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Ugboro mbụ nke ụmụ nwanyị

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Oge mbụ nke ụmụ nwanyị bụ oge ọrụ ụmụ nwanyị na echiche nke mere n'oge narị afọ nke 19 na mmalite narị afọ nke 20 n'ụwa niile nke ọdịda anyanwụ. O lekwasịrị anya n'okwu iwu, ọkachasị n'ịchekwa ikike ụmụ nwanyị nwere ịtụ vootu. A na-ejikarị okwu ahụ eme ihe n'otu ihe na ụdị ụmụ nwanyị nke ndị na-ahụ maka ihe ndị ruuru ụmụ nwanyị nwere mgbọrọgwụ na nke mbụ, na òtù ndị dị ka International Alliance of Women na ndị mmekọ ya. Òtù ụmụ nwanyị a ka na-elekwasị anya n'ịha nhata site n'echiche iwu.[1]

Okwu feminism nke mbụ n'onwe ya bụ onye nta akụkọ bụ Martha Lear chọpụtara ya na Akwụkwọ akụkọ New York Times na March 1968, "Feminist Wave nke abuo: what do these women want ?" [2] [3] Nke mbu na-akọwa maka igba mbọ maka ike ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị ụmụ nwanyị, n'adịghị ka enweghị nhata n'ezie.[4] A na-eme nke ọma ihe atụ nke ebili mmiri, gụnyere n'akwụkwọ agụmakwụkwọ, mana a ka tọrọ ya maka ịmepụta echiche dị mkpirikpi banyere nnwere onwe ụmụ nwanyị nke na-ehichapụ usoro nke ime ihe ma na-elekwasị anya na ndị na-eme ihe nkiri a na-ahụ anya.[5] Okwu ahụ bụ"ebili mmiri mbụ" na, n'ụzọ sara mbara karị, a jụrụ ajụjụ nlereanya nke ebili mmiri mgbe a na-ekwu maka mmeghari ụmụ nwanyị na mpaghara ndị na-abụghị ndị ọdịda anyanwụ n'ihi na oge na mmepe nke okwu ahụ dabeere kpamkpam na ihe omume nke nwanyị ọdịda anyanwụ, ya mere enweghị ike itinye ya n'ọrụ. ihe ndị na-abụghị ọdịda anyanwụ n'ụzọ ziri ezi. Agbanyeghị, ụmụ nwanyị na-ekere òkè na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị maka ịha nhata ha nwoke na nwanyị gosi pụtara atụmatụ ha na ihe ndị nwanyị ọdịda anyanwụ chọrọ maka ikike iwu. Nke a jikotara ya na ebili mmiri mbụ nke ọdịda anyanwụ wee mee na njedebe narị afọ nke 19 wee gaa n'ihu n'ime 1930s n'ihe metụtara mmeghari mba ndị na-emeghe ọchịchị colonial.

Okwu zuru ụwa ọnụ

[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Nsogbu nsonye nke malitere n'oge mgbaghari mbụ nke òtù ụmụ nwanyị na United States ma nọgide na-aga n'ihu na ebili mmiri nke feminism na-esote bụ isiokwu nke mkparịta ụka dị ukwuu na ọkwa agụmakwụkwọ. Ụfọdụ ndị ọkà mmụta na-achọpụta na ụdị ebili mmiri nke ọdịda anyanwụ nwanyị na-enye nsogbu n'ihi na ọ na-eme ka ogologo akụkọ ihe mere eme nke ime ihe n'ime ụdị dị iche iche nke na-akọwa ọgbọ nke ndị na-eme ihe kama ina kwere akụkọ mgbagwoju anya, njikọ dị n'etiti, na nke jikọrọ ọnụ nke ikike ụmụ nwanyị. A na-eche na nke a ga-ebelata mgba na ihe ndị ọtụtụ mmadụ rụzuru yana ime ka nkewa dị n'etiti ndị inyom na-akpachapụ anya.[6] Ihe ndị na-ese okwu na-aga n'ihu na mkparịta ụka nke oge a banyere ụmụ nwanyị ọdịda anyanwụ na nke ụwa malitere na ikpe na-ezighị ezi nke gosi pụtara ụmụ nwanyị mbụ. Ụzọ e si edu zi ọdịda anyanwụ dị ka ikike na mkparịta ụka ụmụ nwanyị zuru ụwa ọnụ ka ndị na-ahụ maka ụmụ nwanyị na United States ka tọrọ dị ka bell hooks màkà na imepụtagha hiri usoro mkparịta ụka nke ndị ọchịchị, inwe ihe ọmụma na itinye okike dị ka ntọala nke ịha nhata.[7] Echiche nke iwepụ ọchịchị ụmụ nwanyị bụ nzaghachi nye ọnọdụ ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na ọgụgụ isi nke ike ọdịda anyanwụ ụmụ nwanyị nwere. Site n'ịkwado na e nwere ọtụtụ feminism gburugburu ụwa, oke na enweghị nchebara echiche maka njirimara intersectional nke nọghị dere na-aga n'ihu kemgbe a na-azaghachi feminism mbụ na ọdịda anyanwụ. Ịdị adị nke ọtụtụ feminism na ụdị nke ime ihe ike bụ nso naazụ nke oge mbụ nke feminism nke akụkọ ihe mere eme nke colonialism na imperialism na-akpụzi.[8]

Mmalite ya

[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Omume iji gbasaa ikike ụmụ nwanyị malitere tupu narị afọ nke 20. N'akwụkwọ ya bụ The Second Sex, Simone de Beauvoir dere na nwanyị mbụ "inwere mkpịsị akwụkwọ ya iji chebe mmekọahụ ya" bụ Christine nke Pizan na narị afọ nke iri na ise.[9] Ndị ọzọ "proto-feminists" na-arụ ọrụ na narị afọ nke 15 na 17 gụnyere Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa, Modesta di Pozzo di Forzi, Anne Bradstreet na François Poullain de la Barre.[1] Akwụkwọ oge ochie na akụkọ ifo dị ka Euripides' Medea enweela njikọ chiri anya na òtù ụmụ nwanyị ma kọwaa ya dị ka ihe oyiyi nke ụmụ nwanyị. Akwụkwọ oge ochie na-arụ ọrụ dị mkpa na echiche ụmụ nwanyị na ọmụmụ ihe. [10] A na-ewere Olympe nke Gouges dị ka otu n'ime ndị inyom mbụ. O bipụtara akwụkwọ nta akpọrọ Déclaratio nke des Droits de la Femme et de la Citoyenne ("Nkwupụta nke Ikike nke Nwaanyị na nke [Nwanyị] Citizen") dị ka nzaghachi nye Déclaration deas Droits de l'Homme et du Citoyen ("Nkwado nke Ikike Nwoke na nke [Male] Citizen"). [11]

Wollstonecraft

[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Oge Mary Wollstonecraft dere metụtara Rousseau na nkà ihe ọmụma nke Enlightenment. Nna nke Enlightenment kọwara ezigbo ọha mmadụ nke ọchịchị onye kwuo uche ya nke dabeere na nha nhata nke ụmụ nwoke, ebe a na-akpa ókè megide ụmụ nwanyị. Ọ bụ Wollstonecraft, na ndị ya na ha dịkọrọ ndụ kwuru maka iwepụ ụmụ nwanyị na mkparịta ụka. Wollstonecraft dabeere n'ọrụ ya na echiche Rousseau.[12] Ọ bụ ezie na na mbụ o yiri ka ọ na-emegiderịta onwe ya, echiche Wollstonecraft bụ ịgbasawanye ọha mmadụ nke Rousseau ma dabere na Ịha nhata nwoke na nwanyị. Mary Wollstonecraft kwuru okwu obi ike banyere itinye ụmụ nwanyị n'ụdị ndụ ọha; ọkachasị, na-ebelata mkpa agụmakwụkwọ ụmụ nwanyị dị.[13] O weere okwu ahụ bụ 'ndị inyom nweere onwe ha' ma tinye oge ya n'ịgbapụ ọrụ nwoke na nwanyị ọdịnala.[2][13]

Wollstonecraft bipụtara otu n'ime akwụkwọ edemede ụmụ nwanyị mbụ, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792), ebe ọ kwadoro ịha nhata nke ụmụ nwoke na ụmụ nwanyị, na-agbatị ọrụ nke akwụkwọ nta ya nke 1790, A Vindicación of the Rights nke ụmụ nwoke. Akwụkwọ akụkọ ya a na-akparaghị ókè, Maria, ma ọ bụ Wrongs of Woman, mere ka a katọ ọ ya nke ukwuu ka ọ na-atụle ọchịchọ mmekọahụ ụmụ nwanyị. Ọ nwụrụ na nwata, onye di ya nwụrụ, onye ọkà ihe ọmụma William Godwin, dere ngwa ngwa akwụkwọ ncheta ya nke, megidere ebum nuche ya, mebiri aha ya ruo ọtụtụ ọgbọ.

A na-ewere Wollstonecraft dị ka "nne nne" nke òtù ụmụ nwanyị nke Britain na echiche ya kpụpụrụ echiche nke ndị suffragettes, bụ ndị na-eme mkpọsa maka votu ụmụ nwanyị.[14]

Usòrò:8marta.jpg
Ihe ngosi Soviet nke 1932 maka Ụbọchị Ụmụ nwanyị nke Mba Nile: "Ụbọchị nnupụisi nke ndị ọrụ nwanyị megide ịgba ohu na kichin".
Louise Weiss tinyere ụmụ nwanyị ndị ọzọ na-akwado ụmụ nwanyị na Paris na 1935. Isi okwu akwụkwọ akụkọ ahụ na-agụ, na ntụgharị, "Onye nwanyị French ọbula kwesịrị ịtụ VOTE".
  1. Tong, Rosemarie (2018). Feminist Thought: A More Comprehensive Introduction. Routledge. ISBN 9780429974878.
  2. Lear. "The Second Feminist Wave: What do these women want?", The New York Times, March 10, 1968. Retrieved on 2018-07-27. (in en)
  3. Henry (2004). Not My Mother's Sister: Generational Conflict and Third-Wave Feminism. Indiana University Press. ISBN 9780253111227. 
  4. First Wave Feminism. BCC Feminist Philosophy. Retrieved on 2021-10-25.
  5. Hewitt (2010). No Permanent Waves: Recasting Histories of U.S. Feminism. Rutgers University Press, 1–12. ISBN 978-0-8135-4724-4. 
  6. Reger (2017). "Finding a Place in History: The Discursive Legacy of the Wave Metaphor and Contemporary Feminism". Feminist Studies 43 (1): 193–221. DOI:10.1353/fem.2017.0012. ISSN 2153-3873. 
  7. Needham (2010). "response: theorizing the 'first wave' globally". Feminist Review 95 (95): 64–68. DOI:10.1057/fr.2009.65. ISSN 0141-7789. 
  8. Lukose (2018). "Decolonizing Feminism in the #MeToo Era". The Cambridge Journal of Anthropology 36 (2): 34–52. DOI:10.3167/cja.2018.360205. ISSN 0305-7674. 
  9. Schneir [1972] (1994). Feminism: The Essential Historical Writings. Vintage Books. ISBN 978-0-679-75381-0. 
  10. van Zyl Smit (2002). "Medea the Feminist". Acta Classica 45: 101–122. ISSN 0065-1141. 
  11. Olympe de Gouges | Biography, Declaration of the Rights of Women, Beliefs, Death, & Facts | Britannica (en). www.britannica.com. Retrieved on 2023-08-20.
  12. Reuter (2017). "Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Mary Wollstonecraft on the imagination". British Journal for the History of Philosophy 25 (6): 1138–1160. DOI:10.1080/09608788.2017.1334188. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 Ferguson (1999). "The Radical Ideas of Mary Wollstonecraft". Canadian Journal of Political Science / Revue canadienne de science politique 32 (3): 427–450. DOI:10.1017/S0008423900013913. ISSN 0008-4239. 
  14. Tauchert (2002). Mary Wollstonecraft and the Accent of the Feminine. New York: Palgrave. ISBN 9780230287358.