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Pierre Bayle

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Pierre Bayle
Mmádu
ụdịekerenwoke Dezie
mba o sịFrance Dezie
aha n'asụsụ obodoPierre Bayle Dezie
Aha enyerePierre Dezie
aha ezinụlọ yaBayle Dezie
ụbọchị ọmụmụ ya18 Novemba 1647 Dezie
Ebe ọmụmụCarla-Bayle Dezie
Ụbọchị ọnwụ ya28 Disemba 1706 Dezie
Ebe ọ nwụrụRotterdam Dezie
Ụdị ọnwụeke na-akpata Dezie
ihe kpatara ọnwụụkwara nta Dezie
ŃnàJean Bayle Dezie
Asụsụ obodoFrench language Dezie
asụsụ ọ na-asụ, na-ede ma ọ bụ were na-ebinye akaFrench language, Latin Dezie
Asụsụ ọ na-edeFrench language Dezie
ụdị ọrụ yacreative and professional writing, Ákọ na Uche Dezie
nwa akwụkwọChristopher I, Burgrave and Count of Dohna-Schlodien Dezie
Ebe ọrụRotterdam Dezie
okpukpere chi/echiche ụwaReformed Christianity, Catholicism Dezie
Ọrụ ama amaDictionnaire Historique et Critique Dezie
Ijeskepticism Dezie
gosiputara yaPortrait of French writer and philosopher Pierre Bayle (1647-1706) Dezie
attested inMare Magnum volume 82 Dezie
Nwere ọrụ na mkpokọtaGeldersch Landschap en Kasteelen Dezie
ikike nwebiisinka dị ka onye okikecopyrights on works have expired Dezie

Pierre Bayle ( <French: [ Bel ]/link> ; 18 Nọvemba 1647 - 28 December 1706) [1] bụ onye ọkà ihe enyemaka France, onye ode akwụkwọ na onye na-agụ akwụkwọ ọkọwa okwu .  A mara ya nke ọma maka Historical and Critical Dictionary, nke akara ya pụtara na 1697. [1] Ọtụtụ n'ime echiche ụka ndị ọzọ na-arụrịta ụka n'akwụkwọ ahụ bụ ndị zoro ezo n'ime ihe odide ala ala peeji, ma  ọ bụ na-etinye ha n'ime isiokwu na isiokwu ndị yiri ka egwu mgbagha.  A na-ele Bayle anya dị ka onye bu ụzọ na Encyclopedistes nke etiti tupu afọ nke 18.

Onye Huguenot, Bayle gbagara Dutch Republic na 1681 n'ihi mkpagbu na France.  Bayle bụ onye ama na-akwado nkwadorechi, na nkà ihe ngosi ya na-enyo nwere ike dị ukwuu na uto na nke European Age of Enlightenment .  Theodicy nke Leibniz hiwere na nzaghachi Bayle.

Akụkọ ndụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A match Bayle na Carla-le-Comte [1] (emesịa de ụkpụrụ aha ya Carla-Bayle na nọmba ya), na nso Pamiers, Ariège, France.  Nna ya, onye ozi Calvin, akwụkwọ ya akwụkwọ, na ụlọ akwụkwọ ọrụ na Puylaurens .  Na 1669, ọ mụta na mahadum Jesuit na Toulouse wee egwuregwu Roman 1 ụnwanyi ka e ịhụnanya.  Mgbe ịnwa ụnwa na asaafụ, ọ la nwude Calvinism wee gbaga Geneva, ebe ọ mmụta nkuzi nke René Descartes .  Ọ la arọ France wee gaa Paris, bụ́ ebe ọ bụ ọrụ ruo afọ ụfọdụ n'okpuru aha Bèle dị ka onye akwụkwọ maka dị iche iche.  Na 1675, a ịbụ oche nke nkà ihe mmụta na Protestant Academy nke Sedan .  [1] Na 1681, ngalaba mahadum dị na Sedan n'ime ihe mgbochire ndị Protestant.

Tupu ihe omume ahụ, Bayle agbagala Dutch Republic, ebe ọ bụ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ na ị maara a prọfesọ nke nkà ihe na ihe mere eme na École Illustre na Rotterdam .  [1] Ọ pụri ọtụtụ afọ mana ọ dabara na ogologo dị n'ime ụlọ akwụkwọ nke butere na a napụrụ Bayle oche ya na 1693.

Bayle ruo eru na Rotterdam mgbe ọ nwụrụ na 28 December 1706. [1] E liri ya na Rotterdam na "ụka Walloon", ebe a ga-elikwa Pierre Jurieu afɔ asaa ka e bon.  Mgbe e bibisịrị ụka a na 1922, e bufere ili ndị ahụ na Crooswijk General Cemetery na Rotterdam.  Nkume WhatsApp na-egosi na Pierre Bayle nọ n'ili ndị a.

Nkume ncheta maka ili Walloon na General Cemetery na Crooswijk. N'ime ha, Pierre Bayle.

Edemede[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Na Rotterdam, Bayle na Reflections on the Comet [ fr ] na 1682, yana nkatọ ya maka ọrụ Louis Maimbourg na ihe mere eme nke Calvin.  Aha aha aa site na nkatọ a kpalitere anyaụfụ nke Pierre Jurieu, onye ọrụ Calvin nke Bayle nke Sedan na Rotterdam, bụ ndị dere akwụkwọ n'otu isiokwu ahụ.

N'agbata 1684 na 1687, Bayle kaadị ya Nouvelles de la république des lettres, akwụkwọ nkatọ edemede .  Na 1686, Bayle ngosipụta akara mbụ nke mbụ nke nkà ihe ngosi, mbụ maka nke n'okwu mkpa.  Nke a sochiri atọ na anọ na 1687 na 1688.

[1]N'afọ 1690, e nwere ọrụ a na-akpọ Avis important aux refugiés, nke Jurieu kwuru na Bayle, bụ onye ọ na-ebuso ibu iro ogụ.  Mgbe ọ tụfuru oche ya, Bayle na-anya na ike nke nnukwu Dictionnaire Historique et Critique ( Historical and Critical Dictionary ), bụ nke mebere nke ọma otu n'ime akwụkwọ nkà ihe mbụ (tupu okwu ahụ abanyela n'ọtụtụ ebe) echiche na  ndị akụkọ ha.  N'akwụkwọ ọkọwa okwu, Bayle kwuputara echiche ya na ọtụtụ ihe a na-ewere dị ka "ezi echiche" bụ n'ezie echiche, na ịgha na isi ike juru ebe niile.  Akwụkwọ ɔkɔwa okwu ahụ ga-abụ ọrụ dị mkpa nke ọka ma ma ma ama ọbipụ ya

Voltaire, na ụfọdụ ya Poème sur le désastre de Lisbonne, na-akpọ Bayle " le plus grand dialecticien qui ait jamais écrit ": onye na-asụ dialectician kacha dee.

mbụ mbụ e mere nke ọma iji mee ka akwụkwọ na-ewu ewu, ma ọ gara nke ọma nke ukwuu.  Akwụkwọ ọkọwa okwu Historical na Critical nke nwere ọtụtụ olu mebere ọnụ nka Bayle.  N Bekee nke akwụkwọ ọkọwa okwu, nke onye Huguenot ibe Bayle bụ onye a chụpụrụ n'agha bụ Pierre des Maizeaux, bụ onye Onye isi ala America Thomas Jefferson ngwa na ọ so na otu ederede ntọala iji ntọala mbụ nke Ọbá akwụkwọ Congress .

Bayle kwalitere nkwado makalow na Dictionnaire historique et critique na Commentaire Philosophique .  Bayle akwụkwọ iji Akwụkwọ Nsọ mee ka mmanye na ime ihe ike kwenye: "Mmadụ ga-edegharị ihe mmụta nke nta ka ọ bụrụ Agba Ọhụrụ dum iji nakọta ihe mmụta niile ahụ ọ na-enye anyị maka enyemaka na ogologo ntachi obi, nke mebere.  Ibu na ike dị nke mkpa Oziọma ahụ."  Ɔ leghị nha dị ka ihe ize ndụ nye steeti;  na ntụle:

"Ọ bụrụ na ọtụtụ okpukpe na-akparị mba ahụ, ọ na-esite na ha adịghị emetụta ibe ha kama n'ụzọ megidere nke ahụ, na-agbalịsi ike nke ọ bụla na-etipịa ma bibie ibe ya site na ụzọ mkpagbu. chọrọ ya." [2]

:Richard Popkin echichela echiche na Pierre Bayle bụ onye nwere obi abụọ bụ onye ji akwụkwọ ọkọwa okwu Historical na Critical na-akatọ echiche na nkà ihe ndị niile amaburu.  N'uche Bayle, ụmụ mmadụ akara ike imezu ezi ihe.  N'ihi adịghị ike nke uche mmadụ, ndị mmadụ kwesịrị ịrapara n'ahụ nanị akọnuche ha.  Bayle na-akatọ ọtụtụ ndị na-enwe ike uche, dị ka René Descartes, Thomas Hobbes, Baruch Spinoza, Nicolas Malebranche na Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, nakwa dị ka empiricists dị ka John Locke na Isaac Newton .  [1] Popkin na-ehota akara a na-esonụ dị ka ihe atụ nke echiche obi abụọ nke Bayle

Ọ [n'ihi na] bụ ndu nke na-eduhie mmadụ; e nwekwara ike iji nkà ihe ọmụma tụnyere ntụ ntụ ụfọdụ na-emebi emebi nke na, mgbe ha richara anụ ahụ merụrụ ahụ nke ọnya, ha erichapụ anụ ahụ dị ndụ, ire ọkpụkpụ, banye n’ime ụmị. Nkà ihe ọmụma na mbụ na-agbagha mmejọ. Ma ọ bụrụ na akwụsịghị ya n'oge a, ọ na-aga n'ihu na-awakpo eziokwu. Ọ bụrụkwa na a hapụ ya n’onwe ya, ọ na-aga n’ebe dị anya nke na ọ naghịzi ama ebe ọ nọ, o nweghịkwa ebe ọ ga-akwụsị. [3] [4]

  • N'afọ 1906, e wuru ihe oyiyi na nsọpụrụ ya na Pamiers, la reparation d'un long oubli ("nkwụghachi nke ogologo nleghara anya").
  • N'afọ 1959, a kpọrọ aha ya na Rotterdam otu okporo ámá.
  • Na 2012 oche (Site na Paul Cox) na ụtụ Bayle, iji tụgharịa uche na mgbanwe nkà ihe ọmụma (echiche) n'etiti Bayle na Erasmus. (echiche nke echiche: JW van den Blink)
  • Pensées Diverses sur l'Occasion de la Comète, (1682) sụgharịa dị ka iche iche echiche na oge nke a Comet (2000) site Robert C. Bartlett, SUNY Press.
  • Akwụkwọ ọkọwa okwu Historique et Critique (1695–1697; 1702, gbasaa; nke kacha mma nke P. des Maizeaux, 4 vols., 1740)
  • Œuvres dị iche iche, 5 vols. , The Hague, 1727–31; Mbipụta anastatic: Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1964–68.
  • Nhọrọ n'asụsụ Bekee: Pierre Bayle (Richard H. Popkin ntụgharị), Akwụkwọ ọkọwa okwu Historical na Critical - Nhọrọ, Indianapolis: Hackett, 1991. .

Ntụaka[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. Palmer (1995). A History of the Modern World. New York: McGraw-Hill, 301–302. ISBN 978-0-07-040826-5. 
  2. LoConte (May 2009). The Golden Rule of Toleration. Christianity Today. Retrieved on 2017-01-21.
  3. Popkin (2003). The History of Skepticism. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-510767-8. 
  4. Bayle [1697] (1820). "Acosta", Dictionnaire historique et critique (in French). Paris: Desoer. 
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit;word-wrap:break-word}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .citation:target{background-color:rgba(0,127,255,0.133)}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg")right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;color:#d33}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{color:#d33}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#3a3;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit}Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bayle, Pierre". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 557.
  • Sally Jenkinson, (dir.), Bayle: Edemede ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị, Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
  • Sally Jenkinson, Ntụgharị uche na Pierre Bayle na Elizabeth Labrousse, na nkatọ Huguenot nke anabataghị ndidi, Proc. Huguenot Soc. , 27: 325–334, 2000 .
  • Elisabeth Labrousse, Pierre Bayle, La Haye: Martinus Nijhoff, 1963–4 (Mpịakọta 2). (in French)
  • Elisabeth Labrousse, Bayle, nke Denys Potts sụgharịrị, Oxford: Mahadum Oxford University Press, 1983.
  • Thomas M. Lennon, Ọgụgụ Bayle, Toronto: Mahadum Toronto Press, 1999.
  • Todd Ryan, Pierre Bayle's Cartesian Metaphysics: Ịchọgharị nkà ihe ọmụma oge ochie, New York: Routledge, 2009.