Presumption of innocence

Shí Wikipedia, njikotá édémédé nke onyobulạ
Jump to navigation Jump to search

 

Echiche nke aka ya dị ọcha bụ ụkpụrụ iwu na a na-ewere onye ọ bụla a na-ebo ebubo mpụ ọ bụla dị ka onye aka ya dị ọcha ruo mgbe a mara ya ikpe. N'okpuru echiche nke aka ya dị ọcha, ibu ọrụ iwu nke akaebe dị n'aka ndị na-ekpe ikpe, nke ga-enye ihe akaebe siri ike nye onye na-enyocha eziokwu (onye ọka ikpe ma ọ bụ ndị ọka ikpe). Ọ bụrụ na ndị na-ekpe ikpe egosighi na ebubo ahụ bụ eziokwu, mgbe ahụ, a tọhapụrụ onye ahụ na ebubo ahụ. Ndị na-ekpe ikpe ga-egosi n'ọtụtụ ọnọdụ na onye a na-ebo ebubo bụ onye ikpe mara n'enweghị obi abụọ. Ọ bụrụ na enwere obi abụọ, a ghaghị ịtọhapụ onye a na-ebo ebubo. Usoro dị iche bụ echiche nke ikpe ọmụma.

N'ọtụtụ mba na n'okpuru ọtụtụ usoro iwu, gụnyere iwu nkịtị na usoro iwu obodo (ka a ghara inwe mgbagwoju anya na ụdị iwu obodo nke ọzọ, nke na-ahụ maka nsogbu iwu na-abụghị mpụ), echiche nke aka ya dị ọcha bụ ikike iwu nke onye a na-ebo ebubo na ikpe mpụ. Ọ bụkwa ikike mmadụ nke mba ụwa n'okpuru Nkwupụta Ụwa nke Ihe Ndị Ruuru Mmadụ nke otú UN, Nkebi nke iri na otu (11).

Akụkọ ihe mere eme[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Iwu ndị Rome[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Agba afọ narị isii nke <i id="mwJQ">Digest</i> of Justinian (22.3.2) na-enye, dị ka a n'ozuzu iwu na-egosi: Ei incumbit probatio qui dicit, non qui negat—"Proof lies on him who assert, not on him who denies".[1][2] N'ebe ahụ, a na-ekwu na ọ bụ onye ọka iwu nke narị afọ nke abụọ na nke atọ bụ Paul. Ọ bụ eze ukwu Antoninus Pius webatara ya na iwu mpụ ndị mba Rome.[3]

Usoro iwu obodo bụ usoro iwu nke oge a sitere na usoro iwu ndị mba Rome oge ochie (na-emegide usoro iwu Bekee). Ọtụtụ mba na-eji usoro iwu obodo, gụnyere mba Brazil, China, France, Italy, Philippines, Poland, Romania[4] nakwa mba Spain, anabatala ụkpụrụ ahụ na ihe ndị yiri ya.[5][6][7][8][9][10]

Na usoro iwu mpụ nke mba Hungary, "ọ bụ echiche kachasị n'ozuzu na onye ọ bụla (onye a na-enyo enyo, onye a na-ebo ebubo, ma ọ bụ na ọ bụghị) ga-ewere dị ka onye aka ya dị ọcha ruo mgbe ikpe ikpeazụ chọpụtara na onye ikpe mara. Ma enwerekwa echiche ọzọ, - ọ na-apụtakarị na nkwupụta mba ụwa - nke na-ejikọtaghị nkwụsị nke echiche nke aka ya dị ọcha na ikpe ikpeazụ, mana ọ 'nwere afọ ojuju' na ndokwa ọ bụla nke na-ekwu ikpe ọmụma, nke dabere na iwu. E nwere nnukwu ọdịiche dị n'etiti usoro abụọ ahụ. Ikpe ikpeazụ na-apụtakarị njedebe nke usoro ntaramahụhụ, nke nwere ike ime ọtụtụ afọ ọzọ mgbe oge mpụ ahụ gasịrị. Ọ nwere ike ime, dịka ọmụmaatụ, n'ihe banyere njide n'omume ahụ, nkwupụta nke ndị akaebe, nkwupụta nke onye omekome ahụ, a ghaghị iche na onye omekome ahụ dị ọcha ruo afọ ụfọdụ ruo mgbe ikpe ikpeazụ ruru n'agbanyeghị eziokwu ndị edepụtara n'elu. "[11]

Iwu Talmud[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Dị ka Talmud si kwuo, "onye ọ bụla aka ya dị ọcha ruo mgbe a mara ya ikpe. N'ihi ya, a ghaghị igbu oge itinye aka nke onye a na-ebo ebubo ruo mgbe a mara ya aka ya aka nke ọma. N'ihi ya, na mbido ikpe ahụ, arụmụka na-agbachitere ya dị oke mma dị ka nwoke ọ bụla ọzọ na-ekpe ikpe. Ọ bụ naanị mgbe ikpe ọmụma ya pụtara ìhè ka a hapụrụ ndokwa ndị a na-arịọ arịrịọ ike nke e mere iji chebe ndị a na-ebo ebubo. "[12]

Iwu Alakụba (Islam)[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Echiche nke aka ya dị ọcha bụ isi na iwu Alakụba ebe ụkpụrụ na ibu ọrụ nke ihe akaebe dị n'aka onye na-ebo ebubo ma ọ bụ onye na-azọrọ na-ekwusi ike, dabere na hadith nke Imam Nawawi dere.[13] A na-akatọkwa "enyo enyo" nke ukwuu, nke a sitere na hadith nke Imam Nawawi tinyere Imam Bukhari[14] na Imam Muslim dere.[15][16]

Mgbe oge Muhammad gasịrị, e hotara Caliph nke anọ Ali ibn Abi Talib na-ekwu, "Gbanyụọ ntaramahụhụ a kapịrị ọnụ site n'ịjụ ihe akaebe na-enyo enyo."[17]

Oge etiti na mba Europe[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ebe ọdịda anyanwụ mba Europe[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mgbe ọdịda nke Alaeze Ukwu Rom nke ọdịda anyanwụ, ọdịda anyanwụ malitere ịme iwu feudal, nke bụ nchịkọta nke akụkụ nke iwu Rome yana ụfọdụ omenala Germanic dị ka ndị isi ọhụrụ si kwuo, gụnyere ikpe ọmụma. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, onye a na-ebo ebubo nwere ike igosi na aka ya dị ọcha site n'ime ka mmadụ iri na abụọ ṅụọ iyi na ọ pụghị ime ihe e boro ya ebubo. Na omume, nke a na-amasị ndị a ma ama karịa ndị nọ n'ọkwá dị ala, ndị akaebe ha nwere ihe ize ndụ dị ka ndị a na-apụghị ịtụkwasị obi.[18]

Ọnwụnwa site na nhụjuanya bụ ihe a na-ahụkarị site na narị afọ nke isii ruo mmalite narị afọ nke iri na atọ, a makwaara na ọ ga-aga n'ihu na narị afọ nke iri na asaa n'ụdị ịchụ nta ndị amoosu. Ọ bụ ezie na ọ bụ ihe a na-ahụkarị na iwu Germanic mbụ, Pope Innocent nke Atọ nakweere compurgation na Rome n'afọ 1215 na Kansụl Lateran nke anọ ma machibido ikpe site na ọkụ na mmiri kpọmkwem. Nke a bụ n'oge mmepe nke obodo jus, iwu Canon nke Chọọchị Katọlik metụtara iwu nkịtị n'oge etiti oge[19]

Ná mmalite narị afọ nke iri na atọ, Louis IX nke France machibidoro ikpe niile site na nhụjuanya ma webata echiche nke aka ya dị ọcha na usoro mpụ. Ọ bụ n'oge agha agha nke asaa ka ọ hụrụ na ndị Alakụba na-achị achị na-eche na aka ya dị ọcha ma chọọ ịnakwere ma mejuputa iwu a mgbe ọ laghachiri mba France .[20] Dị ka onye na-eme mgbanwe, nke a na mgbanwe iwu na akụ na ụba ndị ọzọ mere ka ọ bụrụ naanị eze France.

Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ mba Europe[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'ịgbaso iwu ndị mba Rome nke Justinian, onye biri na mmalite nke oge ochie, Alaeze Ukwu Byzantium gara n'ihu n'usoro iwu ya nke gụnyere iche na aka ya dị ọcha. Nke a metụtakwara steeti ndị dị nso n'ime mpaghara ọdịbendị ya, dị ka Ọtọdọks nke Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, ndị isi mba Slavic dị ka Serbia.

Ihe ọ pụtara[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Sir William Garrow chepụtara ahịrịokwu ahụ "a na-eche na aka ya dị ọcha ruo mgbe a mara ya ikpe," na-ekwusi ike na a ga-anwale ndị na-ebo ebubo na ihe akaebe ha nke ọma n'ụlọ ikpe

"Ichepụta na aka ya dị ọcha" na-arụ ọrụ iji mesie ike na ndị na-ekpe ikpe nwere ọrụ igosi ihe ọ bụla nke mmejọ ahụ n'enweghị obi abụọ (ma ọ bụ ọkwa akaebe ọzọ dabere na usoro ikpe ziri ezi) nakwa na onye a na-ebo ebubo enweghị ibu ọrụ akaebe.[21] A na-egosipụtakarị nke a na ahịrịokwu ahụ bụ "onye a na-eche na aka ya dị ọcha ruo mgbe a gosipụtara na ikpe mara ya", nke onye ọka iwu Britain bụ Sir William Garrow (1760–1840) chepụtara n'oge ikpe n'afọ 1791 na Old Bailey.[22] Garrow siri ọnwụ na a ga-anwale ndị na-ebo ebubo n'ụlọ ikpe. Onye na-ahụ maka ebumnuche n'ọnọdụ onye ọka ikpe ga-ekwubi n'ụzọ ezi uche dị na ya na ọ fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ na onye ebubo mere mpụ ahụ.[23] N'afọ 1935, n'ikpe ya nke Woolmington v Director of Public Prosecutions, Ụlọikpe mkpegharị nke England ga-emesị kọwaa echiche a dị ka 'ụdọ ọlaedo' na-agafe na ntanetị nke iwu mpụ nke Bekee. Nkwupụta Garrow bụ nkọwa mbụ nke a.[24]

Kadịnal French na onye ọka iwu Jean Lemoine gosipụtara echiche nke aka ya dị ọcha na mbụ na ahịrịokwu "item quilbet presumitur innocens nisi probetur nocens (a na-eche na onye aka ya dị ọcha ruo mgbe a mara ya ikpe mara ya)," dabere na nkọwa iwu na ọtụtụ ndị mmadụ abụghị ndị omempụ.[25] Otú ọ dị, nke a na-ezo aka ọ bụghị naanị n'eziokwu ahụ bụ na ibu ọrụ nke akaebe dị n'aka ndị na-ekpe ikpe n'okwu mpụ, kama ọ bụ nchebe nke a ga-enye onye a ga-ebo ebubo: ọkwa tupu ebubo a na-ebo ha, ikike esemokwu, ikike nke ndụmọdụ, wdg.[26] A na-ewere ya dị ka ihe akaebe dị mma maka onye a na-ebo ebubo nke na-akpaghị aka na ikpe. Ọ chọrọ ka onye na-enyocha eziokwu, ma ọ bụ onye ọka ikpe ma ọ bụ onye ọka ikpe, malite na echiche na steeti enweghị ike ịkwado nkwupụta ya.[25] Iji hụ na a na-echekwa nchedo iwu a, usoro iwu atọ metụtara ya na-achịkwa usoro ikpe mpụ. Echiche ahụ pụtara:[21]

  1. Banyere eziokwu dị oke mkpa nke ikpe ahụ - ma e mere mpụ ahụ e boro ebubo na ma onye a na-ebo ebubo bụ onye mere mpụ ahụ - steeti nwere ibu ọrụ akaebe niile.
  2. Banyere eziokwu dị oke mkpa nke ikpe ahụ, onye a na-ebo ebubo enweghị ibu ọrụ akaebe ọ bụla. Onye a na-ebo ebubo ekwesịghị ịgba akaebe, kpọọ ndị akaebe ma ọ bụ gosipụta ihe akaebe ọ bụla ọzọ, ma ọ bụrụ na onye a na-ebo ebubo ahọrọ ịghara ịgba akaebe ma ọ bụ gosipụta ihe akaebe, a pụghị iji mkpebi a megide ha.
  3. Ndị ọka ikpe ma ọ bụ onye ọka ikpe agaghị enweta ihe ọ bụla na-adịghị mma site n'eziokwu ahụ bụ na e boro onye a na-ebo ebubo mpụ ma nọrọ n'ụlọ ikpe ma bụrụ onye ọka iwu nọchitere anya ya. Ha ga-ekpebi ikpe ahụ naanị na ihe akaebe e gosipụtara n'oge ikpe ahụ.

Ọnụ ọgụgụ Blackstone dị ka onye ọka iwu Bekee bụ William Blackstone gosipụtara na ọrụ ya, Commentaries on the Laws of England, nke e bipụtara n'afọ 1760s, kwuru na:

 

Echiche ahụ mechara bụrụ isi ihe nke echiche iwu na mpaghara mba Anglo-Saxon ma nọgide na-abụ isiokwu arụmụka.

A maara ọrụ a na ikpe ahụ dịka "ụdọ ọlaedo" na iwu mpụ site n'aka Lord Sankey LC na Woolmington v DPP:

 

Ikike dị mkpa[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

A na-ewere ikike a dị ka ihe dị mkpa na ọchịchị onye kwuo uche ya nke oge a, ọchịchị ndị eze na mba ndị ọzọ nke na ọtụtụ ndị etinyela ya n'ụzọ doro anya na koodu iwu ha na iwu ha:

  • Nkwupụta Ụwa nke Ihe Ndị Ruuru Mmadụ, isiokwu nke iri na otu (11), na-ekwu, sị: "Onye ọ bụla e boro ebubo ntaramahụhụ nwere ikike ka e were ya dị ọcha ruo mgbe e gosipụtara na ọ bụ onye ikpe mara ya dị ka iwu si dị na ikpe ọha nke o nwere nkwa niile dị mkpa maka ịgbachitere ya. "
  • Ọgbụgba ndụ mba ụwa maka ikike obodo na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị, nka nke 14, nkeji nke 2 na-ekwu na "Onye ọ bụla e boro ebubo mpụ ga-enwe ikike ka e were ya dị ọcha ruo mgbe e gosipụtara na ikpe dị ka iwu si dị." A na-achịkwa echiche nke aka ya dị ọcha n'ụzọ doro anya na Art. 66 nke Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, dị ka nke "A ga-ewere onye ọ bụla dị ọcha ruo mgbe a mara ya ikpe mara ya n'ihu Ụlọikpe dịka iwu kwesịrị ekwesị. "[27]
  • Nkwekọrịta maka Nchedo nke Ihe Ndị Ruuru Mmadụ na Nnwere Onwe Dị Mkpa nke Kansụl nke Europe na-ekwu (art. 6.2): "Onye ọ bụla e boro ebubo mpụ ga-ewere ya dị ọcha ruo mgbe a ga-egosi na ọ bụ onye ikpe mara ya dị ka iwu si dị." A nabatara mgbakọ a site na nkwekọrịta ma na-ejide ndị otu Council of Europe niile. Ka ọ dị ugbu a (na mmụba ọ bụla a na-ahụ anya nke EU) mba ọ bụla so na European Union bụkwa onye otu Council of Europe, ya mere nke a na-anọchite anya ndị otu EU n'ezie. Ka o sina dị, a na-ekwughachi nkwupụta a n'ụzọ nkịtị na Nkeji edemede 48 nke Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union .
  • Isiokwu nke 8(1) na nke 8(2) (ikike ikpe ziri ezi), ya na Nkebi nke 1(1) (ọrụ ịsọpụrụ ma hụ na ikike n'enweghị ịkpa ókè), nke Nkwekọrịta Amerịka maka Ihe Ndị Ruuru Mmadụ na-eme ka Ụlọikpe Inter-American mesie ike na "nchepụta na aka ya dị ọcha bụ ụkpụrụ nduzi na ikpe mpụ na ụkpụrụ ntọala maka nyocha nke ihe akaebe. Ntụle dị otú ahụ ga-abụrịrị ihe ezi uche dị na ya, ebumnuche, na enweghị atụ iji gbaghaa echiche nke aka ya dị ọcha ma mee ka obi sie ya n'aka banyere ibu ọrụ mpụ. ... Ụlọ ikpe ahụ kwughachiri na, na ikpe mpụ, Steeti na-ebu ibu ọrụ akaebe. A naghị amanye onye a na-ebo ebubo iji gosi na aka ya dị ọcha ma ọ bụ inye ihe akaebe na-enweghị isi. Otú ọ dị, inye ihe akaebe ma ọ bụ ihe akaebe na-enweghị isi bụ ikike nke onye na-agbachitere nwere ike iji mee ihe iji kwughachi ebubo ndị ahụ, nke n'aka nke ya, onye na-ebo ebubo na-ebu ibu ọrụ nke ịgbagha. "[28]
  • Na mba Canada, ngalaba nke 11(d) nke Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms na-ekwu, sị: "Onye ọ bụla e boro ebubo mpụ nwere ikike ka e were ya dị ọcha ruo mgbe e gosipụtara na ikpe mara ya dị ka iwu si dị na ikpe ziri ezi na nke ọha na eze site n'ụlọ ikpe kwụụrụ onwe ya na nke na-adịghị ele mmadụ anya n'ihu."
  • N'usoro iwu Colombia, Aha nke Abụọ, Isi nke 1, Nkebi nke 29 na-ekwu na "A na-eche na onye ọ bụla dị ọcha ruo mgbe e gosipụtara na ikpe mara ya dịka iwu si dị."
  • Na mba France, isiokwu nke 9 nke Nkwupụta nke Ikike nke Mmadụ na nke Nwa amaala nke afọ 1789, nke nwere ike dị ka iwu iwu, na-amalite: "A na-ewere nwoke ọ bụla dị ọcha ruo mgbe a mara ya ikpe..." Iwu nke usoro mpụ na-ekwu n'isiokwu mbụ ya na "a na-eche na onye ọ bụla a na-enyo enyo ma ọ bụ onye a na-ekpe ikpe na aka ya dị ọcha ma ọ bụrụhaala na e guzobeghị ikpe ha" na iyi ndị jurors na-ekwughachi nkwupụta a (isiokwu 304; rịba ama na ọ bụ naanị mpụ kachasị njọ ka ndị ọka ikpe na-ekpe ikpe na mba France). Otú ọ dị, enwere echiche na-ezighị ezi na n'okpuru iwu French, a na-eche na onye a na-ebo ebubo bụ onye ikpe mara ruo mgbe egosiri na aka ya dị ọcha.
  • Na mba Iran, Nkeji edemede nke 37 nke Iwu nke Islamic Republic of Iran na-ekwu, sị: "A ga-eche na aka ya dị ọcha, ọ dịghịkwa onye a ga-ama ikpe maka ebubo ọ gwụla ma ụlọ ikpe ruru eru kwadoro ikpe ya. "
  • N'Ịtali, paragraf nke abụọ nke Nkeji edemede 27 nke Iwu ahụ na-ekwu, sị: "A ga-ewere onye a na-ebo ebubo na ọ bụghị onye ikpe mara ruo mgbe ikpe ikpeazụ."[29]
  • Na Romania, isiokwu nke iri abụọ na atọ nke Iwu ahụ na-ekwu na "a ga-ewere onye ọ bụla dị ọcha ruo mgbe a mara ya ikpe site na mkpebi ikpeazụ nke ụlọ ikpe".
  • Iwu nke Russia, n'isiokwu 49, na-ekwu na "A ga-ewere onye ọ bụla e boro ebubo mpụ dị ka onye ikpe mara ruo mgbe e gosipụtara ikpe mara ya n'ụzọ kwekọrọ na iwu gọọmentị etiti ma guzosie ike site na ikpe ziri ezi nke ụlọ ikpe. " Ọ na-ekwukwa na "A gaghị amanye onye a na-ebo ebubo igosi na aka ya dị ọcha" na "A ga-akọwa obi abụọ ọ bụla ezi uche dị na ya maka onye a na-ebo ebubo".
  • Na Iwu South Africa, ngalaba 35(3)(h) nke Bill of Rights na-ekwu, sị: "Onye ọ bụla a na-ebo ebubo nwere ikike ikpe ziri ezi, nke gụnyere ikike ịbụ onye aka ya dị ọcha, ịgbachi nkịtị, na ịghara ịgba akaebe n'oge ikpe ahụ. "
  • Ọ bụ ezie na Iwu nke United States ekwughị ya n'ụzọ doro anya, a na-ewere echiche nke aka ya dị ọcha na-esite na Ndezigharị nke ise, nke isii, na nke iri na anọ. Ikpe nke Coffin v. United States (1895) guzobere echiche nke aka ya dị ọcha nke ndị a na-ebo ebubo mpụ. Leekwa In re Winship .
  • Na mba New Zealand, New Zealand Bill of Rights 1990 na-enye na ngalaba 25(c) "Onye ọ bụla e boro ebubo mpụ nwere, n'ihe gbasara mkpebi nke ebubo ahụ, ikike kacha nta ndị a: (c) ikike ịbụ onye a na-eche na aka ya dị ọcha ruo mgbe e gosipụtara na ikpe mara ya dị ka iwu si dị. "[30]

Omume ọgbara ọhụrụ[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mba United Kingdom[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Nkeji edemede nke 48 nke Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union na-akwado ikike nke iche na aka ya dị ọcha

Na mba United Kingdom, e meela mgbanwe na-emetụta ụkpụrụ a. A pụrụ ikpughe ikpe ndị a na-ebo ebubo n'oge gara aga n'ọnọdụ ụfọdụ nye ndị ọka ikpe. Ọ bụ ezie na a manyeghị onye a na-enyo enyo ịza ajụjụ mgbe e jidere ya, ịghara inye ozi nwere ike ịbụ ajọ mbunobi ugbu a na ikpe. Iwu iwu dịkwa adị nke na-enye ntaramahụhụ mpụ maka ịghara ịkọwapụta data na arịrịọ ndị uwe ojii. Ọ bụrụ na onye a na-enyo enyo adịghị njikere ime nke ahụ, ọ bụ mpụ.[31] Ya mere enwere ike ịma ụmụ amaala ikpe ma tụọ ha mkpọrọ n'enweghị ihe akaebe ọ bụla na ihe ezoro ezo megidere iwu. Ọzọkwa, n'okwu gbasara mpụ mmekọahụ dị ka ndina n'ike, ebe e gosipụtala omume mmekọahụ ahụ n'enweghị obi abụọ, enwere ọnụ ọgụgụ dị nta nke ọnọdụ ebe onye a na-ebo ebubo nwere ọrụ itinye ihe akaebe na onye na-eme mkpesa kwetara na omume mmekọahụ ahụ, ma ọ bụ na onye a na-ebo ebubo kwenyere na onye na-eme mkpesa na-ekwenye. Ọnọdụ ndị a gụnyere, dịka ọmụmaatụ, ebe onye na-eme mkpesa amaghị ihe ọ bụla, ejidere ya n'ụzọ iwu na-akwadoghị, ma ọ bụ mee ihe ike.[32]

Canada[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'iwu mba Canada, e meela ka echiche nke aka ya dị ọcha sikwuo ike n'ọnọdụ ụfọdụ. Iwu Criminal ahụ nwere ọtụtụ ndokwa n'oge gara aga nke nchebe maka mmejọ ụfọdụ na-adabere na-agbanwe agbanwe: ya bụ, ọ bụrụ na onye a na-ebo ebubo chọrọ ịgbachitere ya, ha ga-egosi eziokwu nke nchebe ahụ na ọnụọgụ nke ohere, kama okpueze ga-agbagha nchebe ahụ n'enweghị obi abụọ.[33] Nke a pụtara na a pụrụ ịma onye a na-ebo ebubo ikpe n'ọnọdụ ụfọdụ maọbụ ọ bụrụ na enwere obi abụọ banyere ikpe ọmụma ha. N'ọtụtụ ọnọdụ, a chọpụtara ihe dị iche iche na-emegide iwu na-emebi iwu nke aka ya dị ọcha nke Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms . E ji usoro dochie ha nke onye a na-ebo ebubo ga-egosipụta "ikuku nke eziokwu" na nchebe a tụrụ aro, na-esote nke ibu ahụ gafere n'aka Eze iji gbaghaa nchebe ahụ.

Bill C-51, Iwu iji gbanwee Iwu Criminal na Ngalaba Ikpe Ziri Ezi na ime mgbanwe dị mkpa na Iwu ọzọ, natara nkwenye Royal n'ọnwa Disemba afọ 2018. Tinyere ihe ndị ọzọ, ọ kpochapụrụ ọtụtụ ihe ndị na-agbanwe agbanwe site na Iwu Criminal, ụfọdụ n'ime ha achọpụtala na ha megidere iwu, na ndị ọzọ na-ebute ụzọ iji zere ihe ịma aka Charter ọzọ.[34]

Leekwa[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

 

Ebensidee[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ihe ndị e hotara[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. Digesta seu Pandectae 22.3.2. Université Pierre-Mendès-France. Archived from the original on 2012-03-28. Retrieved on 2010-10-13.
  2. [1985] (1998) "22.3.2", in Watson: The Digest of Justinian. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-1636-9. 
  3. See Bury, p. 527
  4. Constitution of Romania, Article 23. Retrieved on 2013-06-13.
  5. Decree-Law 3689|date=August 2012
  6. CRIMINAL PROCEDURE LAW OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA|date=August 2001
  7. ForoEuropo Italia. Foroeuropeo.it. Archived from the original on 2010-06-11. Retrieved on 2010-10-13.
  8. Assomedici.It. Assomedici.It (1993-01-29). Retrieved on 2010-10-13.
  9. National Constitutional Law Related to Article 48 – Presumption of Innocence and Right to Defence. European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights. Archived from the original on 2012-07-11. Retrieved on 2011-05-16.
  10. Valentin Anders (2010-09-08). Latin legal maxims in Spanish. Latin.dechile.net. Retrieved on 2010-10-13.
  11. Vigh Jozsef, Some Basic Principles of Criminal Justice in Hungary, Annales Universitatis Scientiarum Budapestinensis de Rolando Eotvos Nominatae: Sectio Iuridica, Vol. 41-42, p. 143. That is why, in this opinion, it would be "more realistic to establish the guilt by legal means, since the legal mean, theoretically, depending on the law can be established by the prosecution, the police or other authorities. Connecting the presumption of innocence to the final judgement renders the basic principle itself meaningless, an empty phrase. For instance, the people whom the police arrest, take into custody, according to the presumption of innocence, in all cases did it illegally, in an unlawful manner, thus rendering it as someone committing a crime, since there is no final judgement/verdict yet. Furthermore, the first degree sentence qualifies as unlawful if there is an appeal, since it still finds someone guilty who is under the presumption of innocence. This serious contradiction is lessened by the interpretation according to which the suspension of the presumption of innocence is not connected to final judgement but to the "lawful" procedure" (ibid).
  12. Aaron Kirschenbaum, Double Jeopardy and Entrapment in Jewish Law, 3 Israel Yearbook on Human Rights, Rts. 202 (1973), p. 211.
  13. Imam Nawawi. 1977. An-Nawawi’s Forty Hadith (Second Edition English Translation by Ezzedin Ibrahim). Damascus: Holy Koran Pub. House, Hadith No. 33
  14. Sahih Al-Bukhari (English Version), Vol. 8, Book 73, Hadith 90
  15. Riyaadus Shaaliheen, Hadith No. 1573
  16. Sahih Muslim (English Version), Book 32, Hadith 6214
  17. Imam ibn Hajar's Bulugh al-Maram (English Version), Book 10, Hadith 1260
  18. Law in the Middle Ages. The Finer Times (29 May 2012). Retrieved on January 16, 2018.
  19. Friedman, Lawrence M., American Law: An Introduction (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1984), pg. 70.
  20. Villehardouin, G. de., Joinville, J. (1955–1908). Memoirs of the Crusades. London: J.M. Dent. p. 184 (known as Scecedin)
  21. 21.0 21.1 Mueller, Christopher B. (2009). Evidence; 4th ed.. Aspen (Wolters Kluwer). ISBN 978-0-7355-7968-2.  pp. 133–34.
  22. Moore (1997). The Law Society of Upper Canada and Ontario's lawyers, 1797–1997. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-4127-2. 
  23. Rembar (1980). The Law of the Land. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 9780671243227. 
  24. The Secret Barrister (2018). Stories of the Law and How It's Broken. London: Macmillan. 
  25. 25.0 25.1 Words and Phrases 1914, p. 1168
  26. Innocent Until Proven Guilty: The Origins of a Legal Maxim Kenneth Pennington A Ennio Cortese (3 Volumes. Roma: Il Cigno Galileo Galilei Edizioni, 2001)
  27. The Presumption of Guilt in the Investigation of Tax Evasion Crimes, Juridical Tribune, Vol. 8, Issue 1 (March 2018), p. 33.
  28. I/A Court H.R., Case of Zegarra Marín v. Peru. Preliminary Objections, Merits, Reparations and Costs. Judgment of February 15, 2017. Series C No. 331: so, "the Court highlighted that to guarantee the presumption of innocence, especially as regards criminal conviction by trial, to reasoned judgment is imperative. It must state the sufficiency of the prosecution's evidence, observe the rules of sound judicial discretion in evaluating the evidence, including that which could generate doubt as to criminal responsibility, and lay out the final findings of the assessment of evidence. Only then can a trial court disprove the presumption of innocence and sustain a conviction beyond reasonable doubt. Where there is any doubt, the presumption of innocence and the principle of in dubio pro reo should play a decisive role in the judgment".
  29. The Italian Constitution. The official website of the Presidency of the Italian Republic. Archived from the original on 2016-11-27.
  30. New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990 No 109 (as at 01 July 2013), Public Act 25 Minimum standards of criminal procedure – New Zealand Legislation
  31. OPSI.gov.uk. OPSI.gov.uk. Retrieved on 2010-10-13.
  32. legislation.gov.uk. legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved on 2011-04-27.
  33. Tollefson, E. A., The Canadian Bill of Rights and the Canadian Courts, Saskatchewan Bar Review & Law Society's Gazette, Vol. 26, Issue 4 (December 1961), pp. 106-111.
  34. Government of Canada (7 June 2017). Questions and Answers - Cleaning up the Criminal Code, Clarifying and Strengthening Sexual Assault Law, and Respecting the Charter. www.justice.gc.ca. Retrieved on 31 July 2019.

Isi mmalite[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

 

Njikọ mpụga[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

{{Authority control