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Rwanda-Rundi

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Rwanda-Rundi
Spoken in: Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, DR Congo, Tanzania
Total speakers: Àtụ:Sigfig million
Language family: Nnijer–Kongo
 Atlantic–Congo
  Volta-Congo
   Benue–Congo
    Bantoid
     Southern Bantoid
      Bantu
       Northeast Bantu
        Great Lakes Bantu
         Rwanda-RundiÀtụ:Infobox Language/official
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2:
ISO 639-3: variously:Àtụ:Infobox Language/codelistÀtụ:Infobox Language/codelistÀtụ:Infobox Language/codelistÀtụ:Infobox Language/codelistÀtụ:Infobox Language/codelistÀtụ:Infobox Language/codelistÀtụ:Infobox Language/codelistÀtụ:Infobox Language/codelistÀtụ:Infobox Language/codelistÀtụ:Infobox Language/codelistÀtụ:Infobox Language/codelistÀtụ:Infobox Language/codelistÀtụ:Infobox Language/codelistÀtụ:Infobox Language/codelistÀtụ:Infobox Language/codelistÀtụ:Infobox Language/codelistÀtụ:Infobox Language/codelistÀtụ:Infobox Language/codelistÀtụ:Infobox Language/codelistÀtụ:Infobox Language/codelistÀtụ:Infobox Language/codelistÀtụ:Infobox Language/codelistÀtụ:Infobox Language/codelistÀtụ:Infobox Language/codelistÀtụ:Infobox Language/codelistÀtụ:Infobox Language/codelistÀtụ:Infobox Language/codelistÀtụ:Infobox Language/codelistÀtụ:Infobox Language/codelistÀtụ:Infobox Language/codelist
Rwanda-Rundi
Region Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, DR Congo, Tanzania
Ethnicity Hutu, Tutsi, Twa, Ganwa, Ha, Shubi, Hangaza, Vinza
Native speakers
20 million (2001–2007)[1]
Dialects
Official status
Official language in
 Rwanda



(as Kinyarwanda)



 Burundi



(as Kirundi)
Language codes
ISO 639-3 Variously:



kin – Rwanda



run – Rundi



haq – Ha



suj – Shubi



han – Hangaza



vin – Vinza
Glottolog rwan1241

Rwanda-Rundi bụ otu asụsụ nke ndị Bantu, ọkachasị asụsụ na-aga n'ihu, nke a na-asụ na Central Afrịka. Asụsụ ndị agbata obi na-aghọta ibe ha, mana ndị dị anya nwere ike ọ gaghị adị. Asụsụ abụọ, Kirundi na Kinyarwanda, emeela ka ọ bụrụ asụsụ gọọmentị nke Burundi nakwa Rwanda. A na-asụkwa asụsụ ndị ọzọ na DR Congo (Kinyabwisha na North Kivu, Kinyamulenge na South Kivu), Uganda (Rufumbira nke Bafumbira na Kisoro District na-as), na Tanzania; Ha, nke nwere otu nde ndị na-asụrụ ya, bụ nke a na-asụgharịkarị.

Ntụnyere nke Kinyarwanda na Kirundi[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Kinyarwanda nakwa Kirundi yiri nnọọ n'ọtụtụ akụkụ, mana ha dịkwa iche n'ọtụtụ ụzọ.

Asụsụ abụọ ahụ bụ asụsụ ụda olu. Ụda dị elu na nke dị ala (ma ọ bụ H na L) bụ ụda dị mkpa ma, na-enwe ọdịiche dị iche na ogologo ụdaume, mgbe ụdaume dị ogologo gbanwere site na ụda dị ala gaa na ụda dị elu, a na-akara ya dị ka ụda na-arị elu ma mgbe ụdaume ogologo gbanwere si na ụda dị larịị gaa na ụda na-ada, a na ya dị ka olu na-ada. A na-egosikarị nke a na Kirundi n'ime Meeussen's Rule . E mekwara atụmatụ na ụda nwere ike ịgbanwe site na usoro metrical ma ọ bụ rhythmic.

Ihe nnọchianya1 Nkọwa Kinyarwanda Kirundi Akụkụ nke okwu Bekee (nkọwa)
Vowel, e, i, o, u)



Mkpụrụedemede dị mkpirikpi



(gu)saba Ngwaa jụọ, rịọ
umugezi Aha iyi, osimiri
(gu)shyika (gu)shika Ngwaa na-abịa
ikiraro Aha àkwà mmiri
Ụzọ Adjective a na-apụghị iji tụnyere naanị, ezi ihe
Acute vowelá, é, í, ó, ú)



Mkpụrụedemede dị mkpirikpi Mkpụrụedemade dị elu



inká Aha ehi
onye na-amaghị ama oche
Giizi osisi, osisi, osisi
Uruguay ogige, ogige
Akpụkpọ ahụ ubu
Mkpụrụedemede Circumflex((Kinyarwanda)(â, ê, î, ô, û)







Mkpụrụedemede dị mkpirikpi Mkpụrụedemade dị elu



inkâ inká Aha ehi
obi mgbawa onye na-amaghị ama oche
Giizi Giizi osisi, osisi, osisi
Uruguay Uruguay ogige, ogige
Akpụkpọ ahụ Akpụkpọ ahụ ubu
Mkpụrụedemede Circumflex(Kirundi)(â, ê, î, ô, û)







Mkpụrụedemede dị mkpirikpi Mkpụrụedemade dị elu (na ụdaume accent na Kinyarwanda)



amaazi amazi Aha mmiri
(gu)téeka (gu)têka Ngwaa onye na-esi nri
izíiko izîko Aha ọkụ
(ku)ryóoha (ku)ryôha Ngwaa ụtọ dị mma
(gu)kúunda (gu)kûnda ịhụnanya, dị ka
macron( vowelKirundi naanị)(ā, ē, ī, ō, ū)







Ogologo ụdaume Low tone (akwụkwọ ozi abụọ na ụda dị ala na Kinyarwanda)



igisaabo Nnukwu ihe Aha osisi
icyeegeera icēgēra osisi
(ku)giisha (ku)gīsha Ngwaa mee ka ọ gaa
ingoona Ọ bụ n'oge na-adịghị anya Aha Agụ iyi
uruuho urūho ogwe osisi
Caron((Kirundi naanị)(ǎ, ě, ǐ, ǒ, ǔ)







Ogologo ụdaume High tone (na ụdaume accent na Kinyarwanda)



ububaásha ububǎsha Aha ikike
Abeéga Aběga Aha dị iche iche Ndị Tutsi, Ezinụlọ Tutsi
umuhiígi N'ihi ya, ọ bụ n'oge ahụ ka a na-akpọ ya Aha onye na-achụ nta
umukoóbwa umukǒbwa nwa agbọghọ
umuúnsi umǔsi ụbọchị, ụbọchị
Dia((eresis vowelKirundi naanị)(ä, ë, ï, ö, ü)







Mkpụrụedemede dị ogologo



Enweghị usoro ụda olu yiri ya bäkoze Ngwaa ha mere
Ọ bụ ya ka e si nweta ya Aha unu niile
nar nziï Ngwaa Echere m, amaara m
Ọkpụkpụ Aha ha niile
warüzi Ngwaa ị chere, ị maara
1 A na-eji akara ndị a eme ihe naanị na transcription, dịka ọmụmaatụ na akwụkwọ ọkọwa okwu, mana n'ụdị ederede ndị ọzọ, a na-eji ụdaume nkịtị eme ihe ma anaghị eme mkpụrụedemede okpukpu abụọ (ọ gwụla ma a na-asụpụta okwu ahụ n'onwe ya n'ụzọ ahụ).

E nwere ọtụtụ ọnọdụ ebe ụdị okwu abụọ nke dị na asụsụ abụọ ahụ nwere okwu ndị dịtụkwa iche. N'sgbanyeghị nke a. ọdịiche ndị a anaghị adịgide. Otu onye ga-eburu ọdịiche dị ka "-anga" na Kinyarwanda n'uche ma e jiri ya tụnyere "-anka" na Kirundi (nke pụtara enweghị mmasị ma ọ bụ ịkpọ asị), n'ihi na mgbanwe site na "g" gaa na "k" bụ ihe a na-adịghị ahụkebe, na ihe akaebe bụ okwu dịka "inka" (ụmụ ehi), "inkono" ( ite) na ọtụtụ okwu ndị ọzọ ebe "nk" bụ ihe niile n'asụsụ abụọ ahụ. Obere ọdịiche dị otú ahụ na-agụnye ụdaume dị iche iche, ụdaume ma ọ bụ ogologo ụdaume, ụda ma ọ bụ affixes.

Nchịkọta Rwanda Rundi Akụkụ nke okwu Bekee (nkọwa)
Mkpụrụ okwu ndị na-adịghị akwụwaghị ụgwọ imisify Aha dị iche iche hyena, nkịta ọhịa
(kw)anga (kw)anka Ngwaa enweghị mmasị, ịkpọasị
Nkwupụta Ezigbo ihe Aha dị iche iche okwu
Ọ bụ mmadụ ka a na-ekwu na ọ bụ Ọ bụ n'ime Aha ụbọchị, ụbọchị
ijosi izosi olu
Mkpụrụedemede ibiyobe Ibiyoba Aha dị iche iche ahụekere
(ku)yogoza (ku)yogeza Ngwaa ọnwụ
(ku)reba (ku)raba lee, lee
Ogologo ụdaume /-riinganira/ /-ringanira/ Okwu mbido, ngwaa bụrụ nke hà nhata ogologo
/-pima/ /-piima/ ọ̀tụ̀tụ̀, ọ̀tùị
/-sáagura/ /-sáaguura/ bụrụ onye gabigara ókè
Ụda /umukonó/ /umukóno/ Aha mbinye aka
/mugufí/ /mugúfi/ Adjective mkpirikpi
/ikiguzí/ /ikigúzi/ Aha ọnụahịa, uru
Ọzụzụ nyirabukwe inabukwe Aha nne di
nyirakuru naakuru nne nne1
Ngwakọta umugati umukate Aha achịcha
1 Na Kinyarwanda na Kirundi, a na-ejikarị nyogokuru eme ihe iji pụta "nne nne".

Ihe odide[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

   

  1. Rwanda and Rundi: Nationalencyklopedin "Världens 100 största språk 2007" The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007;
    others:

Ebe e si nweta ya[dezie | dezie ebe o si]