Shang Yang

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 Àtụ:Infobox ChineseShang Yang ( Chinese ; c. 390-338 BC), a makwaara dị ka Wei Yang (Chinese) na onye a na-akpọbu Gongsun, bụ onye ọkà ihe ọmụma China oge ochie, onye ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na ọkà mmụta ama ama gbasara iwu. [1] Amụrụ na steeti Zhou vassal nke Wei n'oge agha na ịlụ ọgụ, [1] ọ bụ onye isi ala, onye isi na onye na -eme mgbanwe na -eje ozi na steeti Qin, ebe amụma ya tọrọ ntọala nhazi, ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na akụ na ụba nke wulitere steeti Qin ike ma mesịa mechaa. nyere Qin aka imeri steeti isii ndị ọzọ na-asọrịta mpi, na-eme ka China bụrụ ọchịchị etiti maka oge mbụ na akụkọ ntolite n'okpuru usoro ndị eze Qin . Ndị ọkà mmụta na-eche na ọ ga -abụ na ya na ndị na -eso ụzọ ya nyere aka na Akwụkwọ nke Lord Shang, ọrụ nkà ihe ọmụma maka ụlọ akwụkwọ nke Ndebe iwu China . [2]

Akụkọ ndụ[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

A mụrụ Shang Yang dị ka nwa iko nwanyị nye ezinụlọ na-achị nke obere steeti Wey (衞) . Aha nna ya (氏, aha agbụrụ) bụ Gongsun na aha ya bụ Yang. Dị ka onye òtù ezinụlọ Wei, a makwaara ya dị ka Wei Yang. [3]

Mgbe ọ dị obere, Yang gụrụ akwụkwọ iwu wee nweta ọkwa n'okpuru onye isi ala Shuzuo nke Wei (魏, ọ bụghị otu ihe dị ka steeti amụrụ ya). Site na nkwado nke Eze Xiao nke Qin, Yang hapụrụ ọkwá ya dị ala na Wei [4] ka ọ bụrụ onye isi ndụmọdụ na Qin. Ọtụtụ mgbanwe ya gbanwere steeti Qin dị elu ka ọ bụrụ alaeze dị ike na nke etiti. Mgbanwe ndị e mere n'usoro iwu steeti (nke a sịrị na e wuru n'elu Canon of Laws nke Li Kui ) mere ka Qin baa ọgaranya. N'ịkwalite nchịkwa ahụ site na nkwanye ugwu na ịdị mma, amụma ya mere ka ike nke ndị isi obodo daa mba.

Na 341 BC, Qin wakporo steeti Wei. Yang n'onwe ya duuru ndị agha Qin merie Wei, n'ikpeazụ Wei nyefere Qin ala ọdịda anyanwụ nke Osimiri Yellow. Maka ọrụ ya na agha ahụ, Yang nwetara obodo iri na ise na Shang dị ka onye chọrọ ịlụ ya wee bụrụ onye amara dị ka onye nwe Shang (Shang Jun) ma ọ bụ Shang Yang. [5] Dabere na Ihe ndekọ ọkọ akụkọ ihe mere eme ukwuu, ya na ndị ọmara mgbe ọ na-eje ozi n'ụlọ ikpe Wei, Shang Yang kpọrọ Gongzi Ang, onye isi Wei, ka ọ kparịta nkwekọrịta udo. Ozugbo Ang bịarutere, a tụrụ ya mkpọrọ, ndị agha Qin wakporo, merie ndị iro ha nke ọma. [3]

Mark Edward Lewis kọwara mgbe ọ na-ahazigharị ndị agha dị ka onye na-ahụ maka nhazi nke okporo ụzọ na ubi n'ofe ugwu China. Nke a nwere ike ịbịaru nso, mana Yang bụ onye na-eme mgbanwe agha dịka nke iwu. [6] Yang lekọtara owuwu iwu Xiangyang . [7]

Emperor Wu nke Han kwadoro echiche Shang Yang, [8] na John Keay kwukwara na a dọtara Tang ọgụgụ Du You na Shang Yang. [9]

Ndozigharị[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Han Fei nyere ya otuto, nke a na -ewerekarị na ọ bụ onye nnọchi anya kacha nke ndebe Iwu China (法家), na imepụta echiche abụọ;

  1. "idozi ụkpụrụ"
  2. "na imeso ndị mmadụ dịka otu" ( Chinese

N'ikwere na iwu nke iwu na ịtụle iguzosi ike n'ihe nye steeti karịa nke ezinụlọ, Yang webatara mgbanwe abụọ na steeti Qin. Nke mbụ, na 356 BC, bụ:

  1. Akwukwo Iwu Li Kui e emejuputa atumatu, na mkpa na mgbakwunye na nke a na-achị na-enye ntaramahụhụ hà na nke onye mere ihe mpu maka ndị maara maka mpụ a kama hapụ ịgwa ndị ọchịchị. Ọ debanyere mgbanwe n'ime iwu ndị a na-amachi. Iwu ndị ahụ siri ike ma gbanwee ọtụtụ oge site n'aka Yang ma ntaramahụhụ ya siri ike. [10]
  2. Ikenye ndị agha ala dabere na ihe ịga nke ọma n'agha ha na iwepụ ndị ama ama na-achọghị ịlụ ọgụ maka ikike ala ha. E kewara ndị agha ahụ n'òtù ndị agha iri abụọ, dabere na mmezu ha n'ọgbọ agha. Ndozigharị nke ndị agha mere ka ụmụ amaala Qin dị njikere isonye ndị agha wee nyere usoro ndị eze Qin aka iwulite ike agha dị mkpa iji mee ka China dị n'otu. [11]
  3. Ebe ọrụ mmadụ dị mkpụmkpụ na Qin, Yang gbara ume ka a na-akọ ala na-enweghị nsogbu na ala ahịhịa na mbata na ọpụpụ, na-ahọrọ ọrụ ugbo karịa okomoko azụmahịa (ọ bụ ezie na ọ na-enyekwa ndị ahịa na -eme nke ọma otuto).

Yang webatara mgbanwe nke abụọ ya na 350 BC, nke gụnyere usoro nhazi ọhụrụ nke ikesa ala na ime mgbanwe site na ụtụ isi .

Imirikiti mgbanwe nke Yang sitere na amụma etinyere ebe ọzọ, dị ka Wu Qi nke Steeti Chu ; agbanyeghị, ndozigharị nke Yang bụ nke zuru oke ma dị oke njọ karịa nke steeti ndị ọzọ, yana iwu nke otu onye ọchịchị. [12] N'okpuru ọchịchị ya, Qin ji ngwa ngwa karịa mmegharị nke steeti ndị ọzọ.

Iwu obodo[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Yang webatara mmezigharị ala, ala nkeonwe, nye ndị ọrụ ugbo ụgwọ ọrụ karịa oke owuwe ihe ubi, ndị ọrụ ugbo na-emezughị oke ego, ma jiri isiokwu ndị ohu dị ka ụgwọ ọrụ (nke steeti) maka ndị zutere ụkpụrụ gọọmentị.

Ebe ọ bụ na ike mmadụ dị mkpụmkpụ na Qin n'ihe metụtara steeti ndị ọzọ n'oge ahụ, Yang tiri amụma iji bulie ike mmadụ. Ka a na -ewebata ndị ọrụ ugbo Qin n'ime ndị agha, ọ gbara ume ka ndị mbịarambịa sitere na steeti ndị ọzọ banye na Qin ka ha bụrụ ndị na -anọchite ndị ọrụ; amụma a n'otu oge mụbara ndị ọrụ Qin ma mebie ike nke ndị na-emegide Qin. Yang mere iwu na-amanye ụmụ amaala ịlụ di na nwunye mgbe ha dị obere ma nyefee iwu ụtụ isi iji kwalite ịzụlite ọtụtụ ụmụaka. O mekwara iwu iji tọhapụ ndị a mara ikpe na-arụ ọrụ n'imepe ala ahịhịa maka ọrụ ugbo.

Yang kagburu iwu nrite oke nke nwa nke mbụ (dabere na arụmọrụ nwa nwoke) wee mepụta ụtụ isi abụọ maka ezinụlọ nwere ihe karịrị otu nwa bi n'ụlọ, iji kewaa nnukwu ezinụlọ n'ime ezinụlọ nuklia.

Yang wepụrụ isi obodo ahụ site na obodo Yueyang gaa Xianyang, iji belata mmetụta ndị isi na nchịkwa ahụ. Xianyang bụ isi obodo Qin ruo mgbe ọ dara na 207 BC.

Ọnwụ Yang[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ndị isi Qin ledara ya anya nke ukwuu, [3] Yang enweghị ike ịlanarị ọnwụ Eze Xiao nke Qin. Onye ọchịchị na-esote, Eze Huiwen, nyere iwu ka e bibie ezinụlọ itoolu megide Yang na ezinụlọ ya, na ihe kpatara mkpalite nnupụisi. Yang emechuola onye isi ọhụrụ ahụ ihu "site n'ime ka a taa ya ahụhụ maka mmejọ dịka a ga-asị na ọ bụ nwa amaala nkịtị." [13] Dabere na Zhan Guo Ce, Yang gara zoo ma n'otu oge Yang nwara ịnọ n'ụlọ ndị ọbịa. Onye nlekọta ụlọ ọbịa jụrụ n'ihi na ọ megidere iwu Qin ịnabata onye ọbịa na-enweghị njirimara kwesịrị ekwesị, iwu Yang n'onwe ya mere.

Jūliè gburu Yang (車裂, nkwarụ site na 車裂 ịnyịnya ise, ehi ma ọ bụ ịnyịnya ma dọwaa ya); [14] [15] E gbukwara ezinụlọ ya niile. [3] N'agbanyeghị ọnwụ ya, Eze Huiwen debere mgbanwe ndị Yang tiri. Ọtụtụ ụdị mgbanwe ọnwụ Yang ka dị. Dabere na Sima Qian na <i id="mwjw"></i>Ihe ndekọ ọkọ akụkọ ihe mere eme ukwuu, Yang buru ụzọ gbaga na Wei. Agbanyeghị, a kpọrọ ya asị ebe ahụ maka nrara ọ raara Gongzi Ang na mbụ wee chụpụ ya. Yang gbalagara n'ọchịchị ya, ebe ọ zụlitere ndị agha nnupụisi mana e gburu ya n'agha. Mgbe agha ahụ gachara, Eze Hui nke Qin mere ka ụgbọ ala dọwaa ozu Yang dị ka ịdọ aka ná ntị nye ndị ọzọ. [3]

Mgbe ogbugbu Yang gasịrị, Eze Huiwen tụgharịrị site na ndagwurugwu etiti wee merie Sichuan ( Shu na Ba ) n'ihe Steven Sage kpọrọ '' ntụgharị echiche nke ọhụụ '' maka ọdịmma anụ ahụ n'ọchịchọ Qin maka ọchịchị ụwa niile. [16]

Nyocha[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ibu n'uche ozi nke oge (1955) na oge ọ na-ekwu okwu, AFP Hulsewé gara n'ihu ịkpọ Shang Yang "onye guzobere ụlọ akwụkwọ iwu", wee were ịdị n'otu nke ntaramahụhụ bụrụ otu n'ime ihe kachasị onyinye dị mkpa, ya bụ, inye ntaramahụhụ ọnwụ maka ọkwa onye ọ bụla na -enupụ isi n'iwu eze. [17]

Na akụkọ ifo na omenala ama ama[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Shi Jingming gosiri ya na The Legend of Mi Yue (2015) dị ka onye ọbịa, na-egosi ogbugbu ya.
  • Wang Zhifei gosipụtara ya na usoro onyonyo Alaeze Ukwu Qin dị ka onye isi ihe onyonyo ahu.

Hụkwa[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Shizi

Ihe edeturu[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

 

  1. 1.0 1.1 Antonio S. Cua (ed.), 2003, p. 362, Encyclopedia of Chinese Philosophy "The fifth important legalist, Shang Yang (Wei Yang, c. 390–338 B.C.E.), was born in Wei; his original surname was Gongsun."
  2. Pines, Yuri, "Legalism in Chinese Philosophy", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2014 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), 1.1 Major Legalist Texts, http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2014/entries/chinese-legalism/
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 商君列传 (vol. 68), Records of the Grand Historian, Sima Qian
  4. pg 79 of Classical China
  5. Bamboo Annals Ancient Text, Records of Wei
  6. Paul R. Goldin, Persistent Misconceptions about Chinese Legalism. p. 18
  7. John Man 2008. p. 51. Terra Cotta Army.
  8. Creel 1970, What Is Taoism?, 115
  9. Arthur F. Wright 1960. p. 99. The Confucian Persuasion
  10. Sanft (2014). "Shang Yang Was a Cooperator: Applying Axelrod's Analysis of Cooperation in Early China" (in en). Philosophy East and West 64 (1): 174–191. DOI:10.1353/pew.2014.0003. ISSN 1529-1898. 
  11. Sanft (2014). "Shang Yang Was a Cooperator: Applying Axelrod's Analysis of Cooperation in Early China". Philosophy East and West 64 (1): 174–191. DOI:10.1353/pew.2014.0003. ISSN 1529-1898. 
  12. Creel, What Is Taoism? 107 https://books.google.com/books?id=5p6EBnx4_W0C&pg=PA107
  13. pg 80 of Classical China, ed. William H. McNeill and Jean W. Sedlar, Oxford University Press, 1970. LCCN: 68-8409
  14. 和氏, Han Feizi, Han Fei
  15. 东周列国志, 蔡元放
  16. Steven F. Sage 1992. p.116. Ancient Sichuan and the Unification of China. https://books.google.com/books?id=VDIrG7h_VuQC&pg=PA116
  17. Anthony François Paulus Hulsewé 1955. Remnants of Han Law, Volume 1. https://books.google.com/books?id=Dx8VAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA271

Ebensidee[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Zhang, Guohua, "Shang Yang" . Encyclopedia of China (Mbipụta Iwu), mbipụta nke mbụ.
  • Xie, Qingkui, "Shang Yang" . Encyclopedia of China (mbipụta sayensị ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị), 1st ed.
  • 国史 概要 (第二 版) 
  • 國策 國策 ( Zhan Guo Ce ), 第一 第一

Ịgụ n'ihu[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Li Yu-ning, Ndozigharị ShangYang (ME Sharpe Inc., 1977).
  • Sterckx, Roel. Echiche ndị China. Site na Confucius ruo Cook Ding. London: Penguin, 2019.

Njikọ mpụga[mezie | dezie ebe o si]