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Owain Glyndŵr

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Àtụ:Infobox royalty . [1] [2]Owain ap Gruffydd ( c. 1354 – c. 1415), nke a na-akpọ Owain Glyndŵr ma ọ bụ Gakpọpụta [ ˈoʊain ɡlɨ̞nˈduːr ]lyn Dŵr ( </link> , anglicized dị onye , Glyn bụ onye Owesh), G.  na ọchịagha na Late Middle Ages, onye dugara nnupụisi afọ 15 na ebumnobi nke ihe ọmụmụ Bekee na Wales .  Ọ bụ onye ọka iwu akwụkwọ akwụkwọ, na-etolite nzuko omeiwu Welsh nke n'okpuru ya, ma bụrụ onye Welsh onye ikpeazụ n'aka onye isi ala Wales

Na 1400 Owain Glyndŵr, onye sitere na ọtụtụ usoro ndị eze Welsh, nwere ikike ya na onye nwe England gbara agbata obi nke butere Glyndŵr na-azọrọ aha nna nna ya nke Prince nke Wales, nke kpalitere nnupụisi dị iche iche Bekee.  Na nzaghachi maka ọgba aghara ahụ, e egosipụta iwu njirimara ókè megide ndị Welsh;  Ọgba nsogbu ọha na-emewanyewanye nke ọma ma nkwado maka Glyndŵr n'ofe Wales.  Na 1404, mgbe mgbochi nke nnukwu ụlọ na-aga nke ọma na ọtụtụ mmeri n'ọgbọ agha megide ndị Bekee, Owain ikike ikike nke obodo ahụ wee chie ya eze nke Wales n'ihu ndị ozi French, Spanish, Scottish na Breton.  Ọkakọ otu nzuko omeiwu mba, ebe o kwuputara staghachi iwu omenala Welsh nke Hywel Dda, guzobe ụka Welsh nwere onwe ya, ma wuo mahadum abụọ.  Owain aka na Eze Charles VI nke France;  na 1405, ndị agha France rutere na Wales iji kwado nnupụisi ahụ.

. [3]N'okpuru nduzi nke Owain Glyndŵr, e hiwere steeti Welsh nweere onwe ya nke mba ụwa na-enweta obere oge.  Ɔ fi afɔ ise ruo February 1409, mgbe ndị agha bekee weghaara ebe obibi ikpeazụ nke Owain nke Aberystwyth Castle na Harlech Castle, na-ejedebe ụdị ọrụ ya nke ọma na Wales.  Glyndŵr edit ịrara onwe ya nye eze ọhụrụ Henry V, na-abụ abụọ nke mgbaghara sitere n'aka eze.  Ọ la n'ihi n'ugwu na ugwu Welsh na ndị agha yanụ, ebe ọ na-egosi na- ndị na-asụ Bekee site n'iji ụzọ ụzọ eme ihe.  Nke a gara n'ihu ruo mgbe Owain ịhụnanya na 1415, mgbe otu n'ime ndị na-akwado ya, Adam nke Usk, dekọrọ na ọ nwụrụ n'ihi ihe ndị sitere n'okike.

N'agbanyeghị ego nke okpueze Bekee na-etinye na ya, Glyndŵr adịghị mgbe a raara ya nye ma ọ bụ jide ya, na omenala Welsh ọ Shekaịde ifo n'ụdị ndị dị ka Cadwaladr, Cynon ap Clydno na King Arthur dị.  ka dike ndị mmadụ na-echere oku ndị na tọhapụ ndị ya - " Y ​​Mab Darogan</link> "('Ụkpara Amụma') [4] N' asọ William Shakespeare Henry IV, Nkebi nke 1 ọ ቀለ ka agwa Owen Glendower  dịka eze kama ịbụ onye isi.

Ụlọ ikpe nke Owain Glyndŵr na Sycharth, Powys.  nnukwu nnukwu mkpọmkpọ ebe dị ugbu a mgbe Eze Henry V nke ga-ahụ n’ahụ gbachara ụlọ ahụ ọkụ na 1403.

. [4]A egwuregwu Owain Glyndŵr na 1354 na igwu egwu egwuregwu Welsh Marches (n'ụdị egwuregwu dì n'etiti Wales na England) site na isiokwu uchelwyr .</link> - ndị isi sitere na ndị eze Welsh tupu enwee mmeri - na obodo Welsh omenala  .  Otu a kwagara n'ụzọ dị mfe n'etiti obodo Welsh na Bekee na akwụkwọ, na-ebikwa nri dị mkpa maka Marcher Lords ka ha na-ejigide ọnọdụ ha dị ka uchelwyr .</link> .  [1] Nna ya, Gruffydd Fychan II, Tywysog eketa nke Powys Fadog na Onyenwe Glyndyfrdwy, die oge tupu 1370, na-ahapụ nne Glyndŵr Elen ferch Tomas ap Llywelyn nke Deheubarth mere ọnwụ mgbe ọ dị afọ 16 ọzọ.  Owain Glyndŵr bụ onye sitere na ọtụtụ usoro eze Welsh asị ndị isi nke Powys site na ndị Mathrafal site na nna ya.  Site na nne ya, ọ bụkwa onye sitere na ndị eze na ndị isi nke Deheubarth yana ụlọ eze nke Dinefwr, na ndị eze na ndị isi nke Gwynedd na alaka ụlọ ọrụ Cadet nke ndị nwe Aberffraw .  [2]

. [5]Owain ap Gruffyd na-eto eto nwere ike ikiri n' David Hanmer, onye ọka iwu na-ebili n'oge na-adịghị ka ọ bụrụ ikpe ziri ezi nke Eze Bench, ma ọ bụ n'iche nke Richard FitzAlan, 3rd.  Earl nke Arundel .  A na-eche na ezigara Owain na Lọndọn ka ọ akwụkwọ gbasara iwu na Inns of Court .  Eleghị anya akwụkwọ akwụkwọ dịka onye nkuzi gbasara iwu na London, ruo afọ asaa.  Ọ nwere ike ịpụ na London n'oge nnupụ nke ndị na-ahụ maka nke 1381. </link>, ọ bi na Wales wee lụọ Margaret Hanmer ;  isi na isi ha mere na 1383 na St Chad's Church, Holt, [1] [2] n'agbanyeghị na ha nwere ike ịlụ na mbụ ụbọchị na njedebe 1370s dị ka isin si kwuo.  [13] Ha ihe nnukwu ihe na Owain guzobe onwe ya dị ka squire nke Sycharth na Glyndyfrdwy.

. [18]Glyndŵr sonyeere ndị agha eze na 1384 mgbe ọ bụ onye ọrụ ndị agha n'okpuru onye Welsh ama ama Sir Gregory Sais, ma ọ bụ Sir Degory Sais, na egwuregwu Bekee-Scottish na Berwick-n'elu-Tweed .  Aha nna ya Sais, nke ere 'Englishman' na Welsh, na-ezo aka n'ikike ya ịsụ Bekee, ọ bụghị nke a na-emepụta na Wales n'oge ahụ.  [1] N'August 1385, o jere ozi Eze Richard nke ebe n'okpuru John nke Gaunt, ọzọ na Scotland .  [16] Na 1386, a set ya ka ọ nye ihe ọmụma na High Court of Chivalry, na Scrope v Grosvenor ikpe na Chester na 3 September apụ ahụ.  Na Ma ọchịchị 1387, Owain ogụ dị ka squire Richard FitzAlan, 4th Earl of Arundel, na English Channel na mmeri nke otu ụgbọ mmiri Franco-Spanish-Flemish n' watch oke osimiri Kent .  Mgbe ọ nwụsịrị na-abụ 1387 nke ọgọ ya nwoke, Sir David Hanmer, chnight tupu otu awụ ahụ site n'aka Richard II, Glyndŵr la mgbanaka Wales dị ka onye na-ahụ maka ụlọ ya.  [17] Glyndŵr jere ozi dị ka squire na Henry Bolingbroke (mgbe e eke King Henry IV ), nwa John nke Gaunt, na na-eso, nkɔ Battle of Radcot Bridge na December 1387. Site na 1384 ruo 1388 ọ na-arụsi ọrụ ike na  ọrụ agha ma ji awụ zuru oke nke agha na ụlọ ihe nkiri dị iche iche, ma hụ ụfọdụ ihe omume dị mkpa na ndị kwesịrị mkpa ama mbụ.  [

N'ọgwụgwụ 1390s, usoro ihe omume malitere ịkwanye Owain maka nnupụisi, na nke a ga-akpọ Nnupụisi Welsh, Glyndŵr Rising ma ọ bụ (n'ime Wales) Agha Ikpeazụ nke Onwe. Onye agbata obi ya, Baron Gray de Ruthyn, ejirila ikike nke ụfọdụ ala, nke Glyndŵr rịọrọ maka Ụlọ Nzukọ Alaeze England . Arịrịọ Owain maka mkpezi eleghara anya. Mgbe e mesịrị, na 1400, Lord Gray gwara Glyndŵr n'oge na-adịghị anya nke iwu eze ka ọ na-atụnye ndị agha feudal maka ọrụ ókèala Scotland, si otú a na-enyere ya aka ịkpọ onye Welsh onye sabo na gburugburu ụlọ ikpe London. [6] Lord Gray nwere oke n'obí eze nke Henry IV. Ụlọikpe iwu jụrụ ịge ntị, ma ọ bụ ikpe ahụ egbuola oge n'ihi na Lord Gray gbochiri akwụkwọ ozi Owain irute Eze. [21]

. [7]Na 16 September 1400, Owain Glyndŵr kpalitere nnupụisi Welsh afọ 15 ụzọ Henry IV nke England .  [22] [1] Site n'iji usoro guerrilla eme ihe, ndị agha Welsh jisiri ike mee ka ndị agha Bekee merie ọtụtụ mmeri wee weghara nnukwu nnukwu ụlọ n'ofe Wales, na-enweta ngwa nke ọtụtụ obodo.  Akụkọ ịhụnanya ihe ịga nke ọma nnupụisi ahụ gbasaruru mba ụwa n'ofe Europe, Glyndŵr wee jawaabta Nkwado ndị agha mmiri site na Scotland na Brittany.  Ọ natakwara Nkwado nke Eze Charles VI nke France, onye ihe iziga ndị agha France na ihe mere iji nyere nnupụisi ahụ aka.  [24] N'afọ 1403, ndị agha Welsh ndị agha France ị na ndị agha sitere na Glamorgan na mpaghara Rhondda Valleys nke Owain Glyndŵr nyere iwu, onye isi ọchịchịagha ya Rhys Gethin na Cadwgan, Lord of Glyn Rhondda, meri nnukwu ndị  agha England na-ebuso agha na-edu.  Eze Henry IV n'onwe ya na Agha Stalling Down na Glamorgan.  [25] Iolo Morganwg (1747-1826) dere na ka ha na-awakpo egwuregwu ndị Bekee na Wales, Glyndŵr na ndị nnupụisi ya naara ndị dị ike na ndị ọrụ ma kesaa n'etiti ndị ogbenye, [2] ya mere Glyndŵr  na-yẹkwa.  elere anya dị ka ihe oyiyi Robin Hood

Isi mmalite na-ekwu na Glyndŵr nọ n'egwu n'ihi na o degara Lord Grey akwụkwọ ozi iwe, na-etu ọnụ na ala abanyela n'aka ya, na o zuru ụfọdụ n'ime ịnyịnya nke Lord Gray, na ikwere na Lord Gray yiri egwu "ọkụ na ọkụ. gbuo" n'ime ala ya, o yiri egwu imegwara n'otu ụzọ ahụ. Lord Gray gọnarịrị na ọ na-eyi egwu mbụ ịgba ọkụ na igbu ma zaghachi na ọ ga-ebugara ndị kansụl Henry IV akwụkwọ ozi ahụ na Glyndŵr ga-akwụnye maka nnabata nke izu ohi na aghụghọ dị n'ime akwụkwọ ozi ahụ. [8] Eze ahụ a chụpụrụ achụpụ, bụ́ Richard nke Abụọ, nwere nkwado na Wales, na na January 1400 ajọ ọgba aghara obodo dara n’obodo Chester nke dị n’ókè England mgbe e gbusịrị onye uwe ojii Richard nke Abụọ n’ihu ọha. [29] [9]

Ihe omume ndị a mere ka Glyndŵr wepụta aha nna nna ya nke Prince of Powys na 16 September 1400 na ala Glyndyfrdwy ya.  Ya na obere ndị na-eso nke egwu ọkpara ya, ụgịrị ya nwoke, na Bishọp St Asaph n'obodo Corwen, ikike na SS Mael na Sulien, ọ ịwakpo egwu Lord Grey.  Mgbe ọtụtụ mbụ mbụ dị n'etiti Henry IV na ndị na-eso ụzọ Owain na September na October 1400, nnupụisi ahụ, prequel na Agha nke Roses mgbasa ịgbasa.  Ọtụtụ n'ime ugwu na etiti Wales jụrụ na Glyndŵr.  Henry IV Henry Percy - "Hotspur" a ma ama - iji mee ka obodo ahụ dị n'usoro.  Eze na nzuko omeiwu Bekee gbaghara na 10 Machi 1401 nke gbakwunye ndị nnupụisi niile ma e so Owain na mgba ya Rhys ap Tudur na Gwilym ap Tudur, ụmụ Tudur ap Gronw (nna nna nke Eze Henry VII nke England).  ).  A gbaghaara ndị Tudor abụọ ahụ mgbe ha weghaara nnukwu ụlọ Edward I na Conwy na 28 Mee 1401. [31] Na June, Glyndŵr meri nnukwu mmeri mbụ ya n'ihi na Mynydd Hyddgen na Pumlumon .  Nkwụghachi nke Henry IV na Strata Florida Abbey sochiri October.  Mgbaghara nnupụisi ahụ ejirila North Wales nile;  ndị ọrụ na-ejide ngwá agha ọ ALA ha nwere ike, ndị ọrụ ugbo na-eresị ehi haabụrụ ngwá agha, a na-enwe asụ n’ebe nile, na ndị ogbi ‘na-akpa dị ka ndị ozi nke nnupụisi.  Castles dabara n'aka Glyndŵr ka ọ na-ewere aha Onye isi ala Wales.  Henry IV ọrịa ọgba aghara nke Welsh na Leicester;  Ndị agha Henry wa North Wales na Anglesey wee ịchụpụ Franciscan friars bụ ndị akwụkwọ Richard II.  N'oge ahụ niile Glyndŵr, bụ onye nọ na nkuzi, a tụfuru ala ya John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset .  Enyere Glyndŵr mgbaghara na 10 Maachị 1401 mana ọtaገበ ahụ.  Na 30 May Hotspur, ebe ọ meri agha dị nso na Cadair Idris, iwu ya maka ndị agha Bekee wee asụsụ imekọ ihe na Glyndŵr.  N'oge a n'oge opupu ihe ubi nke 1401, Glyndŵr Liverpool na South Wales, na n'oge mgbụsị akwụkwọ Gwynedd, Ceredigion (nke nyefere England nwa oge maka mgbaghara) na Powys rapara na ịrị elu elu-elu Bekee.  M ịgba Glyndŵr mere n'ịkpalite nnupụisi site n'ibu nke ndị Scottish na Irish dara, na Bekee ọkụ ebere ma kwụgidere ụfọdụ ndị ozi.

Ngosipụta nke Owain Glyndŵr n'agha nke Arthur Cadwgan Michael

Na 1401 na 1402, nzuko omeiwu Bekee weputara iwu welsh, nke e mere iji manye nrubeisi na Wales, mana ihe si na ya pụta bụ iwe iwe nke kaadị ọtụtụ ndị Welsh n'ime nnupụisi ahụ.  [32] N'otu afọ ahụ, Glyndŵr weghaara onye iro ya bụ Baron Gray de Ruthyn.  Ọ bụrụ otu ọnọdụ nke nta ka ọ afụ ruo mgbe ọ na-ahụ ihe nkiri n'aka Henry.  Na June 1402, Glyndŵr meri ndị agha Bekee nke Sir Edmund Mortimer nọ na nso Pillett ( Agha nke Bryn Glas ), bụ ebe e weghaara Mortimer.  Glyndŵr kwere nkwa nna Mortimer maka nnukwu ihe nkiri mana, n'ụzọ dị iche na omume ya na de Grey, Henry IV askarta .  Enwere ike ịsị na nwa nwanne Mortimer nwere ikike ka ukwuu n'ocheeze Bekee diẹ Henry n'onwe ya, ihe ntọhapụ ya ngwa ngwa nhọrọ.  Na nzaghachi, Mortimer kpara elele na Glyndŵr wee lụọ otu n'ime ụmụ ekiri Glyndŵr.  [33] Ọ bụkwa na 1402 ka a ọkwa aha French na Breton na-enyere Owain aka.  Ndị France na-atụ anya n'ezie iji Wales dịka ha jiri Scotland mee ihe: dị ka ebe isi na-ebuso ndị Bekee agha.  </li[ a ọgwụ

Glyndŵr, chere ihu na afọ na-agba ọsọ, mechara tufuo ala ya na mmiri nke 1403, mgbe Prince Henry dị ka ọ na-emebu gara Wales n'enweghị mmegide wee gbaa ụlọ Glyndŵr na Sycharth na Glyndyfrdwy, yana commote nke Edeirnion na akụkụ Powys . Glyndŵr gara n'ihu na-anọchibido obodo dị iche iche wee gbaa nnukwu ụlọ ọkụ ọkụ; maka ụbọchị 10 n'ime Julaị afọ ahụ, ọ gara na ndịda na ndịda ọdịda anyanwụ Wales ruo mgbe ndịda niile jikọtara aka na nnupụisi megide ọchịchị Bekee. Omume ndị a kpalitere nnupụisi n'ime ime megide Eze England, na ndị Percy na-esonye na ịrị elu. Ọ bụ n'akụkụ ọkwa ndụ Glyndŵr a ka Hywel Sele, nwa nwanne onye isi Welsh, nwara igbu Glyndŵr na ala Nannau . [34]

Ụlọ omeiwu Owain Glyndŵr na Machynlleth. (Ihe atụ sitere na Hutchinson's History of the Nations, 1915)

Na 1404, ndị agha Glyndŵr weghaara Aberystwyth Castle na Harlech Castle, wee gaa n'ihu na-emebi ndịda site na ọkụ Cardiff Castle . Mgbe ahụ, e mere ụlọikpe na Harlech na Gruffydd Young ka a họpụtara ka Welsh Chancellor . Enweela nkwurịta okwu na Louis I, Duke nke Orléans na Paris iji gbalịa (na-enweghị ihe ịga nke ọma) imeghe ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri Welsh maka ahia French.

Ka ọ na-erule 1404 ihe na-erughị njem ndị agha eze anọ na Wales ka a chụpụrụ ma Owain emewo ka njikwa ya sie ike na mba ahụ. Na 1404, e chiri ya eze okpueze nke Wales ( Welsh </link> ) ma mee nzuko omeiwu na Machynlleth, ebe o depụtara mmemme mba ya maka Wales nwere onwe ya. Nke a gụnyere atụmatụ dị ka iwulite mahadum mba abụọ (otu na ndịda na otu n'ebe ugwu), iweghachite iwu omenala Welsh nke Hywel Dda, na iguzobe ụka Welsh nwere onwe ya. E nwere ndị ozi si mba ndị ọzọ gụnyere France, Scotland na Alaeze León (na Spain). N'oge okpomọkụ nke 1405, e zigara ndị nnọchiteanya anọ sitere na mpaghara ọ bụla na Wales na Harlech. [35]

Enwere ike họrọ Machynlleth n'ihi ebe etiti ya na Wales na ihe onwunwe nke ụlọ atọ dị nso nso a: Castell y Bere, Aberystwyth Castle na Harlech Castle. [10] Ụlọ nzuko omeiwu dị ugbu a ( Senedd-dy</link> ) na Machynlleth jikọtara ya na nzuko omeiwu 1404 mana ụlọ dị ugbu a bụ ihe na-adịbeghị anya. Omenala obodo na-ekwu na okwute ndị e ji mee ihe sitere na ụlọ mbụ 1404. [11]

Indenture Tripartite na afọ nke French[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Na February 1405, Glyndŵr kpara nkata " Tripartite Indenture na Edmund Mortimer na Henry Percy, Earl nke Northumberland . Ndị Indenture kwetara kewaa England na Wales n'etiti ha atọ. Wales ga-agbatị ruo osimiri Severn na Mersey, gụnyere ọtụtụ Cheshire, Shropshire na Herefordshire . Ndị Mortimer Lords nke March ga-eweghara ndịda na ọdịda anyanwụ England na ndị Percy ga-ewere ugwu England. [12] [39] [lower-alpha 1] Ọ bụ ezie na mkparita ụka ya na ndị isi nke Ireland enweghị ihe ịga nke ọma, Glyndŵr nwere ihe mere ọ ga-eji nwee olileanya na ndị France na ndị Breton nwere ike na-anabata ndị ọzọ. O zipụrụ Gruffydd Yonge na ọgọ ya nwoke (nwanne Margaret ), John Hanmer, ka ha na ndị France kparịta ụka. Ihe si na ya pụta bụ nkwekọrịta nkwekọrịta nke kwere nkwa enyemaka French nye Glyndŵr na Welsh. Mmetụta ozugbo dị ka ọ bụ na ndị agha Welsh na Franco-Breton jikọrọ aka wakporo ma nọchibidoro Kidwelly Castle . Ndị Welsh nwekwara ike ịtụkwasị obi na enyemaka ụmụnna nke ọkara sitere na Duchy nke Brittany na nke Scotland. [40] Ndị Scots na ndị France nọ na-arụ ọrụ na gburugburu Wales n'oge agha Owain niile. Ụgbọ mmiri ndị Scotland wakporo obodo ndị Bekee na Llŷn Peninsula na 1400 na 1401. Na 1403, otu Breton squadron meriri ndị Bekee na Channel wee bibie Jersey, Guernsey na Plymouth, ebe ndị France na-agbadata na Isle of Wight . Ka ọ na-erule 1404, ha nọ na-awakpo n'ụsọ oké osimiri England, na ndị agha Welsh nọ n'ụgbọ ahụ, na-agbanye ọkụ na Dartmouth ma bibie ụsọ oké osimiri Devon . </link>

Ka ọ na-erule 1405, ọtụtụ ndị agha France ewepụla mgbe ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na Paris gbanwere udo, na Agha Narị Afọ na-aga n'ihu n'etiti England na France. [44] Na 31 Maachị 1406 Glyndŵr dere akwụkwọ ozi a ga-ezigara Charles VI nke France n'oge synod na Ụka Welsh na Pennal, n'ihi ya aha ya. Akwụkwọ ozi Glyndŵr rịọrọ ka ndị France kwadoro nkwado ndị agha iji gbochie Bekee na Wales. Glyndŵr tụrụ aro na ọ ga-anabata Benedict XIII nke Avignon dị ka Pope . Akwụkwọ ozi ahụ depụtara ebumnuche Glyndŵr maka Wales nwere onwe ya na ndị omeiwu nke ya, nke onwe ya na-edu dị ka Onye isi ala Wales. Ambitions ndị a gụnyekwara nlọghachi nke iwu ọdịnala Hywel Dda, karịa iwu Bekee etinyere, guzobe ụlọ ụka Welsh nọọrọ onwe ya yana mahadum abụọ, otu dị na South Wales, na otu na North Wales. [45] N'ịgbaso akwụkwọ ozi a, ndị isi ụka na ndị otu dị mkpa nke ọha mmadụ gbabara na ọkọlọtọ Glyndŵr ma belata nguzogide Bekee gaa n'obere nnukwu ụlọ dịpụrụ adịpụ, obodo ndị nwere mgbidi, na ụlọ ndị e wusiri ike . [35]

Akara ukwu Glyndŵr na akwụkwọ ozi o ji aka degara ndị French na 1406 dị na Bibliothèque nationale de France na Paris. A na-ejide akwụkwọ ozi a ugbu a na Archives Nationales na Paris. Mpempe akwụkwọ facsimile metụtara ọkachamara ịka nká na ụdị nke akara Glyndŵr bụ nke National Library of Wales mepụtara ma nye ya onye ozi ihe nketa Alun Ffred Jones na ụlọ ọrụ Welsh isii na 2009. [13] [14] [15] Enyere Charles IV nke France akara ukwu eze na 1404 ma nwee ihe onyonyo na aha Glyndŵr - Àtụ:Language with name </link> – 'Owain, site n'amara nke Chineke, Onyeisi Wales'. [16]

Charles VI nke France anọgideghị na-akwado nnupụisi Glyndŵr

N'ịgbaso ntinye aka nke ndị agha France, ọgụ malitere ruo ọtụtụ afọ, na 1406, Prince Henry weghachiri ụgwọ na mgbapụta maka ndị agha Welsh ịhọrọ ọdịnihu ha, a kpụụrụ ndị mkpọrọ mgbe agha ahụ gasịrị, e weghachiri ndị nwe ha nnukwu ụlọ, n'otu afọ a. nwa Glyndŵr nwụrụ n'agha. Ka ọ na-erule 1408 Glyndŵr agbabawo na North nke Wales, ebe onye mmekọ ya nwụnahụrụ ya na Northumberland.

N'agbanyeghị ọganihu mbụ nke mgbanwe mgbanwe ahụ, na 1407 ọnụ ọgụgụ dị elu, ihe onwunwe, na akụ na ụba nke England nwere n'ikpeazụ malitere ịtụgharị agha ahụ, na ndị agha Bekee nke ka ukwuu na nke ka mma ji nwayọọ nwayọọ malite imeri ndị Welsh. . N'oge agha, ndị Bekee gbanwere atụmatụ ha. [50] Kama ilekwasị anya na njem ntaramahụhụ dị ka nna ya masịrị ya, Prince Henry na-eto eto nakweere atụmatụ nke mgbochi akụ na ụba. N'iji nnukwu ụlọ ndị fọdụrụ na nchịkwa Bekee, ọ jiri nwayọọ nwayọọ malite ịmaliteghachi Wales mgbe ọ na-ewepụ azụmahịa na ịnye ngwá agha. Ka ọ na-erule n'afọ 1407, atụmatụ a malitere ịmị mkpụrụ, ka ọ na-erule 1409, ha emeriela ọtụtụ n'ime Wales. Na 1409, ọ bụ oge nke Harlech Castle ịtọhapụ. [50] Edmund Mortimer nwụrụ n'oge nnọchibido ahụ, na nwunye Owain Margaret tinyere ụmụ ya nwanyị abụọ (gụnyere Catrin ) na ụmụ ụmụ Mortimer atọ ka ejidere na ọdịda nke nnukwu ụlọ ahụ ma tụọ ya mkpọrọ na Tower nke London . Ha niile ga-anwụ n'ụlọ elu na 1413 ma lie ya na St Swithin, London Stone . [51]

  1. RCAHMW | In the steps of Owain Glyndŵr. rcahmw.gov.uk.
  2. The Royal Families of England, Scotland, and Wales, with Pedigrees of Royal Descents in Illustration 51. Sir Bernard Burke, C.B., LL.D., Ulster King of Arms (1876).
  3. The Chronicle of Adam of Usk 1377–1421, by Adam of Usk
  4. Owain Glyndwr. Historic UK.
  5. Virtual reality recreates Owain Glyndwr's Sycharth home. bbc.co.uk (12 September 2019).
  6. Allday (1981). Insurrection in Wales: the rebellion of the Welsh led by Owen Glyn Dwr (Glendower) against the English Crown in 1400. Lavenham: Terence Dalton. ISBN 0-86138-001-0. 
  7. BBC Two – Owain Glyndwr: Last Welsh Prince.
  8. Ian Mortimer (2013). The Fears of Henry IV: The Life of England's Self-Made King. Random House, 226–. ISBN 978-1-4070-6633-2. 
  9. Skidmore (1978). Owain Glyndŵr: Prince of Wales. Swansea: Christopher Davies. ISBN 0715404725. 
  10. "Welsh Parliament: The crowning of Owain Glyndwr in Machynlleth", BBC News, 2017-06-13. Retrieved on 2022-01-29. (in en-GB)
  11. A national parliament at Machynlleth. history.powys.org.uk. Retrieved on 2022-01-29.
  12. Davies (1994). A History of Wales. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-014581-8. 
  13. Pennal letter. library.wales.
  14. Glyndwr letter comes home – as a copy. walesonline.co.uk (2 April 2013).
  15. Glyndwr letter returns to Wales. bbc.co.uk (22 March 2000).
  16. Seal of Owain Glyn Dwr. nationalarchives.gov.uk.