Physics

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Physics bu ihe nmuta eji a muzutara ihe chi kezutara na uwa. Obi nmetuta ya gbara mbara, ka o metuluelu nkpulu nke npedebe di ka electrons na subatomic particles nke ndi ozo we metulue ihe di ukwu ka kpakpando na galaxies na oba nbudebe. Ihe nchu na physics bu i kedozue ihe nile nke chi kezutara na uwa na otu ama. Otu e site a mara ije nke anwa di na mathematics na echezute logic. Ka anyi nyote otu nke a: Na physics, e nwe ife a kporo electromagnetism. Onye jide magnet were nodu igwe nso, o ga nute force ga soro ya. O ga kwute kwaa ya nso, o ga nyoputa na force soro ya ga elite kwaa enu. O masiri Physicists i chotara otu ozuzu force soro igwe na magnet zuputara, ka o si bulu na ndi oge ochie chotara na(Maka Magnetism nkiti)

\mathbf{F} = q[(\mathbf{v} \times \mathbf{B})].

Otu equation nke a si putara bu na force F bu nke jikote igwe na magnet, q[\mathbf{v}\times\mathbf{B}] guzute oke turu igwe na B bu oke turu magnet. Nime otu nkpulu equation nke a, e nwe ike i nwoputa kwaa otu physics site e kedote ihe di iche iche, maka na q bu nke egi a guzute electric charge na v bu nke eji a guzute oso n'ije nke charge ji a gba. Ihe soro zi nke anwa bu na magnetisim na electricity soro onwe ha.

nzukere nke kezutere physics[mèzi]

Physics kezutere na uzo onu ogugu ise nke ezughi ezu. nkezutere ya buru:

Classical Mechanics[mèzi]

Classical Mechanics buru otu physics nke ezi ya bidoputara na oge ochie. Ndi ezigbo ukwu nwoke kwachigara ya na nke nbido buru ndi otu Isaac Newton, William Rowan Hamilton, Joseph Lagrange na ndi ozo, ma na ezigbote nna ya(nke classical mechanics) buru Issac Newton. Oo Nya nwa biguzutara obi nzutara equations e ji a zutara classical mechanics. Otutu ihe n'ime classical mechanics di ka:

\mathbf{F}=\frac{d(m\mathbf{v})}{dt}

Ihe soro ya bu na F bu force, m buru mass na v buru velocity. Nya buru na Force na kwaga ihe soro acceleration  \frac{d(m\mathbf{v})}{dt} e so. Nke a buru nke bu Newtons 2nd law of motion na o bu kwa nkpuru Classical Mechanics. Ihe nile ha zugutara na classical mechanics kwesiri soro Iwu Newton nke abuo ma Oo bughi ezi ihe nsoro ya. E sitere na Iwu nke abuo, ti zubata ozuzu momentum buru p=mv na ozuzu energy buru \int\mathbf{F}\cdot d\mathbf{x}, ha zuta ihe nile noro n'ime obi classical mechanics. Classical mechanics nwere ike nzugutara i zuguta otu ije kpapando na planets lue oke nke obele di ka ugbo ana na football, mana na oke nine putasi ya otu anwa, o zughi ezu.

Statistical Mechanics[mèzi]

Statistical Mechanics buru physics e ji a zugutara ngbakote ihe rikpo nne, luelu otu ha ga enwe ike i guzuta ya ka oburu ka o buru na probability density flow na kwachiga ya, nke a ka o ji buru na statistical mechanics putara na physics nke ndi ozo di kali na nkpuru. Otu ora ma kali Statistical mechanics buru Thermodynamics ma na ezi ama ya buru na Thermodynamics sitere na statistical mechanics were puta. Ndi umu nwoke nke ukwu guzuputara nguzuputara na statistical mechanics buru ndi otu Ludwig Boltzmann, Albert Einstein, Peter Debye na ndi ozo. Nkpuru ihe chizutara na statistical mechanics soro Boltzmann Equation:

\mathbf{S}=k\mathbf{\log}{V}

ebe k = 1.3806505(24) × 10−23 J Kelvin|K−1 bu Boltzmann constant na ogugu onu nke e buru log noro na equation. Nkowa ya buru na S, entropy putara na oke ozuzu(system) obuna soro otu microstates di iche iche ya ra lute na phase space. Microstate buru otu oke ozuzu nwere ike i soro. Di ka, mmadu na a ga ije, o nwere ike i ga uzo nke aka nni, o nwe kwaa ike i ga na uzo aka ekpe ma o bu na enwere ihe di ka aja no chie ya uzo, na nke anwa, microstate a bulu i ga uzo aka nni na i ga na uzo aka ekpe na ha gbara onu ogugu ra lute lue onwe ha. Ma na obu na o nwe aja nochie nwoke anwa uzo, ha ma enwe zi microstate nke nje uzo aka ekpe. Ha ma sie na entropy nke uzo aka nni kali entropy nke uzo aka ekpe. Obu na e welu nkpuru ikuku ka o nochie nwoke anwa na ga ije, onye nwe ike i nyoputa na nkpulu ikuku ga cho kali ngabanye na microstate ra kali na ibu. Otu ha zukedotara equation nke Boltzmann na physics buru i nyotara na:

d\mathbf{E}=-\mathbf{T}d\mathbf{S}

\frac{\partial{\mathbf{S}}}{\partial{\mathbf{t}}}>0

Ebe t bu ogugu oge,T buru Temperature na E buru Energy. Na equation nke a ka iwu thermodynamics nke abuo(2nd law of thermodynamics) site were puta, ebe ya abuzughi oke equation agusozue statistical mechanics. Nke anwa buru

d\mathbf{E}=-\mathbf{T}\partial\mathbf{S}+\mathbf{P}\partial\mathbf{V}+\mathbf{\mu}\partial\mathbf{N}

Nke ofu buru na T ga gbadata ma oburu na entropy a gbalite(ma obu na system gbachiri a gbachi). Nke ibuo buru na entropy kwesiri i gbalite(ma obu na system gbachire a gbachi). P buru Pressure, V buru volume, \mu buru chemical potential na N buru onu ogugu nkpuru ya(particle). Obu na V na N no odu na ofu ebe, Nya ga buru na ife di oku na chokali i gbatute oyi, nke anwa buru Thermodynamics nke onye obuna masiri.

Quantum Mechanics[mèzi]

Quantum Mechanics buru ezi nguzuchita nke soro ihe chi kezutara na uwa. Umunna zubiputara quantum mechanics soro na ndi otu Albert Einstein, Max Planck, Niels Bohr, Erwin Schrodinger, Werner Heisenberg na ndi ozo. Isi mbiputa nke quantum mechanics noro na ihe gbasara izu blackbody radiation.