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Siltʼe language

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Siltʼe (Siltʼe (siltwụrụ [siltʼiɲə] ma ọ bụ nke slịfe [jəsiltʼe af]) bụ asụsụ Semitic Etiopia a na-asụ na etiti Etiopia. Onye otu ezi na ụlọ Afroasiatic, ndị na-ekwu okwu ya bụ Silt'e, bụ ndị bi na mpaghara Silt'e na mpaghara ndịda Mba, mba na ndị mmadụ. Ndị na-asụ olumba Wolane na-ebikarị na Kokir Gedebano district nke Gurage, yana mpaghara Seden Sodo dị nso na mpaghara Oromia. Ụfọdụ ebiela n'obodo mepere emepe n'akụkụ ndị ọzọ nke obodo ahụ, karịsịa Addis Ababa.

Ndị na-asụ ya na olumba[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Olumba nke asụsụ Siltʼe gụnyere: Azernet-Berbere, Silti, Wuriro, Ulbareg na Wolane. Enwere ihe dị ka ndị na-asụ Silt'e 940,000 (ọnụọgụ 2007); 125,000 ndị na-ekwu okwu Wolane.

Ọmụmụ ụdaolu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Mkpụrụ okwu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Siltʼe nwere usoro ụdaume dị mma maka asụsụ Semitic nke Etiopia. E nwere ụdaume ndị a na-a/h/ụkarị, n'akụkụ ụdaume na-enweghị olu na ụdaume niile, ma e wezụga /h/ na //ʔ//, nwere ike ịme geminated, ya bụ, gbasaa.

Chaatị ndị dị n'okpuru na-egosi phonemes nke Siltʼe. Maka nnọchiteanya nke ụdaume Siltʼe, isiokwu a na-eji mgbanwe nke usoro a na-ahụkarị (ọ bụ ezie na ọ bụghị zuru ụwa ọnụ), n'etiti ndị ọkà mmụta asụsụ na-arụ ọrụ na asụsụ Semitic nke Etiopia, mana ọ dịtụ iche na mgbakọ nke International Phonetic Alphabet. Mgbe akara IPA dị iche, a na-egosi ya na brackets na chaatị.

Mkpụrụedemede Siltʼe dị nnọọ iche na ụdaume asaa dị n'asụsụ ndị dị ka Amharic, Tigrinya na Geʽez. Siltʼe nwere usoro ụdaume ise dị mkpirikpi na ise dị ogologo nke bụ ihe atụ nke asụsụ Cushitic dị nso, nke nwere ike ịbụ mmalite nke usoro Siltʼ e. Enwere nnukwu ọdịiche allophonic n'ime ụdaume dị mkpirikpi, ọkachasị maka a; a na-egosikarị allophone nke /a/, [ə], na chaatị ahụ. Enwere ike iwepu ụdaume niile dị mkpirikpi tupu nkwụsịtụ.

Usoro odide a na-eme ka ọdịiche dị n'etiti naanị ụdaume asaa. Ụfọdụ n'ime ndịiche dị mkpụmkpụ dị na Silt'e enweghị akara. Na omume, nke a nwere ike ọ gaghị egbochi nghọta n'ihi na enwere obere ụzọ abụọ dị ntakịrị dabere na ogologo ụdaume. N'ime Silt'e edere, a na-edepụta ụdaume Geʽez asaa ahụ na udaume Silt'e iri dị ka ndị a:

  • ä → a: gafere 'ọ gafere'
  • u → u, uu: ሙት mut 'ọnwụ', mut 'ihe'
  • i
    • ii: ኢን iin 'anya'
    • okwu ikpeazụ m: መሪ mari 'enyi'
    • na-agwụcha otu aha: ọ bụ 'enyi ya'
    • ngwaa zuru oke na-enweghị onye ọ bụla: baሊ baali 'ndị kwuru'; በባሊም babaalim 'ọbụlagodi na ndị mmadụ kwuru'
  • aaa: ጋራሽ gaaraaš 'ụlọ gị'
  • e → e, ee: ኤፌ eeffe 'ọ kpuchiri'
  • ǝ →
    • m (ma e wezụga dị n'elu): እንግር ingir 'ụkwụ'
    • ụdaume na-esoghị ụdaume: አስሮሽት asroošt 'iri na abụọ'
  • o → o, oo: ቆ kʼočʼe 'tortoise', kʼoočʼe'e 'ọkpụ'

Ike asụsụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Meshesha Make Jobo na-akọ na a na-eji asụsụ Amharic dochie anya iji asụsụ Siltʼe eme ihe site na ụfọdụ ndị na-asụ ya maka ngalaba ụfọdụ. Ọ na-ezo aka na nnukwu ihe ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya, ọtụtụ n'ime ha sitere na mba. Ọ na-ekwukwa obere ihe ndị dị n'ógbè, dị ka enweghị ụdị okike.[1]

  1. Meshesha Make Jobo. 2016. Indigenous language shift in Siltie: Causes, effects and directions for revitalization. Journal of Languages and Culture 7(7): 69-78.

Akwụkwọ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Dirk Bustorf 2011: Lebendige Überlieferung: Geschichte und Erinnerung der muslimischen Siltʼe Äthiopiens. Na Nchịkọta Bekee. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz (Aethiopistische Forschungen 74).
  • Cohen, Marcel (1931). Asian Society, Nchịkọta nke akwụkwọ ndị Ọwụwa Anyanwụ. Paris: Geuthner.
  • [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] "Akụkọ Joseph na Sïltʼi Gurage", na: Grover Hudson (ed.), Essays on Gurage language and culture: raara nye Wolf Leslau n'oge ncheta ọmụmụ ya nke afọ 90, November 14, 1996, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, pp. 69o92.
  • Gutt, E.H.M. & Hussein Mohammed (1997). Akwụkwọ ọkọwa okwu Bekee (nke nwere ụtọ asụsụ dị mkpirikpi site na E-A Gutt). Addis Ababa: Addis Ababa University Press.
  • [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] Ọmụmụ na phonology nke Silti. Journal of Ethiopian Studies 16, peeji nke 37X73.
  • [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] "Aspects of number in Siltʼi grammar", in: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference of Ethiopian Studies (Addis Ababa), pp. 453ş464.
  • [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] "Nkọwa ụtọ asụsụ nke Siltʼe", na: Gutt, E.H.M. 1997, peeji nke 895960.
  • [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] Etymological Dictionary of Gurage (Ethiopic). 3 mpịakọta. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
  • [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] "Seltʼi-verse in arabischer Schrift aus dem Schlobies-Nachlass", na: Stanislav Segert & András J.E. Bodrogligeti (ed.), ọmụmụ ndị Etiopia raara nye Wolf Leslau, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, peeji nke 363X374.

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