Jump to content

Punta Arenas

Shí Wikipedia, njikotá édémédé nke onyobulạ
Ihe ncheta Ferdinand Magellan na Punta Arenas

Punta Arenas (pronunciation Spanish: [ˈpunta aˈɾenas], nke a na-akpọ Sandy Point na Bekee) bụ isi obodo mpaghara ndịda Chile, Magallanes na Antarctica Chilena.  Ọ bụ ezie na a kpọgharịrị aha ya dị ka Magallanes na 1927, a gbanwere aha ahụ na Punta Arenas na 1938. Obodo ahụ bụ obodo kasị ukwuu na ndịda nke 46th parallel south na obodo kacha nwee ọnụ ọgụgụ ndịda na Chile na America.  N'ihi ọnọdụ ya, ọ bụkwa obodo kacha dị n'ụsọ oké osimiri nke nwere ihe karịrị 100,000 bi na Latin America.  Punta Arenas bụ otu n'ime ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri kachasị na ndịda ụwa ma na-eje ozi dị ka obodo ọnụ ụzọ Antarctic.

Kemgbe 1977, Punta Arenas abụwo otu n'ime naanị ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri abụọ nweere onwe ha na Chile, nke ọzọ bụ Iquique n'ebe ugwu nke mba ahụ. [elu-alpha 1][1] Ọ dị na Brunswick Peninsula n'ebe ndịda nke Strait of Magellan, gọọmentị Chile guzobere Punta Arenas na 1848 dị ka obere mpaghara ntaramahụhụ iji kwado ọbụbụeze n'elu Strait. N'ime ihe fọdụrụ na 1800s, Punta Arenas toro na nha na mkpa n'ihi mmụba nke ụgbọ mmiri na azụmahịa na-aga n'ụsọ oké osimiri ọdịda anyanwụ nke South na North America. Uto nke obodo a bụkwa n'ihi ọtụtụ ndị si Europe kwabata, ọkachasị ndị si Croatia na Russia, nke ọlaedo na-adọta na ọganihu nke ịzụ atụrụ na 1880s na mmalite 1900s. Ụlọ ọrụ atụrụ kachasị ukwuu, nke na-achịkwa 10,000 square kilomita na Chile na Argentina, dị na Punta Arenas, ndị nwe ya bi n'ebe ahụ.

Kemgbe ntọala ya, Chile ejirila Punta Arenas dị ka ntọala iji chebe nkwupụta ọchịchị ya na mpaghara ndịda South America.  Nke a mere ka amara na Strait nke Magellan dị ka mpaghara Chile na nkwekọrịta oke nke 1881 n'etiti Chile na Argentina.  Mkpa geopolitical Punta Arenas ka dị elu na narị afọ nke 20 na nke 21 n'ihi mkpa ọ dị na ịbanye na Peninsula Antarctic.

Kemgbe 2017, obodo na mpaghara ya nọ na mpaghara oge nke ha, na-eji oge okpomọkụ n'ime afọ (UTC-3).  A na-enye obodo ahụ mmiri sitere na Osimiri San Juan.[2]

Okwu mmalite[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Aha Punta Arenas nke ntụgharị ya n'ụzọ nkịtị ga-abụ "Point Sands", sitere n'okwu Spanish Punta Arenosa, ntụgharị nkịtị nke aha Bekee "Sandy Point".

Aha Sandy Point sitere na njem John Narborough na 1669-1671. O dere n'ihe ndekọ ya:   A na-ekwu na onye England na-eme nchọpụta nke narị afọ nke 18 bụ́ John Byron n'ụzọ hiere ụzọ mgbe ụfọdụ ọ kpọrọ mpaghara a aha.

A na-akpọkwa obodo ahụ Magallanes.  Taa a na-ejikarị okwu ahụ akọwa mpaghara nchịkwa nke gụnyere obodo ahụ.

A na-akpọ Punta Arenas "Obodo nke elu ụlọ na-acha uhie uhie" maka ụlọ elu igwe na-acha uhie uhie nke e ji mara obodo ahụ kemgbe ọtụtụ afọ.  Kemgbe ihe dị ka 1970, nnweta nke agba ndị ọzọ na ihe nchebe emewo ka ụdị dị iche iche dị n'elu ụlọ nke ígwè e ji mara ya.

Ọdịdị ala[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'ịbụ nke dị na Brunswick Peninsula, Punta Arenas so n'ime obodo ndị kasị ukwuu na Patagonia. N'afọ 2012, o nwere mmadụ 127,454.[3] Ọ dị ihe dịka 1,419 km (882 mi) site n'ụsọ oké osimiri nke Antarctica na 635 km (395 mi) site na Ushuaia, isi obodo mpaghara Argentina Tierra Del Fuego.

A na-ewere mpaghara Magallanes dịka akụkụ nke Patagonia Chile.  Magallanes bụ Spanish maka Magellan, ma aha ya bụ Ferdinand Magellan, onye na-eme nchọpụta Portuguese na-aga Spain.  Mgbe ọ na-aga Spain gburugburu ụwa, ọ gafere nso ebe Punta Arenas dị ugbu a n'afọ 1520. Akwụkwọ ozi ụgbọ mmiri Bekee n'oge na-ezo aka na saịtị a dị ka "Sandy Point."

Obodo kwesịrị ekwesị dị n'akụkụ ugwu ọwụwa anyanwụ nke Brunswick Peninsula.  Ewezuga n'ikpere mmiri ọwụwa anyanwụ, nke nwere ebe obibi nke Guairabo, Rio Amarillo na Punta San Juan, ọ nweghị onye bi na ya.  Obodo Punta Arenas gụnyere Brunswick Peninsula niile, yana agwaetiti niile ọdịda anyanwụ nke Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego na ugwu nke ọwa Cockburn na Magdalena.

Ewezuga Dawson Island, nke ndị bi na ya dị ihe dị ka 301 na 2002, ọ dịghị onye bi na agwaetiti ndị a.  Clarence Island nwere mmadụ ise.

Ọnọdụ ihu igwe[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Snow n'oge oyi

N'ihi latitude ya dị n'ebe ndịda, Punta Arenas nwere ihu igwe subpolar oceanic (Köppen climate classification Cfc). Okpomọkụ oge na Punta Arenas na-ebelata nke ukwuu site na ịdị nso ya n'oké osimiri, na nkezi ala na July nso -1 (30 °F) na elu na Jenụwarị nke 14 °C (57 ). A maara ya maka okpomọkụ na-adịgide adịgide, nke na-adịgasị iche na oge. Mmiri ozuzo kachasị elu n'ọnwa Eprel na Mee, oge snow na-agafe oge oyi Chile (June ruo Septemba). Dị ka ọ dị n'ọtụtụ Patagonia, nkezi mmiri ozuzo kwa afọ dị ala, naanị 380 mm ( in) onyinyo mmiri ozuzo nke Andes mepụtara. Nkezi okpomọkụ anaghị aga n'okpuru 1 °C (34 ).[4] A makwaara obodo ahụ maka ifufe ya siri ike (ruo 130 km / h ), nke kachasị ike n'oge ọkọchị. Ndị isi obodo etinyela eriri n'etiti ụlọ dị n'etiti obodo iji nyere ndị na-agafe agafe aka ijikwa ọrụ siri ike.

Kemgbe 1986, Punta Arenas bụ obodo mbụ mmadụ bi na ụwa nke oyi akwa ozone na-akpụ akpụ na-emetụta ozugbo.  A na-ahụta ndị bi na ya ka ekpughere ọkwa radieshon ultraviolet nwere ike imebi.[1][2][chọrọ mmelite].

Casa España, nke Spanish Society of Socorros Mutuos guzobere na 1917. E guzobere ya n'agbata afọ 1936 na 1938. Plaza de Armas (Muñoz Gamero Park).
Christopher Columbus Avenue, ebe Old Machine House dị bụ nke ndị Croatia wuru na 1890.

A nwara ebe obibi Spanish abụọ mbụ n'akụkụ oke osimiri a (na Straits nke Magellan).  E hiwere nke mbụ na 1584 ma kpọọ ya Nombre de Jesús.  Ọ dara n'ihi ihu igwe siri ike na ihe isi ike dị n'inweta nri na mmiri ndị ọbịa ahụ, yana nnukwu anya site n'ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri ndị Spain ndị ọzọ.  A nwara obodo nke abụọ, Ciudad del Rey don Felipe, ihe dịka kilomita 80 na ndịda Punta Arenas.  A bịara mara nke a ka e mesịrị dị ka Puerto del Hambre, nke sụgharịrị na Port Famine.  Spain eguzobela ebe obibi ndị a na mbọ iji chebe mbupu ya na igbochi ndị ohi n'ike n'ike nke Bekee, site n'ịchịkwa Straits of Magellan.  Onye isi ụgbọ mmiri England, Thomas Cavendish n'oge njem ya, napụtara onye ikpeazụ nke Puerto del Hambre dị ndụ na 1587.[5][6]

Mpaghara ntaramahụhụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'afọ 1843, gọọmentị Chile zigara njem iji wuo ebe siri ike ma guzobe ebe obibi na-adịgide adịgide n'ikperé mmiri nke Strait of Magellan. Ọ rụrụ ma nye iwu ụgbọ mmiri a na-akpọ Goleta Ancud. N'okpuru iwu nke John Williams Wilson, ndị agha mmiri Chile, ọ na-ebu ndị ọrụ mmadụ 21 (kaptịn, ndị ọrụ iri na asatọ, na ụmụ nwanyị abụọ), tinyere ibu, iji mezuo iwu ahụ. Iwu ntọala nke ebe obibi ahụ mere na 21 Septemba 1843.[7]

Ebe ahụ e wusiri ike dị nke ọma n'obere ala dị n'akụkụ nkume nkume, mana ebe ahụ enweghị ike ịkwado ebe obibi ndị nkịtị kwesịrị ekwesị.  N'iburu nke a n'uche Gọvanọ ndị agha, José de los Santos Mardones, kpebiri na 1848 ịkwaga ebe obibi ahụ na ebe ọ dị ugbu a, n'akụkụ osimiri Las Minas, ma kpọgharịa ya Punta Arenas.

N'etiti narị afọ nke iri na itoolu, Chile jiri Punta Arenas mee ihe dị ka ebe ntaramahụhụ na ebe a na-enye ndị ọrụ agha nwere omume "nsogbu". O mekwara ka ndị mbịarambịa biri n'ebe ahụ. Na Disemba 1851, nnupụisi nke ndị mkpọrọ nke Lieutenant Cambiaso duziri, dugara na ogbugbu nke Gọvanọ Muñoz Gamero na ụkọchukwu, na mbibi nke ụka na ụlọ ọgwụ.[8] Ọ bụ Commander Stewart nke HMS Virago nyere aka na ụgbọ mmiri abụọ nke Chile: Indefatigable na Meteoro.[9][10]

Na 1867, Onye isi ala José Joaquín Pérez nyere iwu inye onyinye ala na mbọ iji mee ka ndị Chile ma ọ bụ ndị mba ọzọ biri na gburugburu Punta Arenas.  Ndị mbata Britain mbụ bịarutere na 1867, ọnụ ọgụgụ ha mụbara ka ọrụ atụrụ na-eto na Magallan Chile.  Mbugharị kacha ukwuu gara n'ihu bụ nke ndị Britain ruo 1906, mgbe ndị Croatia karịrị ha n'ọnụọgụ.[11]

Mpụ 1877, nke a maara dị ka El motín de los artilleros (Mutiny of the Artillerymen), butere mbibi nke nnukwu akụkụ obodo na igbu ọchụ nke ọtụtụ ndị nkịtị na-abụghị ụlọ mkpọrọ.  Ka oge na-aga, e weghachiri obodo ahụ.  Uto nke ụlọ ọrụ ugbo atụrụ na nchọpụta ọla edo, yana ịba ụba ahịa site n'ụgbọ mmiri, dọtara ọtụtụ ndị ọbịa ọhụrụ, obodo ahụ malitekwara ime nke ọma.

Ọganihu akụ na ụba[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'etiti ihe dị ka 1890 na 1940, mpaghara Magallanes ghọrọ mpaghara dị mkpa na-azụ atụrụ, na otu ụlọ ọrụ (Sociedad Explotadora de Tierra del Fuego) na-achịkwa ihe karịrị 11,000 uare kilomita (4,200 sq mi). Na 1910, Sociedad Explotadora jikọtara ya na Sociedad Ganadera, nke mere ka ụlọ ọrụ nwere nde hekta 3 na ndịda Chile na Argentina, nke nwere ihe karịrị nde atụrụ abụọ: 120-125 Isi ụlọ ọrụ a na ebe obibi nke ndị nwe ya dị na Punta Arenas.[11] E guzobere ebe ngosi ihe mgbe ochie Sarah Braun ugbu a n'ụlọ ochie Braun-Menéndez, n'etiti Punta Arenas.

A na-ewere ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri Punta Arenas, n'agbanyeghị na oke mmiri kpuchiri ya, a na-ewere ya dị ka otu n'ime ihe kacha mkpa na Chile tupu e wuo ọwa mmiri Panama.  A na-eji ya dị ka ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri nke ụgbọ mmiri na-agafe n'etiti oke osimiri Atlantic na Pacific.  Taa, njem njem njem na njem sayensị na-ejikarị eme ya.

Obodo nke oge a[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Obodo a na-abụkarị ntọala maka njem Antarctic;  Ushuaia (Argentina) na Christchurch (New Zealand) bụkwa ebe mmalit.Àtụ:Wide image

Ọnụ ọgụgụ mmadụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Na 2012 Punta Arenas dekọtara ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị bi na 127,000 maka (ọnụọgụ 2012) site na National Statistics Institute.  Onu ogugu ndi mmadu tolitere site na 5.1% (mmadụ 5,830) n'etiti ngụkọ 1992 na 2002 wee gbagoro ruo 127,454 na Mgbakọ 2012.[1]


Ịkwaga ndị Croatia na Punta Arenas bụ mmepe dị mkpa na mpaghara Magallanes na obodo ahụ karịsịa. Ka ọ dị ugbu a, mmetụta a ka na-egosipụta na aha ụlọ ahịa, okporo ámá na ọtụtụ ụlọ. A na-ekwu na Punta Arenas nwere pasent kachasị nke ndị Croatia n'ụwa na-abụghị Croatia na Yugoslavia mbụ.

Punta Arenas nwekwara pasent kachasị nke ndị bi na ndị Britain na Chile dum.

Punta Arenas bụ ebe obibi nke ụlọ nsọ Hindu nke ndịda n'ụwa, nke ndị obodo Sindhi dị na Punta Arenas na-eji obere obere ma dị ịrịba ama.  Ndị ahịa Sindhi malitere ịbịarute n'ógbè ahụ na mmalite 1900s, ma taa bụ otu n'ime obodo ndị India kasị ukwuu na Chile..[12][13]

Ọnọdụ akụ na ụba[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Onye na-emebi ice RV Laurence M. Gould na Punta Arenas. Punta Arenas bụ ebe dị mkpa na nnyefe nke ọdụ ụgbọ elu Antarctic na West Antarctica.

Ka ọ na-erule afọ 2006, akụ na ụba Punta Arenas na mpaghara agbasawanyela.  Isi ebe nchekwa mmanụ nke Chile dị nso, yana ụfọdụ kol dị obere

Ọrụ ugbo, gụnyere atụrụ na ehi, ka na-ekere òkè dị ukwuu.

Njem nlegharị anya enyela aka na akụ na ụba obodo yana uto na-aga n'ihu.  Ebe ndị njem na-aga gụnyere Katidral na ụlọ ụka ndị ọzọ ama ama, ebe a na-eli ozu obodo, na ihe oyiyi Magellan.  Ụgbọ mmiri ụfọdụ na-aga Antarctica na-apụ n'ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri Punta Arenas, nke na-ejekwa ozi dị ka ebe maka ọtụtụ ahịrị ụgbọ mmiri na-aga n'akụkụ ọwa na fjords nke mpaghara ahụ.

.Ụgbọ mmiri a haziri ahazi na-ejikọ Punta Arenas na agwaetiti Tierra del Fuego bụ isi, ụgbọ mmiri na-adịkarị obere na-aga n'obodo Puerto Williams nke Chile.

Mmuta[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mahadum Magallanes (UMAG) dị na ndịda obodo Chile nke Punta Arenas.  Ọ bụ akụkụ nke mahadum omenala Chile.  E hiwere Mahadum Magallanes na 1981 n'oge mgbanwe neoliberal nke ọchịchị ndị agha Chile dị ka onye nọchiri ngalaba Universidad Técnica del Estado nke Punta Arenas.  Universidad Técnica del Estado ehiwela ngalaba Punta Arenas na 1961.

Mahadum Magallanes nwere ogige ụlọ akwụkwọ na Punta Arenas na Puerto Natales yana ebe mahadum dị na Puerto Williams.  Mahadum Magallanes na-ebipụta akwụkwọ akụkọ Humanities na Social Sciences Magallania ugboro abụọ n'afọ.

Enwere ụlọ akwụkwọ German, Deutsche Schule Punta Arenas.[1][14]

Dị ka "comuna" (commune) Punta Arenas bụ ngalaba nchịkwa nke atọ nke Chile nke kansụl obodo na-achịkwa, nke onye isi obodo na-eduzi bụ onye a na-ahọpụta n'onwe ya n'afọ anọ ọ bụla. Onye isi obodo 2016-2020 bụ Claudio Radonich (National Renewal).

N'ime ngalaba ntuli aka nke Chile, Punta Arenas nọchitere anya na Chamber of Deputies nke Sandra Amar (UDI), Karim Bianchi (IND-PRSD) na Gabriel Boric (CS) dị ka akụkụ nke mpaghara ntuli aka nke 60, nke gụnyere Magallanes niile na  Mpaghara Antartica Chilena.  A na-anọchite anya ọgbakọ a na Senate site n'aka Carlos Bianchi Chelech (Ind.) na Carolina Goic B. (DC) dịka akụkụ nke 19th senatorial constituency (Magallanes Region).

Ọdụ ụgbọ elu Carlos Ibáñez del Campo dị kilomita 20 site na etiti obodo ahụ.  Ọrụ ụgbọ ala mgbazinye, ụlọ ahịa na-akwụghị ụgwọ na ọrụ ọfịs omenala dị na ụlọ ahụ (ọ nweghị ụlọ ahịa na-akwụghị ụgwọ na ọdụ, n'agbanyeghị ihe nnọchianya nke akwụkwọ nlegharị anya).  Ụgbọ elu ndị na-eje ozi n'ọdụ ụgbọ elu gụnyere LATAM Chile na Sky Airline, yana ụgbọ elu chata.  Ọdụ ụgbọ elu ndị nkịtị na ọdụ ụgbọ elu ndị agha mejupụtara nnukwu ogige ahụ.

Hụkwa zie[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • 1949 Ala ọma jijiji nke Tierra del Fuego
  • Onye Croatia nke Chile
  • Ịkwaga Chile
  • Ebe obibi ndịda
  1. Zona franca de Aysén tendrá características similares a las de Iquique y Punta Arenas (es). La Tercera (1 April 2012). Archived from the original on 22 April 2014.
  2. Hidrografía Región de Magallanes (Spanish). bcn.cl. Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional de Chile. Retrieved on 2022-03-02.
  3. Interactive map, INE Census 2002, Chile. ine.cl. Archived from the original on 20 November 2006.
  4. Punta Arenas. Letsgochile.com. Archived from the original on 27 February 2009.
  5. Martinic, Mateo, (2000) Rey don Felipe: Historical facts (in Spanish).
  6. Moss, Chris, (2008).
  7. Braun-Menéndez (1968). Fuerte Bulnes: Colección Cruz del Sur; 10, 2nd (in es), Francisco de Aguirre. 
  8. Punta Arenas, History and Legends. Interpatagonia.com. Archived from the original on 19 April 2012. Retrieved on 16 May 2012.
  9. History HMS Virago. Pdavis.nl. Archived from the original on 15 April 2012. Retrieved on 16 May 2012.
  10. Brown, Charles H., "Insurrection at Magellan. Narrative of the Imprisonment and Escape of Capt. Chas. H. Brown," Chilian Convicts. hosted at Patlibros.org (1854). Archived from the original on 8 February 2012. Retrieved on 16 May 2012.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Edmundson (2009). A History of the British Presence in Chile: From Bloody Mary to Charles Darwin and the Decline of British Influence. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 117-125. ISBN 9780230114838.  Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; name "William" defined multiple times with different content
  12. Keeping cultures alive: Sindhis and Hindus in Chile (en). Hindustan Times (2015-08-02). Retrieved on 2021-12-30.
  13. Haksar. Punta Arenas: Did you know of the Chilean town where a Sindhi man set up a business outpost in 1905? (en-US). Scroll.in. Retrieved on 2021-12-30.
  14. "Deutscher Bundestag 4.