Overexploitation

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Overexploitation
Surexploitation morue surpêcheEn.jpg
subclass nkeexploitation of natural resources Dezie
has effectbiodiversity loss, resource depletion Dezie
nwere àgwàexcess Dezie

Mmegbu gabigara ókè, nke a na-akpọkwa owuwe ihe ubi gabigara ókè, na-ezo aka n'iwe ihe ubi ihe a na-emegharị emegharị ruo n'ókè nke mbelata nloghachi. Ịga n'ihu na mmegbu nwere ike ibute mbibi nke akụ ahụ. Okwu a na-emetụta akụ na ụba dị ka: osisi ọgwụ ọhịa, ala ịta nri, anụ ọhịa, azụ azụ, ọhịa, na mmiri mmiri.

Na gburugburu ebe obibi, mmegbu na-akọwa otu n'ime ọrụ ise bụ isi na-eyi ihe dị iche iche egwu.[1] Ndị ọkà mmụta banyere gburugburu ebe obibi na-eji okwu a akọwa ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị a na-aghọrọ na ọnụego na-adịghị adịgide, n'ihi ọnụ ọgụgụ ọnwụ ha na ikike ha maka ịmụ nwa. Nke a nwere ike ibute mkpochapụ na ọkwa ọnụ ọgụgụ mmadụ na ọbụna mkpochapụ nke ụdị dum. Na mmụta bayoloji nchekwa, a na-ejikarị okwu a eme ihe n'ihe gbasara ọrụ akụ na ụba mmadụ nke gụnyere iwere ihe ndị dị ndụ, ma ọ bụ ihe ndị na-eku ume, n'ọnụ ọgụgụ buru ibu karịa ka ọnụ ọgụgụ ha nwere ike iguzogide.[2] A na-ejikwa okwu a ma kọwaa ya n'ụzọ dị iche na azụmaahịa, hydrology na njikwa akụ na ụba.

Mmegbu mmadụ nke ukwuu nwere ike ibute mbibi akụ, gụnyere mkpochapụ. Otú ọ dị, ọ ga-ekwe omume ka mmegbu gabigara ókè na-adịgide adịgide, dị ka a tụlere n'okpuru na ngalaba gbasara azụmaahịa. N'ihe gbasara ịkụ azụ, enwere ike iji okwu ahụ bụ oké ịkuta azụ nke a kpọrọ overfishing n'asụsụ Bekee kama iji oke mmegbu, dị ka enwere ike ịta oke nri na njikwa ngwaahịa, ịhịa na njikwa ọhịa, oke mmiri na njikwa mmiri, na ụdị ndị dị n'ihe ize ndụ na nlekota ụdị. Imegbu mmadụ n'ụzọ gabiga ókè abụghị ọrụ naanị ụmụ mmadụ. Dị ka ihe atụ, ndị na-eri anụ na ndị na-eri ahịhịa, nwere ike iji ihe ọkụkụ na anụmanụ eme ihe.

Akụkọ ihe mere eme[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mgbe nnukwu nnụnụ na-adịghị efe efe nke a na-akpọ moa na-erigbu ruo n'ókè nke ịla n'iyi, nnukwu ugo Haast nke na-eri ha gbanyụkwara.[3][4]

Nchegbu banyere mmegbu gabigara ókè bụ ihe na-adịbeghị anya, ọ bụ ezie na mmegbu n'onwe ya abụghị ihe ọhụrụ. A hụla ya kemgbe ọtụtụ puku afọ. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, a na-eji nnụnụ mamo eme uwe mwụda ndị eze Hawaiian na-eyi; otu uwe mwụda na-eji ajị anụ nnụnụ puku iri asaa (70,000) nke ụdị a na-apụ n'anya ugbu a. Dodo, nnụnụ na-adịghị efe efe si Mauritius, bụ ihe atụ ọzọ a maara nke ọma ka ndị a na-mmegbu. Dị ka ọ dị n'ọtụtụ ụdị agwaetiti, ọ bụ onye na-amaghị ihe banyere ụfọdụ ndị na-eri anụ, na-enye ụmụ mmadụ ohere ịbịaru ya nso ma gbuo ya n'ụzọ dị mfe.[5]

Site n'oge gboo, ịchụ nta bụ ọrụ mmadụ dị mkpa dị ka ụzọ isi lanarị. E nwere akụkọ ihe mere eme dum nke mmegbu n'ụzọ gabigara ókè n'ụdị ịchụ nta. Echiche nke igbu oke (ihe omume mkpochapụ nke anọ) na-akọwa ihe mere mkpochapụ megafaunal ji mee n'ime obere oge. Enwere ike ịchọta nke a na mbugharị mmadụ. Ihe akaebe kachasị mma nke echiche a bụ na 80% nke nnukwu ụdị anụ ndị dị na mba North America na-apụ n'anya n'ime otu pukuafọ 1000 nke ọbịbịa ụmụ mmadụ na kọntinent ọdịda anyanwụ.[6] Mbibi kachasị ngwa ngwa nke megafauna mere na New Zealand, ebe site na 1500 AD, naanị afọ 200 mgbe ha biri n'àgwàetiti ndị ahụ, ndị Māori chụrụ ụdị nnụnụ iri nke nnukwu nnụnụ moa ka ha laa n'iyi.[3] Mbibi nke abụọ mere mgbe e mesịrị na ebe obibi ndị Europe.

N'oge na-adịbeghị anya, mmegbu gabigara ókè emeela ka echiche nke nkwụsi ike na mmepe na-aga n'ihu jiri nwayọọ nwayọọ pụta, nke wuru n'echiche ndị ọzọ, dị ka mkpụrụ na-adịgide adịgide, mmepe gburugburu ebe obibi, na gburugburu ebe obibi miri emi.[7][8][9][10][11]

Nkọwapụta[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mmegbu mmadụ n'ụzọ gabigara ókè anaghị eduga na mbibi nke akụ ahụ, ọ bụghịkwa ihe na-adịghị adịgide adịgide. Otú ọ dị, ibelata ọnụ ọgụgụ ma ọ bụ ọnụ ọgụgụ nke akụ ahụ nwere ike ịgbanwe àgwà ya. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, nkwụ ụkwụ bụ nkwụ ọhịa a na-ahụ na Ndịda Ọwụwa Anyanwụ Eshia. A na-eji akwụkwọ ya eme ihe maka ịcha ahịhịa na ikpuchi nri, na owuwe ihe ubi gabigara ókè emeela ka akwụkwọ ya dị ntakịrị.

Ọdachi nke ndị nkịtị[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

 

N'afọ 1968, akwụkwọ akụkọ Science bipụtara otu isiokwu nke Garrett Hardin dere nke isiokwu ya bụ "The Tragedy of the Commons".[12] Ọ dabeere n'ilu nke William Forster Lloyd bipụtara na 1833 iji kọwaa otú ndị mmadụ n'enweghị ihe ọ bụla na-eme ihe ọ bụla maka ọdịmma onwe ha nwere ike iji, ma bibie, akụ ha niile na-ekerịta. [peeji dị Lloyd kọwara ọnọdụ dị mfe dabere na ikike ala nke oge ochie na Europe.[13] Ndị na-azụ anụ na-ekerịta ala nke onye nke ọ bụla n'ime ha nwere ikike ịta ehi ha. N'isiokwu Hardin, ọ bụ maka ọdịmma nke onye ọ bụla na-azụ ehi ịta ehi ọhụrụ ọ bụla nke onye na-azụ ehi na-enweta n'ala nkịtị, ọ bụrụgodị na ikike ibu nke nkịtị karịrị, nke na-emebi ihe nkịtị maka ndị na-azụ ehi niile. Onye na-azụ anụ nwere mmasị onwe ya na-enweta uru niile nke inwe ehi ọzọ, ebe ndị na-azụ anụ niile na-ekerịta mmebi nke nkịtị. Otú ọ dị, ndị na-azụ anụ niile na-eru otu mkpebi ezi uche dị na ya ịzụta ehi ndị ọzọ ma na-ata ha nri na nkịtị, nke na-emesị bibie nkịtị. Hardin kwubiri:

Ọdachi ahụ dị n'ime ya. A na-akpọchi nwoke ọ bụla n'ime usoro nke na-amanye ya ịbawanye ìgwè ehi ya n'enweghị oke - n'ime ụwa nke nwere oke. Mbibi bụ ebe mmadụ niile na-agba ọsọ, onye nke ọ bụla na-achụso mmasị ya na ọha mmadụ nke kwenyere na nnwere onwe nke obodo. Nnwere onwe n'ime obodo na-eweta mbibi nye mmadụ niile: 1244[12]

N'ime edemede ya, Hardin na-emepe isiokwu ahụ, na-ese ọtụtụ ihe atụ nke obodo ikpeazụ, dị ka ogige ntụrụndụ mba, ikuku, oké osimiri, osimiri na azụ azụ. Ihe atụ nke azụ azụ mere ka ụfọdụ kpọọ nke a "ọdachi nke ndị na-akụ azụ̀".[14] Isi isiokwu na-aga n'ihu na edemede ahụ bụ uto nke ọnụ ọgụgụ mmadụ, na oke akụ na ụba nke ụwa bụ ihe a na-ahụkarị.

Ọdachi nke obodo nwere mgbọrọgwụ ọgụgụ isi na-esite na Aristotle, onye kwuru na "ihe a na-ahụkarị ọnụ ọgụgụ kachasị ukwuu nwere nlekọta kacha nta e nyere ya", yana Hobbes na Leviathan ya.[15][16] A na-akpọ ọnọdụ dị iche na ọdachi nke obodo mgbe ụfọdụ dị ka ọdachi nke ndị anticommons: ọnọdụ nke ndị nwere ezi uche, na-eme ihe iche iche, na-emefu ihe onwunwe site n'iji ya eme ihe n'ụzọ na-abaghị uru.

Enwere ike izere ọdachi nke obodo ma ọ bụrụ na a na-achịkwa ya n'ụzọ kwesịrị ekwesị. A ghọtachọkarị ojiji Hardin ji "commons" mee ihe, nke mere ka Hardin kwuo na o kwesịrị ịkpọ ọrụ ya "Ọdachi nke obodo ndị a na-achịkwaghị achịkwa".[17]

Ịzụ azụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A na-eji tuna bluefin nke Atlantic eme ihe ugbu a. Ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị na-ekwu na tọn 7,500 kwa afọ bụ oke na-adịgide adịgide, mana ụlọ ọrụ ịkụ azụ na-aga n'ihu na-ewe tọn 60,000.

N'ime azụmaahịa ọhịa, oke mmegbu ma ọ bụ oke azụ na-eme mgbe a na-akụ azụ̀ azụ "n'okpuru nha nke, na nkezi, ga-akwado ogologo oge kachasị mma nke azụmaahịa ahụ".[18] Otú ọ dị, mmegbu gabigara ókè nwere ike ịdịgide.[19]

Mgbe azụmaahịa malitere iwepụta azụ site na azụmaahịa a na-ejighị n'oge gara aga, biomass nke azụmaahịa ahụ ga-ebelata, ebe ọ bụ na owuwe ihe ubi pụtara na a na-ewepụ azụ. Maka nkwụsi ike, ọnụego nke azụ na-ejupụta biomass site na mmeputakwa ga-edozi ọnụego nke azụ a na-ewe ihe ubi. Ọ bụrụ na ọnụego owuwe ihe ubi mụbara, mgbe ahụ, ngwaahịa ọnụ ọgụgụ Ihe ndị dị ndụ ga-ebelata. N'otu oge, a ga-enweta oke owuwe ihe ubi nke enwere ike ịnọgide na-enwe, na mgbalị ndị ọzọ iji mụbaa ọnụego owuwe ihe ubi ga-eme ka azụmaahịa ahụ daa. A na-akpọ isi ihe a oke mkpụrụ na-adịgide adịgide, na omume, na-emekarị mgbe azụ ahụ gbaturu ruo ihe dị ka pasentị atọ (30%) nke ọnụ ọgụgụ ihe ndị dị ndụ o nwere tupu owuwe ihe ubi amalite.

Enwere ike ịkụ azụ n'ihu, wee ruo pasentị iri na ise (15%) nke ọnụ ọgụgụ ihe ndị dị ndụ tupu owuwe ihe ubi, wee gbanwee ọnụego owuwe ihe ubi ka ọnụ ọgụgụ ihe ndị dị ndụ wee nọgide na ọkwa ahụ. N'okwu a, azụmaahịa ahụ na-adịgide adịgide, mana ugbu a na-eji ya eme ihe n'ụzọ gabigara ókè, n'ihi na ngwaahịa ahụ agbadaala ruo n'ókè ebe mkpụrụ na-adịgide adịgide dị ala karịa ka ọ nwere ike ịbụ.

A na-ekwu na azụ "na-ada" ma ọ bụrụ na ọnụ ọgụgụ ihe ndị dị ndụ ha na-ebelata site na ihe karịrị pasent 95 nke ọnụ ọgụgụ ihe ndị dị ndụ bụ nke akụkọ ihe mere eme ha. A na-eji oke cod nke Atlantic eme ihe n'ụzọ dị ukwuu n'afọ 1970s nakwa 1980s, na-eduga na ọdịda ha na mberede n'afọ 1992.[20] N'agbanyeghi na ịkụ azụ akwụsịla, azụ ndị ahụ a ka nwetabeghị onwe ha.[20] Enweghị cod dị ka onye na-eri anụ n'ọtụtụ ebe emeela ka trophic cascades.[20]

Ihe dị ka 25% nke azụmaahịa ụwa na-ejizi oke njọ ruo n'ókè ebe biomass ha dị ugbu a dị ala karịa ọkwa nke na-eme ka mkpụrụ ha na-adịgide adịgide.[21] Azụ azụ ndị a na-agwụ agwụ nwere ike ịgbake ma ọ bụrụ na a na-ebelata nrụgide azụmaahịa ruo mgbe biomass ngwaahịa laghachiri na biomass kachasị mma. N'oge a, enwere ike ịmaliteghachi owuwe ihe ubi na nso oke mkpụrụ na-adịgide adịgide.[22]

Enwere ike izere ọdachi nke obodo n'ime ọnọdụ azụmaahịa ma ọ bụrụ na a na-achịkwa mgbalị na omume azụmaahịa n'ụzọ kwesịrị ekwesị site na njikwa azụmaahịa. Otu ụzọ dị irè nwere ike ịbụ ikenye ụfọdụ ihe onwunwe n'ụdị ọnụọgụ nke onye ọ bụla (ITQs) nye ndị ọkụ azụ. N'afọ 2008, nnukwu nnyocha banyere azụmaahịa nke jiri ITQs, na ndị na-emeghị ya, nyere ihe akaebe siri ike na ITQs na-enyere aka igbochi ọdịda ma weghachite azụmaahịa nke yiri ka ọ na-ada ada.[23][24]

Ngwongwo mmiri[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

 

Imegbu oke mmiri dị n'ime ala site na mmiri nwere ike ime ka mmiri dị elu.[25]

Ngwongwo mmiri, dị ka ọdọ mmiri na mmiri mmiri, na-abụkarị ihe ndị a na-emegharị emegharị nke na-agbanyeghachi (a na-eji okwu mmiri fossil mgbe ụfọdụ akọwa mmiri mmiri nke na-adịghị ebugharị). Mmegbu gabigara ókè na-eme ma ọ bụrụ na a na-egwupụta ma ọ bụ wepụ ihe onwunwe mmiri, dị ka Ogallala Aquifer, na ọnụego nke karịrị ọnụego mgbapụta, ya bụ, na ọnụego nke karịrị mkpụrụ na-adịgide adịgide. Ntughari na-esitekarị na iyi mpaghara, osimiri na ọdọ mmiri. A na-ekwu na a na-agbanye mmiri mmiri nke ejirila mee ihe n'ụzọ gabigara ókè ma ọ bụ gwụ. Ọhịa na-eme ka mmiri na-agbanyeghachi na mpaghara ụfọdụ, ọ bụ ezie na n'ozuzu ọhịa bụ isi iyi nke nkwụsị mmiri.[26][27] Mmiri mmiri na-adịghị mma nwere ike imetọ ya site na ihe ndị na-emerụ ahụ dị ka nitrates, ma ọ bụ mebie ya na-adịgide adịgide site na ọdịda ala ma ọ bụ site na ntinye saline site n'oké osimiri.

Nke a na-eme ka ọtụtụ mmiri na ọdọ mmiri dị n'okpuru ala n'ụwa ghọọ akụ na ụba na arụmụka ojiji kachasị elu yiri mmanụ.[28][29] Arụmụka ndị a na-agbakarị gburugburu ọrụ ugbo na iji mmiri eme ihe n'ime obodo mana mmepụta ọkụ eletrik site na ike nuklia ma ọ bụ coal na tar sands mining bụkwa mmiri siri ike. A gbanwere oghere Hubbert na-emetụta akụ ọ bụla nwere ike iwepụta ngwa ngwa karịa ka enwere ike dochie ya.[25] Ọ bụ ezie na nyocha mbụ nke Hubbert etinyeghị aka na akụ na ụba a na-emegharị emegharị, mmegbu ha nwere ike ime ka ọnụ ọgụgụ dị elu dị ka Hubbert. Nke a emeela ka e nwee echiche nke mmiri kachasị elu.

Ihe onwunwe ọhịa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Igbutu oke ọhịa ochie na Canada.

A na-eji ọhịa eme ihe n'ụzọ gabigara ókè mgbe a na-egbutu ha n'ọsọ ngwa ngwa karịa ka a na-eweghachi osisi. Iweghachite ọhịa na-asọ mpi na ojiji ala ndị ọzọ dị ka mmepụta nri, ịta anụ ụlọ, na ebe obibi maka uto akụ na ụba. N'akụkọ ihe mere eme, iji ngwaahịa ọhịa eme ihe, gụnyere osisi na osisi mmanụ, arụwo ọrụ dị mkpa na ọha mmadụ, ma e jiri ya tụnyere ọrụ nke mmiri na ala a na-akọ. Taa, mba ndị mepere emepe na-anọgide na-eji osisi arụ ụlọ, na osisi pulp maka akwụkwọ. Na mba ndị na-emepe emepe ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ ijeri mmadụ atọ na-adabere na osisi maka ikpo ọkụ na isi nri. Uru akụ na ụba dị mkpụmkpụ nke a na-enweta site na ịtụgharị ọhịa gaa na ọrụ ugbo, ma ọ bụ iji ngwaahịa osisi eme ihe n'ụzọ gabigara ókè, na-edugakarị n'efu ego ogologo oge na mmepụta ihe dị ogologo oge. Ebe ọdịda anyanwụ Afrịka, Madagascar, Ndịda Ọwụwa Anyanwụ Eshia na ọtụtụ mpaghara ndị ọzọ enwetala ego dị ala n'ihi oke mmegbu na mbelata nke owuwe ihe ubi osisi.[30]

Biodiversity[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ọdịiche dị iche iche nke ndụ mmiri bi na coral reefs na-adọta ndị bioprospectors. A na-eji ọtụtụ coral reefs eme ihe n'ụzọ gabigara ókè; iyi egwu gụnyere Ngwuputa coral, cyanide na ịkụ azụ, na ịkụ azụ n'ozuzu ya.

Mmegbu gabigara ókè bụ otu n'ime ihe egwu kachasị egwu maka ụdị ndụ dị iche iche n'ụwa.[1] Egwu ndị ọzọ gụnyere mmetọ, ụdị ndị e webatara na ndị na-awakpo, nkewa ebe obibi, mbibi ebe obibi, ngwakọta na-achịkwaghị achịkwa, mgbanwe ihu igwe, acidification nke oké osimiri[31] na onye ọkwọ ụgbọala n'azụ ọtụtụ n'ime ndị a, oke mmadụ.[1][32][33][34]

Otu n'ime isi okwu ahụike metụtara ụdị ndụ dị iche iche bụ nchọpụta ọgwụ na nnweta ọgwụ.[35] Ọnụ ọgụgụ dị ukwuu nke ọgwụ bụ ngwaahịa sitere n'okike sitere, kpọmkwem ma ọ bụ n'ụzọ na-apụtaghị ìhè, site na isi mmalite. Ihe ndị dị n'ime mmiri nwere mmasị karịsịa na nke a.[36] Otú ọ dị, nyocha bioprospecting na-enweghị nchịkwa na nke na-ekwesịghị ekwesị nwere ike ibute oke mmegbu, mmebi gburugburu ebe obibi na ọnwụ nke ihe dị iche iche.[37][38][39]

Ụdị ndị nọ n'ihe ize ndụ na ndị nwụrụ anwụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ọ bụghị naanị ụmụ mmadụ na-eji ihe onwunwe eme ihe. Anụmanụ obodo nwere ike ịkpata oke ịta nri, dị ka egosiri na elu aka nri. Otú ọ dị, mmegbu mmadụ n'oge gara aga (na-eduga n'iwepụ ụfọdụ ndị na-eri anụ) nwere ike ịbụ ihe kpatara ọnọdụ ahụ.

Ihe niile dị ndụ chọrọ ihe onwunwe iji dị ndụ. Imegbu ihe onwunwe ndị a ruo ogologo oge nwere ike ime ka akụ ndị sitere n'okike gwụ ruo n'ókè ebe ha na-enweghị ike ịgbake n'ime obere oge. Ụmụ mmadụ na-aghọrọ nri na ihe ndị ọzọ ha chọrọ iji dị ndụ. Ọnụ ọgụgụ mmadụ, n'akụkọ ihe mere eme, dị obere, na usoro nchịkọta na-ejedebe na obere ọnụ ọgụgụ. Site na mmụba dị ukwuu nke ọnụ ọgụgụ mmadụ, ịgbasa ahịa na mmụba nke mkpa, tinyere ohere dị mma na usoro maka njide, na-akpata mmegbu nke ọtụtụ ụdị karịa ọkwa na-adịgide adịgide.[40] N'ikwu ya n'ụzọ dị irè, ọ bụrụ na a gaa n'ihu, ọ na-ebelata akụ bara uru ruo ọkwa dị ala nke na mmegbu ha anaghịzi adịgide adịgide adịgide ma nwee ike ibute mkpochapụ nke ụdị, na mgbakwunye na inwe mmetụta dị egwu, nke a na-atụghị anya ya, na gburugburu ebe obibi.[41] Mmegbu na-emekarị ngwa ngwa ka ahịa na-emeghe, na-eji ihe ndị a na-ejighị eme ihe, ma ọ bụ ụdị eji eme ihe na mpaghara.

A chụrụ parakeet Carolina ka ọ laa n'iyi.

Taa, mmegbu na iji akụ na ụba eme ihe n'ụzọ na-ezighị ezi bụ ihe iyi egwu na-adị mgbe niile maka akụnụba ụdị. Nke a juru ebe niile mgbe ị na-ele gburugburu ebe obibi agwaetiti na ụdị ndị bi na ha, dịka a pụrụ ile agwaetiti anya dị ka ụwa dị ntakịrị. Ndị bi n'àgwàetiti na-enwekarị ike ịla n'iyi site na mmegbu, ebe ọ bụ na ha na-adịkarị na ọnụ ọgụgụ dị ala na ọnụ ọgụgụ dị ala nke ịmụ nwa.[42] Ezi ihe atụ nke a bụ ụgbụ agwaetiti, dị ka Hawaiian Achatinella na French Polynesian Partula . Achatinelline snails nwere ụdị iri na ise edepụtara dị ka ndị nwụrụ anwụ na 24 dị oke egwu ebe a na-ewere ụdị 60 nke partulidae dị ka ndị nwụrụ anwụ na 14 edepụtara dị ka ndị nọ n'ihe ize ndụ.[43][44] WCMC ekwuola na nchịkọta karịrị akarị na obere ndụ ndụ maka oke nsogbu gosipụtara n'etiti ụdị ndị a.[45]

Dị ka ihe atụ ọzọ, mgbe e webatara hedgehog dị umeala n'obi n'àgwàetiti Scotland nke Uist, ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị bi na ya mụbara nke ukwuu ma were na-eri ma na-erigara àkwá shorebird eme ihe n'ụzọ gabigara ókè, na-akpata nnukwu ihe ịga nke ọma ha. A na-emetụta ụdị avifauna iri na abụọ, ebe a na-ebelata ụfọdụ ụdị ọnụ ọgụgụ site na 39%.[46]

N'ebe enwere nnukwu mbugharị mmadụ, ọgba aghara obodo, ma ọ bụ agha, njikwa nwere ike ọ gaghịzi adị. Site na ọgba aghara obodo, dịka ọmụmaatụ na Congo na Rwanda, égbè aghọwo ihe a na-ahụkarị na mmebi nke netwọk nkesa nri na mba ndị dị otú ahụ na-ahapụ akụ na ụba nke gburugburu ebe obibi.[47] A na-egbu ọbụna ụmụ anụmanụ dị ka ihe mgbaru ọsọ, ma ọ bụ naanị iji kpasuo gọọmentị iwe. Ọnụ ọgụgụ nke nnukwu primates, dị ka gorilla na chimpanzees, ungulates na ụmụ anụmanụ ndị ọzọ, nwere ike belata site na 80% ma ọ bụ karịa site na ịchụ nta, a pụkwara iwepụ ụfọdụ ụdị kpamkpam.[48] A na-akpọ mbelata a nsogbu anụ ọhịa.

Vertebrates[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mmegbu gabigara ókè na-eyi otu ụzọ n'ụzọ atọ nke vertebrates nọ n'ihe ize ndụ, yana ìgwè ndị ọzọ. Ewezuga azụ a na-eri eri, azụmahịa iwu na-akwadoghị nke anụ ọhịa dị ijeri $ 10 kwa afọ. Ụlọ ọrụ ndị na-ahụ maka nke a gụnyere ahia anụ ọhịa, ahia ọgwụ ndị China, na ahia ajị anụ.[49] E guzobere Convention for International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, ma ọ bụ CITES iji chịkwaa ma chịkwaa ahia nke anụmanụ nọ n'ihe ize ndụ. Ọ na-echebe ugbu a, ruo n'ókè dịgasị iche iche, ihe dị ka ụdị anụmanụ na osisi 33,000. A na-eme atụmatụ na otu ụzọ n'ụzọ anọ nke vertebrates nọ n'ihe ize ndụ na United States of America na ọkara nke ụmụ anụmanụ ndị nọ n'ihe ize ndụ bụ n'ihi oke mmegbu.[1][50]

Nnụnụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'ozuzu ya, ụdị nnụnụ iri ise nke na-apụ n'anya kemgbe 1500 (ihe dị ka 40% nke ngụkọta) anọwo n'okpuru mmegbu, gụnyere:[51]

  • Nnukwu Auk - nnụnụ yiri penguin nke ugwu, a chụrụ ya maka ajị anụ ya, anụ, abụba na mmanụ ya.
  • Carolina parakeet - A na-achụ naanị ụdị parrot nke sitere n'ebe ọwụwa anyanwụ United States, maka nchedo ihe ọkụkụ na ajị anụ ya.

Ụmụ anụmanụ na-enye nwa ara[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Azụmahịa mba ụwa na ajị anụ: chinchilla, vicuña, nnukwu otter na ọtụtụ ụdị nwamba

Azụ̀[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Aquarium hobbyists: azụ ebe okpomọkụ

Dị iche iche[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Anụmanụ ọhụrụ: agwọ, parrots, primates na nnukwu nwamba[52]
  • Ọgwụ ndị China: anụ ọhịa bea, agụ, rhinos, ịnyịnya mmiri, anụ ọhịa bea ojii nke Eshia na anụ ọhịa saiga[53]

Invertebrates[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Ndị na-anakọta ụmụ ahụhụ: butterflies
  • Ndị na-anakọta okpokoro: Marine molluscs

Ihe ọkụkụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Horticulturists: New Zealand mistletoe (Trilepidea adamsii), orchids, cacti na ọtụtụ ụdị osisi ndị ọzọ

Mmetụta Cascade[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Imegbu oke osimiri kpatara mmetụta cascade nke bibiri oke ọhịa kelp.

Imegbu oke nke ụdị nwere ike ịkpata mmetụta ịkụ aka ma ọ bụ cascade. Nke a nwere ike itinye aka karịsịa ma ọ bụrụ na, site na mmegbu, ebe obibi na-efunahụ onye na-eri anụ ya. N'ihi ọnwụ nke anụ ọhịa kachasị elu, mmụba dị egwu n'ụdị anụ ha nwere ike ime. N'aka nke ya, anụ a na-achịkwaghị achịkwa nwere ike iji ihe oriri nke aka ha mee ihe ruo mgbe ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị mmadụ belatara, ma eleghị anya ruo n'ókè nke ịla n'iyi.

Ihe atụ zuru oke nke mmetụta cascade mere na oke osimiri. Malite tupu narị afọ nke iri na asaa ma ghara ịkwụsị ya ruo n'afọ 1911, a na-achụ nta oke osimiri n'ike n'ike maka akpụkpọ anụ ha na-ekpo ọkụ ma baa uru, nke nwere ike iru $ 2500 US. Nke a kpatara mmetụta cascade site na kelp ọhịa ecosystems tinyere Pacific Coast nke North America.[54]

Otu n'ime isi nri nke oke osimiri bụ oke osimiri. Mgbe ndị na-achụ nta mere ka ọnụ ọgụgụ otter nke oké osimiri belata, ntọhapụ gburugburu ebe obibi nke ọnụ ọgụgụ urchin oké osimiri mere. Ndị urchins nke oké osimiri na-ejizi isi nri ha, kelp, na-emepụta urchin barrens, ebe ndị dị n'ala oké osimiri na-enweghị kelp, mana e tinyere urchins. N'ịbụ onye na-enweghịzi nri ọ ga-eri, oke osimiri ahụ gbanyụkwara n'ógbè ahụ. Ọzọkwa, ebe ọ bụ na oke ọhịa kelp bụ ebe obibi nke ọtụtụ ụdị ndị ọzọ, ọnwụ nke kelp kpatara mmetụta ndị ọzọ nke nkwụsị nke abụọ.[55]

N'afọ 1911, mgbe naanị otu obere ìgwè nke oke osimiri iri atọ na abụọ lanarịrị n'ime oke osimiri dịpụrụ adịpụ, a bịanyere aka na nkwekọrịta mba ụwa iji gbochie mmegbu ọzọ nke oke osimiri. N'okpuru nchebe siri ike, otters mụbara ma jupụta ebe ndị ahụ gwụrụ, nke ji nwayọọ nwayọọ gbakee. N'oge na-adịbeghị anya, na ọnụ ọgụgụ na-ebelata nke azụ azụ, ọzọ n'ihi oke mmegbu, egbu egbu egbu enweela ụkọ nri ma hụla ya ka ọ na-eri anụ ọhịa oké osimiri, na-ebelata ọnụ ọgụgụ ha ọzọ.[56]

Leekwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

 

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Ịgụgụ ọzọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]