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Ongota language

Shí Wikipedia, njikotá édémédé nke onyobulạ

  Ongota (nke a makwaara dị ka Birale, Birayle) bụ asụsụ na-akpa ike na ndịda ọdịda anyanwụ Etiopia. UNESCO kọrọ na 2012 na n'ime ngụkọta agbụrụ nke 115, ọ bụ nanị 12 ndị agadi na-asụ asụsụ obodo fọdụrụ, ndị fọdụrụ n'ime obere obodo ha nke dị n'akụkụ ọdịda anyanwụ nke osimiri Weito nakweere asụsụ Tsamai kama. Usoro usoro ndabara bụ isiokwu-ihe-ngwaa. Nhazi nke asụsụ ahụ edoghị anya (Sava & Tosco 2015).

Akụkọ ihe mere eme nke ndị mmadụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Akụkọ ọnụ nke ndị Ongota na-ekwu na ha sitere n'ọtụtụ mmadụ dị iche iche sitere na Dikinte, Maale na Arbore na ndị ọzọ. N'oge ha nọ na mpaghara Maale, nke dị taa n'ebe ugwu ha, a chụpụrụ mkpokọta ndị ezinụlọ na ndịda n'ihi ịchụ nta ha na-achụ anụ Maale. Ha soro n'akụkụ osimiri Weito ruo mgbe ha rutere Arbore, ebe a tụgharịrị azụ azụ n'ebe ugwu wee biri ebe ha nọ taa. Akaụntụ a dị iche na nke Maale, ndị na-ekwu na ndị Ongota bụbu akụkụ nke Maale nke kwagara mba ọzọ na-alaghachighị.

Nchịkọta[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ongota nwere ihe ndị dị na asụsụ Afroasiatic na Nilo-Saharan nke na-agbagwoju nhazi ya anya, na ndị ọkà mmụta asụsụ na ndị ọkà n'ihe gbasara ụmụ mmadụ enwebeghị ike ịchọpụta n'ụzọ doro anya mgbọrọgwụ asụsụ ya ruo ugbu a. Savà na Tosco (2007) na-ekwu na ọdịdị Ongota bụ Ts'amakko nakwa na ~50% nke akwụkwọ ọkọwa okwu nwere ike ijikọta ya na mgbọrọgwụ Ts'amakk. Ha kọwakwara na Aklilu Yilma nke Mahadum Addis Ababa weere Ongota dị ka onye Creole pidginised. Ha na-ekwu na "nkwubi okwu a siri ike site na akụkọ ifo obodo na-ekwu ete Ongota sitere na ite agbụrụ dị iche iche. " Ha gara n'ihu na-akọ na Lionel Bender weere Ongota dị ka Cushitic, Václav Blažek (1991, 2001, na ndị ọzọ.) [ntụgharị zuru ezu dị mkpa] Nilo-Saharan, na Cushitist Maarten Mous (2003) [ntụgharị niile dị mkpa] kwuru ya dị ka asụsụ dịpụrụ adịpụ.[1] Savà na Tosco (2003, 2007), n'onwe ha, kwenyere na ọ bụ asụsụ East Cushitic nwere Nilo-Saharan substratum, nke pụtara na ndị na-asụ Ongota gbanwere gaa East Cushitaic site na asụsụ Nilo-Daharan mbụ, nke a ka na-ahụ. Fleming (2006) weere ya dị ka alaka kwụụrụ onwe ya nke Afroasiatic. Bonny Sands (2009) kwenyere na aro Savà na Tosco bụ aro kachasị mma. Sava & Tosco (2015) hapụrụ ya na-enweghị aha, ma eleghị anya ọ dịpụrụ adịpụ ma eleghị pele mmetụta nke superstrate metụtara ya nke na e kpuchiri njikọ mbụ nke asụsụ ahụ.

Mbelata[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Isi usoro na-akpata ọdịda Ongota bụ alụmdi na nwunye na obodo ndị ọzọ. N'ime njem dị nkenke na mbido 1990, ọtụtụ ndị nchọpụta mere nchọpụta na ọtụtụ ndị ikom Ongota lụrụ ụmụ nwanyị Tsamakko. Nwatakịrị ga-etolite na-asụ naanị asụsụ nne, mana ọ bụghị nke nna. (Mikesh, P. et al., 1992–1993) Omume a gara n'ihu n'ime afọ ndị na-adịbeghị anya.

Hụkwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ihe odide[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. Savà, Graziano and M. Tosco (2007). Review article of: Harold C. Fleming Ongota: A Decisive Language in African Prehistory. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz: 2006. In: Aethiopica 10 (2007): 223-232.p. 1. - "Ongota is also mentioned as an isolate (see, for example, Mous 2003)" http://www.maurotosco.net/ewExternalFiles/SAVA%26TOSCO_review_FLEMING_Aethiopica_2007.pdf ||| Mous, Maarten (2003). “Loss of linguistic diversity in Africa”. In: Mark Janse – Sijmen Tol (eds.) Language Death and Language Maintenance: Theoretical, Practical and Descriptive Approaches. Benjamins, Amsterdam: 157–170. p. 164. 5. Isolates - "Ongota is an unclassified language with 8 speakers in southwest Ethiopia shifting to a minority Cushitic language, Ts'amakko (Savä, this volume)." http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?rep=rep1&type=pdf&doi=10.1.1.218.5996
  • [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] "Ongota Lexicon: English-Ongota". Mother Tongue, VII, peeji nke 3965.
  • [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] Ongota: Asụsụ Dị Mkpa na akụkọ ihe mere eme nke Africa. Asụsụ a na-akpọ Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
  • Mikesh, P. et al., 1992-1993. "Ongota ma ọ bụ Birale: asụsụ na-anwụ anwụ nke Gemu-Gofa (Ethiopia) Journal of Afroasiatic Languages, 3,3:181 es225.
  • [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] N'ihe gbasara njikọ mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa nke Ongota, asụsụ fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ nke na-adịghịzi adị nke Etiopia. Na ""Memoriae Igor M. Diakonoff"", nke Leonin E. Kogan, (pp. 567-‐607). Ọdọ Mmiri Winona: Eisenbrauns.
  • [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] "Africa Asụsụ dị iche iche". Asụsụ na Asụsụ Compass 3/2 (2009): 559580, 10.1111/j.1749-818x.2008.00124.x
  • [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] Asụsụ Na-anwụ Anwụ nke Southwest Ethiopia. Na ""Language Death and Language Maintenance: Theoretical, Practical and Descriptive Approaches"" nke M. Janse, S. Tol, & V. Hendriks. Amsterdam: Benjamin.
  • [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] Ihe osise nke Ongota, asụsụ na-anwụ anwụ nke ndịda ọdịda anyanwụ Etiopia. Ọmụmụ asụsụ n'Afrịka 29.2.59 Xi136.
  • Savà, Graziano na Mauro Tosco 2003. "Nchịkọta nke Ongota". Na Bender et al. eds, Selected comparative-historical Afrasian linguistic studies. LINCOM Europe.
  • Savà, Graziano na Mauro Tosco 2007. Isiokwu nyocha: HAROLD C. FLEMING, Ongota: asụsụ dị mkpa na akụkọ ihe mere eme nke Africa. Aethiopica 10.
  • Savà, Graziano na Mauro Tosco 2015. Asụsụ Ongota na ụzọ abụọ isi lee akụkọ ihe mere eme nke ndị na-eme mkpapụ na ndị na-achụ nta na ndị na'Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ Afrịka. Rivista annuale dellīassociazione Ethnorêma XI - N. 11, peeji nke 1ī18.
  • [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] Ongota : a alaka nke Maale? ; ethnographic, akụkọ ihe mere eme na asụsụ akara nke mmekọrịta nke ndị Ongota. Na "To live with others: essay on cultural neighbourhood in southern Ethiopia", nke E. Gabbert, & S. Thubauville dezigharịrị, (pp. 213‐235). Koln: Koppe.