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Royal Society for the Protection of Birds

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Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) bụ ọgbakọ ọrụ ebere edebanyere aha na England na Wales na Scotland. E hiwere ya na 1889. Ọ na-arụ ọrụ iji kwalite nchekwa na nchebe nke nnụnụ na gburugburu ebe obibi site na mgbasa ozi ọha na eze, arịrịọ na site na ọrụ nke nchekwa ihe okike na United Kingdom dum.

Na 2021/22 RSPB nwere ego ha nwetara nke nde £157, ndị ọrụ 2,200, ndị ọrụ afọ ofufo 10,500 na ndị otu nde 1.1 (gụnyere ndị ntorobịa 195,000), na-eme ka ọ bụrụ otu n'ime ụlọ ọrụ nchekwa anụ ọhịa kachasị n'ụwa. RSPB nwere ọtụtụ mpaghara mpaghara ma na-edobe ihe nchekwa okike 222.

Akụkọ ihe mere eme[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ihe ncheta na Fletcher Moss Park, Manchester, na-echeta ntọala nke RSPB

Mmalite nke RSPB dabere na otu ụmụ nwanyị abụọ, ha abụọ hibere na 1889:

  • Emily Williamson guzobere Plumage League [1] n'ụlọ ya na Didsbury, Manchester, dị ka otu ndị na-eme ngagharị iwe na-eme mkpọsa megide iji nnukwu akpụkpọ anụ na ábụ́bà na uwe ajị anụ. Ụlọ ahụ dị ugbu a na Fletcher Moss Botanical Garden.[1]
  • The Fin, Fur and Feather Folk bụ Eliza Phillips, Etta Lemon, Catherine Hall, Hannah Poland na ndị ọzọ guzobere na Croydon.[2]

Ndị otu a nwetara aha ewu ewu wee jikọta na 1891 iji guzobe Society for the Protection of Birds na London. Society nwetara Royal Charter na 1904.

Ndị mbụ so na SPB bụ ụmụ nwanyị niile gbara mgba megide ejiji nke oge maka ụmụ nwanyị na-eyi feathers na okpu, na agbamume sitere na "ịchụ nta plume". Iji mezuo nke a, Society nwere iwu abụọ dị mfe:

 

N'oge ntọala, ahia nke plumage maka ojiji na okpu buru ibu: na nkeji mbụ nke 1884, ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ 7,000 akpụkpọ anụ nke paradaịs na-ebubata na Britain, tinyere nnụnụ 400,000 si West India na Brazil, na 360,000 nnụnụ si East India.

N'afọ 1890, ọha mmadụ bipụtara mpempe akwụkwọ mbụ ya, nke isiokwu ya bụ Destruction of Ornamental-Plumaged Birds, nke ezubere ichekwa ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị egret site n'ịgwa ụmụ nwanyị bara ọgaranya mmebi gburugburu ebe obibi site n'iji ábụbà n'ụdị ejiji mee. N'afọ 1897, mbipụta e mesịrị, Nri Nnụnụ na Winter, bụ iji lebara iji tomato dị ka ihe ịchọ mma oyi ma gbaa ume iji mkpụrụ osisi sịntetik na-echekwa isi iyi nri nnụnụ. Na 1897, SPB kesara ihe karịrị akwụkwọ ozi 16,000 na mpempe akwụkwọ 50,000 na site na 1898 nwere ndị otu 20,000.

Society dọtara nkwado site n'aka ụfọdụ ndị inyom nwere ọnọdụ ọha na eze bụ ndị nọ na klaasị mmekọrịta nke mere ka iyi okpu nwere nku, gụnyere Duchess nke Portland (onye ghọrọ Onye isi oche mbụ nke Society) na Ranee nke Sarawak. Ka nzukọ ahụ malitere ịdọta nkwado nke ọtụtụ ndị ọzọ na-akpa ike, ma nwoke ma nwanyị, dị ka onye ọkà mmụta ihe ọkụkụ bụ Prọfesọ Alfred Newton, ọ nwetara na ewu ewu ma dọta ọtụtụ ndị ọhụrụ. Ndị otu ahụ nwetara Royal Charter na 1904 site n'aka Edward VII, nanị afọ 15 ka e hiwere ya, ma bụrụkwa ihe enyemaka na-arịọ ndị omeiwu nke United Kingdom ka ha webata iwu machibido iji ịcha akwa na uwe.

N’oge e hiwere Society na Britain, e hiwekwara òtù ndị yiri ya ná mba ndị ọzọ dị na Europe. [nke?] Na 1961, ọha mmadụ nwetara The Lodge na Sandy, Bedfordshire, dị ka isi ụlọ ọrụ ọhụrụ ya. Akara RSPB na-egosi ụda olu. Robert Gilmor mere ụdị nke mbụ.

Ihe omume[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Otu avocet na RSPB's Minsmere reserve. A na-eji ụdị a eme ihe na akara RSPB.

Taa, RSPB na-arụkọ ọrụ na ma ndị ọrụ obodo na Gọọmenti iji nye ndụmọdụ gọọmentị iwu gbasara nchekwa na gburugburu ebe obibi. Ọ bụ otu n'ime ọtụtụ ụlọ ọrụ na-ekpebi ndepụta ọnọdụ nchekwa gọọmentị maka nnụnụ niile achọtara na UK.

RSPB anaghị agba ụlọ ọgwụ nnụnụ ma ọ bụ na-enye ọrụ nnapụta anụmanụ.

RSPB batara na mmekorita ya na onye na-ewu ụlọ Barratt Developments na UK na 2014.

Ebe Ndị a na-echekwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ebe nchekwa South Stack, Anglesey, na Ellin's Tower, ebe obibi ndị nleta
A na-etinye kamera weebụ n'akụkụ ụlọ ọkụ Sumburgh Head, Shetland. Ugwu ndị ahụ bụ ebe obibi nke ọnụ ọgụgụ buru ibu nke nnụnụ mmiri na mpaghara ahụ bụ ebe nchekwa okike RSPB.

RSPB na-edobe ihe karịrị narị abụọ na United Kingdom niile, na-ekpuchi ebe obibi dị iche iche, site na estuaries na mudflats ruo n'oké ọhịa na ebe obibi mepere emepe. Ebe nchekwa ndị a na-enwekarị mkpuchi nnụnụ maka ndị na-ekiri nnụnụ na ọtụtụ na-enye ebe ndị ọbịa, nke gụnyere ozi gbasara anụ ọhịa ndị a pụrụ ịhụ n'ebe ahụ.

Onyinye[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

RSPB na-enye onyinye, gụnyere Onyinye Onye isi ala, maka ndị ọrụ afọ ofufo na-enye aka dị ịrịba ama n'ọrụ nke ụlọ ọrụ ahụ.

Ihe nrite RSPB[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

 

Dị ka RSPB si kwuo:

Ihe nrite RSPB bụ ihe nrite kacha ewu ewu nke Society. A na-enye ya onye ọ bụla iji kwado nchekwa nnụnụ ọhịa na nchekwa ime obodo. A na-enyekarị ya otu onye ma ọ bụ mgbe ụfọdụ mmadụ abụọ kwa afọ.

Magazin[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ndị RSPB ebipụtala akwụkwọ akụkọ naanị ndị otu kemgbe ihe karịrị otu narị afọ.

Ihe Nkọwa Nnụnụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Àtụ:Infobox journal

Mgbasa ozi maka Bird Notes and News site na mbipụta March 1934 nke magazin North Western Naturalist. Rịba ama logo mbụ.

Ndetu Nnụnụ na akụkọ ( ISSN 0406-3392) ka ebipụtara nke mbụ n’April 1903.

Aha ahụ gbanwere ka ọ bụrụ Bird Notes na 1947. N'afọ 1950, e nwere mbipụta anọ kwa afọ (otu maka oge ọ bụla, bipụtara na 1st nke ọnwa nke atọ ọ bụla, March, June, September na December). Mpịakọta ọ bụla kpuchiri afọ abụọ, gbasaa n'ime afọ kalenda atọ. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, mpịakọta XXV (25), nke mbụ bụ nke Winter 1951, na nke asatọ n'otu mpịakọ ahụ bụ nke Autumn 1953.

Site na etiti 1950s, ọtụtụ n'ime mkpuchi ahụ bụ Charles Tunnicliffe. Abụọ n'ime ndị mbụ bụ na mbinye ego ogologo oge na gallery Tunnicliffe na Oriel Ynys Môn, mana na 1995, RSPB rere 114 n'ahịa Sotheby, na-ebuli £ 210,000, nke kachasị ọnụ bụ foto nke partridge nke rere £ 6,440.

Site na Jenụwarị 1964 (vol. 31, no. 1), mbipụta mụbara ruo isii kwa afọ, (e wepụtara na ọnwa ndị na-adịghị ahụkebe, Jenụwarị, Maachị na ihe ndị ọzọ, mana e depụtara ya "January-February", "March-April" wdg). Mpịakọta ọzọ kpuchie afọ abụọ, ya mere vol. 30, na-ekpuchi 1962–63, ya mere gụnyere okwu itoolu, na-ejedebe na mbipụta "Winter 1963-64" kama asatọ. Mbipụta ikpeazụ, vol. 31 mba. 12, bipụtara na ngwụcha 1965.

Ndị na-ebipụta akwụkwọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]
  • Miss M. G. Davies, BA, MBOU (ruo ọtụtụ afọ, ruo na mpịakọta 30 nke 9)
  • John Clegg (site na Mpịakọta 31 Nke 1 - Mpịakgolo 31 Nke 3)
  • Jeremy Boswell (site na Mpịakọta 31 nke 4 - Mpịakgolo 31 nke 12)

Nnụnụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Àtụ:Infobox journal Bird Notes' Bird ( ISSN 1367-983X) nọchiri ya ozugbo, jiri olu 1, nọmba 1 bụ mbipụta Jenụwarị–February 1966. A na-ebipụta mbipụta otu ụzọ n'ụzọ anọ, gụnyere ọnụ ka e wee malite mpịakọta ọhụrụ n'afọ ọ bụla ọzọ.

Mbipụta nke ụbịa 2013, nke dị na Ọgọst–October 2013, bụ vol. 25 mba. 7, bụ nke ikpeazụ.

Ebe Obibi Okike[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Àtụ:Infobox journal N'oge oyi 2013, akwụkwọ akụkọ ọhụrụ, Nature's Home, dochie nnụnụ. Onye nchịkọta akụkọ bụ Mark Ward. Magazin ahụ nwere mgbasa ozi ABC kwadoro nke ruru 600,885.

Magazin RSPB[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Site na mbipụta Summer/Mgbụsị akwụkwọ 2022, eweghachila akwụkwọ akụkọ ahụ.

Nkewa ndị na-eto eto[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

RSPB nwere otu abụọ dị iche iche maka ụmụaka na ndị nọ n'afọ iri na ụma: Wildlife Explorers (tọrọ ntọala na 1943 dị ka Junior Bird Recorders' Club; site na 1965 ruo 2000 Young Ornithologists' Club ma ọ bụ YOC) na RSPB Phoenix. A na-ezubere ndị na-eme nchọpụta anụ ọhịa na ụmụaka dị n'agbata afọ 8 na 12, n'agbanyeghị na o nwekwara ụfọdụ ndị na-eto eto, ma nwee akwụkwọ akụkọ abụọ dị iche iche: Wild Times maka 0-7 afọ, na Wild Explorer maka 8-12 afọ. RSPB Phoenix bu n'obi na-eto eto, ma na-emepụta akwụkwọ akụkọ Wingbeat, nke ndị na-eto eto na-edekarị maka ndị na-eto eto. RSPB bụ onye otu National Council for Voluntary Youth Services.

Nnụnụ Nnukwu Ogige[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

RSPB na-ahazi nchịkọta data ndekọ nnụnụ n'ụbọchị mkpokọta nnụnụ kwa afọ na Britain. Ndị RSPB na-akọwa nke a dị ka "nyocha anụ ọhịa kasị ukwuu n'ụwa" ma na-enye aka mee ka ndị na-ahụ maka nchekwa nweta ezi ihe ọmụma banyere usoro ọnụ ọgụgụ nnụnụ na ubi na Britain. Ewepụtara Big Garden Birdwatch dị ka mmemme ụmụaka na 1979, mana site na 2001 ọ gbara ndị okenye ume ka ha sonyekwa. Na 2011, ihe karịrị mmadụ 600,000 sonyere, naanị 37% bụ ndị òtù RSPB. Ihe omume a na-emekarị na ngwụcha izu ụka ikpeazụ nke Jenụwarị. Site na mmalite nke ndekọ nyocha nke afọ maka nza ụlọ gosipụtara mbelata nke 60%, ebe ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị kpakpando ji ihe dị ka 80% belata site na 1979 ruo 2012.

Na 2022, ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ mmadụ 700,000 sonyere na Big Garden Birdwatch, na-agụta ihe karịrị ijeri nnụnụ iri na otu.

Ụzọ Nnụnụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

BirdTrack bụ webụsaịtị sayensị nwa amaala n'ịntanetị, nke British Trust for Ornithology (BTO) na-arụ na nnọchite anya mmekorita nke BTO, RSPB, BirdWatch Ireland, Scottish Ornithologists' Club na Welsh Ornithological Society (Welsh: Cymdeithas Adaryddol Cymru) .

Ego[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  Ndị otu ya na-akwado RSPB; na 2006, ihe karịrị 50% nke ego mmadụ nwere £88 nde sitere na ndenye aha, onyinye na ihe nketa, ruru mkpokọta £53.669 million. Dị ka ọrụ ebere edebanyere aha, nzukọ a nwere ikike inye onyinye enyemaka ruru £0.28 na £1.00 ọ bụla nke ndị na-atụ ụtụ isi nyere. Ọtụtụ n'ime ego a na-enweta (£ 63.757 million na 2006) na-emefu n'ọrụ nchekwa, ndozi nke nchekwa yana na ọrụ agụmakwụkwọ, ebe ndị ọzọ na-aga n'ihu n'ịkwado ego na ibelata ụkọ ezumike nka, ruru £19.8 million na 2006.

Mgbasa ozi[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A kọrọ na akụkọ dị na Daily Mail na 2 Nọvemba 2014 nke na-ekwu na ọrụ ebere "na-emefu pasent 90 nke ego ọ na-enweta na nchekwa" nke UK Advertising Standards Authority ezighi ezi. Akụkọ ahụ kwuru na ọnụ ọgụgụ n'ezie dị nso na 26%. Charity Commission nyochara nkwupụta ndị a, wee kpọtụrụ RSPB ka ha mee ka ọ dokwuo anya nkwupụta webụ ya. Ndị RSPB kwadoro, na nkọwapụta na 90% nke ego netwọlụ ya (mgbe mmefu, ọ bụghị nnukwu ego dị ka enwetara) na-emefu na nchekwa, yana na ọrụ nchekwa dị iche iche, na-ejedebeghị na-emefu na ihe okike nke ya. Charity Commission nabatara nke a.

Ndị isi ala[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Winifred Cavendish-Bentinck, Duchess of Portland, nke Philip Alexius de László sere na 1912
  • Winifred Cavendish-Bentinck, Duchess nke Portland 1891-1954
  • Cyril Hurcomb
  • Colonel Sir Tufton Beamish
  • Derek Barber, Baron Barber nke Tewkesbury
  • Robert Dougall
  • Max Nicholson 1980-1985
  • Magnus Magnusson 1985-1990
  • Sir Derek Barber 1990-1991[3]
  • Ian Prestt 1991-1994[3]
  • Julian Pettifer 1994-?
  • Jonathan Dimbleby 2001-?
  • Julian Pettifer 2004-2009
  • Kate Humble 2009-2013[4]
  • Miranda Krestovnikoff 2013-2022
  • Dr Amir Khan GP 2022- (onye nọ ugbu a)

Ndị isi ndị agha[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ka oge na-aga, e nyela ndị isi ụlọ ọrụ ahụ utu aha dị iche iche.[1][3]

  • William Henry Hudson - Onye isi oche nke Kọmitii 1894
  • Sir Montagu Sharpe, KBE DL - Onye isi oche nke Kọmitii 1895-1942
  • Phillip Brown
  • Peter Conder OBE - odeakwụkwọ 1963. Onye nduzi 1964-1975
  • Ian Prestt CBE - Onye isi nchịkwa 1975-1991
  • Barbara Young - CEO 1991-1998
  • Sir Graham Wynne - CEO 1998-2010
  • Mike Clarke - Onye isi nchịkwa 2010-2019
  • Beccy Speight - Onye isi nchịkwa 2019-[5]

Òtù ndị mmekọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

RSPB bụ onye otu njikọ anụ ọhịa na ime obodo. RSPB bụ Onye Mmekọ UK nke BirdLife International ma na-ejikwa South Atlantic Invasive Species Project n'aha gọọmentị ndị mmekọ.

Hụkwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Ndepụta nke òtù ndị mmekọ mba Birdlife International
  • Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
  • National Trust for Places of Historic Interest ma ọ bụ Nature Beauty
  • Iwu anụ ọhịa na England na Wales
  • Ụdị: Royal Society for the Protection of Birds Reserves

Ihe edeturu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Milestones. RSPB. Retrieved on 19 February 2007. Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; name "milestones" defined multiple times with different content
  2. Fin, Fur and Feather leaflet. Bodleian Library. Retrieved on 18 December 2022.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 RSPB Birds magazine, Vol 13 No 7, Autumn 1991
  4. Jamieson. "Springwatch star Kate Humble appointed president of RSPB", The Telegraph, www.telegraph.co.uk, 3 October 2009. Retrieved on 4 October 2009.
  5. RSPB appoints Beccy Speight as chief executive. www.thirdsector.co.uk. Retrieved on 23 August 2019.

Akwụkwọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

 

Njikọ mpụga[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • RSPB.org.uk - ebe nrụọrụ weebụ gọọmentị
  • Foto RSPB
  • Royal Society for the Protection of Birds' channel on YouTube
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Àtụ:European birding journals