekwu okwu, ihe a na-akpọ nkezi articulation rate na-eru 310 syllabes kwa nkeji. A tụọla nkezi ọnụọgụ nke mkpụrụedemede ọ bụla dị ka 2.6. [12][13]Maka ntụnyere, Flesch atụwo aro na mkparịta ụka Bekee maka ndị na-azụ ahịa na-achọ 1.5 syllables kwa okwu, ọ bụ ezie na usoro ndị a dabere na corpus.[14]

E depụtara John Moschitta, Jr., na Guinness World Records, ruo oge ụfọdụ, dị ka onye na-ekwu okwu kachasị ọsọ n'ụwa, na-enwe ike ikwu okwu na 586 wpm. [15]Kemgbe ahụ, Steve Woodmore karịrị ya, onye nwetara ọnụego nke 637 wpm.[16]

Asụsụ Ogbi[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'ime ala nke American Sign Language, American Sign Language University (ASLU) na-akọwapụta ikike nkwụsị maka ụmụ akwụkwọ na-agba ọsọ nke 110-130 wpm.[17]

Morse koodu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Morse code uses variable length sequences of short and long duration signals (dits and dahs, colloquially called dots and dashes) to represent source information[18] e.g., sequences for the letter "K" and numeral "2" are respectively (Àtụ:Morse) and (Àtụ:Morse). This variability complicates the measurement of Morse code speed rated in words per minute. Using telegram messages, the average English word length is about five characters, each averaging 5.124 dot durations or baud. Spacing between words should also be considered, being seven dot durations in the USA and five in British territories. So the average British telegraph word was 30.67 dot times.[19] So the baud rate of a Morse code is Àtụ:Frac × word per minute rate.

Ọ bụ ihe a na-eme iji okwu abụọ dị iche iche dị otú ahụ iji tụọ ọsọ ọsọ Morse na okwu kwa nkeji. Okwu ndị a na-ahụkarị bụ: "PARIS" na "CODEX". Na koodu Morse "PARIS" nwere oge ntụpọ nke 50, ebe "CODEX" nwere 60.

Ọ bụ ezie na ọtụtụ mba anaghịzi achọ ya maka ikikere, ndị ọrụ redio ("ham") ka na-eji Morse eme ihe n'ọtụtụ ebe. Hams nwere ahụmịhe na-eziga Morse mgbe niile na okwu 20 kwa nkeji, na-eji mkpịsị aka telegraph aka arụ ọrụ; ndị na-anụ ọkụ n'obi dị ka ndị otu CW Operators' Club na-ezipụ ma nata koodu Morse na ọsọ ruo 60 wpm. Ogologo elu maka ndị ọrụ Morse na-anwa ide koodu Morse natara site na ntị site na iji akwụkwọ na pensụl bụ ihe dịka 20 wpm. Ọtụtụ ndị ọrụ Morse code nwere nkà nwere ike ịnata koodu Morse site na ntị n'uche n'edeghị ozi ahụ na ọsọ ruo 70 wpm. [20]Iji dee ozi koodu Morse site na aka na ọsọ karịrị 20 wpm ọ bụ ihe a na-ahụkarị maka ndị na-arụ ọrụ iji typewriter ma ọ bụ keyboard kọmputa iji mee ka ịdepụtaghachi ngwa ngwa.

Na United States, a ka na-enye ikikere onye na-ahụ maka redio azụmahịa, ọ bụ ezie na ọ fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ na ọ dịghị ihe ọ bụla a chọrọ ya, ebe ọ bụ na ụgbọ mmiri nkwurịta okwu dị anya na-eji usoro Global Maritime Distress and Safety System nke dabeere na satellite. E wezụga ule edere ede, a ghaghị igosi nkà na ịnata Morse na 20 wpm asụsụ dị mfe na 16 wpm na otu koodu.[21]

A ka na-eme asọmpi telegraphy dị elu. Onye na-arụ ọrụ Morse code kachasị ọsọ bụ Theodore Roosevelt McElroy na-edepụtaghachi na 75.6 wpm site na iji ígwè typewriter na asọmpi ụwa nke 1939.[22]

Hụkwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Ngwunye Colemak
  • keyboard Dvorak
  • Onye nkuzi
  • Ọganihu nke mkpịsị ugodi
  • Morse koodu
  • Egwuregwu ọsọ ọsọ
  • Mmetụta aka

Ihe odide[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. Fastest realtime court reporter (stenotype writing). Guinnessworldrecords.com (2004-07-30). Retrieved on 2014-05-13.
  2. Hardcastle (January 1991). "Speed of writing". Journal of the Forensic Science Society 31 (1): 21–29. DOI:10.1016/s0015-7368(91)73114-9. 
  3. Zaviani (2006). "The Development of Graphomotor Skills", in Henderson: Hand Function in the Child: Foundations for Remediation, 2nd, St. Louis, MO: Mosby. ISBN 0323031862. 
  4. New World'S Record For Shorthand Speed. New York Times (1922-12-30). Retrieved on 2014-05-13.
  5. Trauzettel-Klosinski (August 2012). "Standardized Assessment of Reading Performance: The New International Reading Speed Texts IReST". Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 53 (9): 5452–61. DOI:10.1167/iovs.11-8284. PMID 22661485. 
  6. Bremer (2016-01-20). The Manual: A Guide to the Ultimate Study Method, 2, Fons Sapientiae Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9934964-0-0. 
  7. Ziefle (December 1998). "Effects of display resolution on visual performance.". Human Factors 40 (4): 554–68. DOI:10.1518/001872098779649355. PMID 9974229. 
  8. Williams, J. R. (1998). Guidelines for the use of multimedia in instruction, Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 42nd Annual Meeting, 1447–1451
  9. Wong (2014). Essential Study Skills. Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-1285965628. 
  10. Chafets. "Ministers of Debate", The New York Times, 2006-03-19.
  11. Smillie (2008-07-22). Falwell Inc.: Inside a Religious, Political, Educational, and Business Empire - Dirk Smillie - Google Boeken. Macmillan. ISBN 9780312376291. Retrieved on 2014-04-20. 
  12. Ender Ateşman (August 1997). "Türkçede Okunabilirliğin Ölçülmesi" (in tr). Dil Dergisi (Language Journal): 71-74. Retrieved on 29 August 2023. 
  13. Bezirci (October 2010). "Metinlerin Okunabilirliğinin Ölçülmesi Üzerine Bir Yazılım Kütüphanesi ve Türkçe İçin Yeni Bir Okunabilirlik Ölçütü" (in tr). Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Mühendislik Fakültesi Fen ve Mühendislik Dergisi 12: 49-62. 
  14. Rudolf Flesch. Chapter 2: Let's Start With the Formula. Retrieved on 29 August 2023.
  15. John Moschitta set record for fast talking... May 24 in History. Brainyhistory.com (1988-05-24). Retrieved on 2014-04-20.
  16. World's Fastest Talker - Steve Woodmore. YouTube (2011-02-05). Archived from the original on 2014-05-11. Retrieved on 2014-04-20.
  17. How fast should I sign?. American Sign Language University (2014-02-09). Retrieved on 2020-07-30.
  18. International Telecommunication Union. International Morse Code Recommendation. ITU.
  19. Morsh (1947). "Studies in international Morse Code. II. A simplified method of determining code speed.". Canadian Journal of Psychology 1 (2): 67–70. DOI:10.1037/h0084027. 
  20. Morse Code at 140 WPM
  21. Commercial Radio Operator Types of Licenses
  22. Morse code page of Roger J. Wendell - WBŘJNR (WB0JNR). Rogerwendell.com. Retrieved on 2014-04-20.