Steeti Mepere anya

Shí Wikipedia, njikotá édémédé nke onyobulạ
Jump to navigation Jump to search

 

Ọchịchị steeti mepere anya bụ obodo na -anọchite anya mpaghara n'abụghị naanị mpaghara akụkọ ihe mere eme, otu agbụrụ, ma ọ bụ otu ọchịchị, kama ọ bụ mmepeanya pụrụ iche n'onwe ya. [1] Ọ dị iche na echiche nke steeti mba site n'ịkọwa ụdị mmekọrịta ndọrọndọrọ ọchịchị nke obodo dị ka nke mejupụtara otu nke karịrị otu mba. Mgbe ị na -eke steeti dị ka steeti nwere mmepeanya, a na atọ ntọala n'ịkwalite akụkọ ihe mere eme nke obodo na ịdị n'otu omenala n'ofe nnukwu mpaghara.

Ewepụtara okwu a na mgbe mbụ n'afọ ndị dị n'agbata 1990 Dịka ụzọ esi akọwa China, [2] mana ejirikwara ya kọwaa mba ndị dịka Russia, India na Turkey . [1] [3]

China dị ka steeti mepere anya[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ndị ọkà mmụta ji okwu ahụ bụ '' mmepeanya-steeti" na mbụ n'afọ ndị di n'agbata 1990 iji kọwaa China dị ka obodo nwere akparamagwa mmekọrịta ndọrọndọrọ ọchịchị dị iche, dịka a jụrụ ile ya anya dị ka steeti mba Dị n'ụdịdị Europe. Ojiji nke okwu ọhụrụ a na -egosi na China bụ ma ka bụrụkwa “alaeze ukwu” nke nwere ọdịnala ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị pụrụ iche na usoro ọchịchị gọọmenti, ndị na -akwado ya kwukwara na usoro steeti mba akọwaghị mmalite mgbanwe nke steeti China. Ndị na-akwado akara ahụ na -akọwa China dị ka mba nwere akụkọ ihe mere eme na ọdịbendị pụrụ iche, nke sitere na usoro na-aga n'ihu nke mmekọrịta mmekọrịta. [4] E mere ka okwu a bụrụ okwu ama ama mgbe Martin Jacques jiri ya mee mgbe China na -achị ụwa . [5] [6]

Dabere na Li Xing na Timothy Shaw, isi ihe dị na nyocha China dị ka obodo mepere anya bụ nhụta na steeti China na-enweta ikike ya kwụ ọtọ site na ịga n'ihu n'usoro ọchịchịr mmekọrịta ndọrọndọrọ ọchịchị nke na -egosi na steeti ahụ nwere ikike ebumpụta ụwa karịa ndị ọ na -achị. " Ọ na-elekọta" ụmụ amaala ya na obodo ha, echiche steeti nke dị iche na ụdị steeti mba Westphalian . [4] Ndị ọkà mmụta ndị ọzọ na-ekwu na isi ihe dị na mmepeanya-steeti bụ idobe ụkpụrụ ịdị n'otu nke ọdịbendị n'agbanyeghị na-egosipụta oke ọdịbendị dị iche iche, n'ime ọtụtụ narị afọ nke akụkọ ntolite na nnukwu oghere. [7] Ụfọdụ na -adọrọ uche gaa ogologo oge nke usoro ide ihe nke China , [8] ma ọ bụ kọwaa ọdịdị China dị ka Obodo nwere Njikọta akụkọ mere na Ndịn'azụ. [9] [10]

Guang Xia na-agbagha azụ n'echiche nke ịdị iche nke mmepeanya steeti China. Xia na-ekwu na okwu mmepeanya-steeti n'ọmụmụ ihe China bụ mmepe dị mkpa ma dị mma, ebe ọ na-enye ohere ka e nyochaa njirimara steeti China ọgbara ọhụrụ na akụkọ nke akụkọ ha. Agbanyeghị, Xia kwubiri na n'ikpeazụ, mmepeanya niile ga-enwetaghachi onwe ha na akụkọ ha nke akụkọ ihe mere eme, na ọ bụ ihie ụzọ iwere China dị ka ihe kwụ akwụ ma ọ bụ gosipụta ya dị ka ejikọtara ya na ihe gara aga karịa ụwa ndị ọzọ. [5]

Ọmụmaatụ ndị ọzọ gbasara mmepeanya kwuru[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

India[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ọ bụ ezie na echepụtara echiche nke India ọgbara ọhụrụ dị ka obodo nnwere onwe ya mgbe pụrụ na Ọchịchị Britain, a tụpụtala India ka ọ bụrụ atụ nke steeti mepere anya, ya na ndị na-akọwa ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na -arụ ụka na njirimara ndị India kesara tupu ọchịchị Britain na mwakpo ndị Alakụba. [6] [11] 

Russia[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Nchịkwa ọchịchị Vladimir Putin anabatala okwu mkparị nke ịkọwa Russia dị ka obodo mepere emepe nke Eurasia. [1] [3] [12]

Nyocha ọzọ[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Akụkụ gbara ọchịchịrị nke steeti mepere anya[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Onye odeakụkọ Gideon Rachman rụrụ ụka na 2019 na echiche steeti mepere anya adabaghi n'echiche ọgbara ọhụrụ nke ikike ụmụ mmadụ zuru ụwa ọnụ na ụkpụrụ ọchịchị onye kwuo uche ya, na ọ bụ naanị nke ndị otu pere mpe n'anaghị ekerịta atụmatụ ndị nke na-akọwapụta otu ọnọdụ mmepeanya. (dịka ọmụmaatụ, ha nwere ike nwee okpukpe ọzọ). [1]

Hụkwa[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Steeti obodo
  • Alaeze Ukwu
  • Sistemụ Tributary nke China
  • Sistemu Westphalian
  • Lucian Pye kwuru
  • Ọchịchị alaeze ukwu

Nkọwa[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Rachman (4 March 2019). China, India and the rise of the 'civilisation state' (en-GB). Financial Times. Retrieved on 2019-07-01.
  2. Pye, Lucian W.1990. "Erratic State, Frustrated Society." Foreign Affairs. 69(4): 56-74
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Huntington's disease and the clash of civilisation-states", The Economist, 2 January 2020.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Xing (2013). "The political economy of Chinese state capitalism". Journals.AAU.dk/Index.PHP/Jcir/Article/Download/218/155 1. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 Xia (2014-08-22). "China as a "Civilization-State": A Historical and Comparative Interpretation". Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 140: 43–47. DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.04.384. ISSN 1877-0428. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 Jacques, Martin. (2014). When china rules the world : the end of the western world and the birth of a new global order. Penguin Books. ISBN 9781101151457. OCLC 883334381. 
  7. Civilization state versus nation-state - Martin Jacques. www.martinjacques.com. Retrieved on 2019-07-01.
  8. Tu (1994). The Living Tree: The Changing Meaning of Beijing Chinese Today. Stanford University Press, 3–4. 
  9. Zheng (2004). Will China Become Democratic?: Elite, Class and Regime Transition. Singapore EAI, 81. 
  10. Huang (2005). 'Beijing Consensus' or 'Chinese Experiences' or what?, 6. 
  11. India is not a nation-state, or a state-nation. It is a civilisational-state (en). Hindustan Times (2019-12-19). Retrieved on 2020-07-20.
  12. Tsygankov (2016-05-03). "Crafting the State-Civilization Vladimir Putin's Turn to Distinct Values". Problems of Post-Communism 63 (3): 146–158. DOI:10.1080/10758216.2015.1113884. ISSN 1075-8216.