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Ịkụ nnụnụ

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Onye na-eme nchọpụta na-eji eriri na-ejikọta eriri na ụkwụ nke yellowthroat nkịtị.
Chroicocephalus ridibundus (Laridae) na-eti mkpu
Igbe ngwá ọrụ maka ịtụ, ịtụ ihe n'ihe ọ̀tụ̀tụ̀ na ịpị nnụnụ.
Ụmụ akwụkwọ na-ekiri ihe omume nnụnụ na-eme n'oge "A day at the wetland", nke otu gburugburu ebe obibi WWF haziri. E jidere otu onye ahụ, nwa okorobịa toro eto, n'otu ebe ahụ n'afọ gara aga na Lesbos, Gris.

Mgba nnụnụ (UK) ma ọ bụ banding nnụnụ, bụ njikọ nke obere, nke nwere nọmba ọla ma ọ bụ plastik n'otu n'otu na ụkwụ ma ọ bụ nku Ịkụ nnụnụ ọhịa iji mee ka onye ọ bụla mara. Nke a na-enyere aka n'ịgbaso mmegharị nke nnụnụ na akụkọ ndụ ya. Ọ bụ nha a na-ahụkarị iji tụọ ma nyochaa ọnọdụ nke nku, abụba dị n'okpuru akpụkpọ ahụ, ihe ngosi afọ na mmekọahụ n'oge ijide maka ụda. Nchịkọta ma ọ bụ mgbake nke nnụnụ ahụ nwere ike inye ozi gbasara ịkwaga, ogologo ndụ, ọnwụ, ọnụ ọgụgụ mmadụ, ókèala, omume iri nri, na akụkụ ndị ọzọ nke ndị na-amụ nnụnụ na-amụ. [1] pụkwara iji ụzọ ndị ọzọ nke akara nnụnụ mee ihe iji nye ohere maka njirimara dabere na mpaghara nke na-achọghị ijide.

Akụkọ ihe mere eme[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ndị agha Rom mere mgbalị ndị mbụ e dekọrọ iji gosi nnụnụ. Dịka ọmụmaatụ n'oge Agha Punic na 218 BC, ndị agha nọchibidoro tọhapụrụ ugoloọma (nke na-egosi na nke a bụ omume a ma ama). Quintus Fabius Pictor jiri eriri dị n'ụkwụ nnụnụ ahụ zighachi ozi. [2] ọ bụ n'ọnọdụ ọzọ n'akụkọ ihe mere eme, onye knight nwere mmasị na agbụrụ ụgbọ ịnyịnya n'oge Pliny (AD 1) kpọọrọ ugoloọma gaa Volterra, 135 kilomita (217 wee hapụ ugoloọma na ozi gbasara ndị mmeri agbụrụ.

Falconers na Middle Ages na-etinye efere na falcons ha na akara nke ndị nwe ha. [3][4]'England site n'ihe dị ka afọ 1560 ma ọ bụ karịa, a na-eji akara Swans, akara na ụgwọ ahụ.

[5] chọtara ụgbala ndị ụta merụrụ ahụ (nke a na-akpọ pfeilstorch na German) nke agbụrụ ndị Afrịka nwere ike ịchọta na Germany na 1822 ma bụrụ ụfọdụ n'ime ihe akaebe mbụ nke njem dị anya na nnụnụ Europe.

Na North America John James Audubon na Ernest Thompson Seton bụ ndị ọsụ ụzọ ọ bụ ezie na usoro ha nke akara nnụnụ dị iche na ụda nke oge a. Iji chọpụta ma ọ bụrụ na otu nnụnụ ahụ laghachiri n'ugbo ya, Audubon kegidere eriri ọlaọcha n'ụkwụ ụmụ phoebes nke ọwụwa anyanwụ na 1805 (ọ bụ ezie na a na-enyo eziokwu nke ụbọchị ahụ [6]), ebe Seton ji ink mee snow buntings na Manitoba na 1882. [7] [8]Hans Christian Cornelius Mortensen, onye nkuzi ụlọ akwụkwọ Danish, malitere ịgba nnụnụ maka ebumnuche sayensị sara mbara na 1899, na-eji mgbaaka Aluminium Ndị kpakpando Europe (Mortensen gbalịrị iji mgbaaka zinc dị ka 1890 mana ọ chọpụtara na ndị a dị oke arọ). [1] Johannes Thienemann guzobere atụmatụ banding mbụ na Germany na 1903 na Rossitten Bird Observatory na Baltic Coast nke East Prussia. Nke a sochiri Hungary na 1908, Great Britain na 1909 (site n'aka Arthur Landsborough Thomson na Aberdeen na Harry Witherby na England), Yugoslavia [nkọwa dị mkpa] na 1910 na mba Scandinavia n'etiti 1911 na 1914.[9]  [10] na-ekwu na Paul Bartsch nke Smithsonian Institution bụ onye mbụ na-agba ụta na US: ọ na-agba ịnyịnya 23 na-agba okpueze ojii n'afọ 1902. [1] [2] [3] [11]Leon J. Cole nke Mahadum Wisconsin guzobere American Bird Banding Association na 1909; nzukọ a lekọtara banding ruo mgbe e guzobere mmemme gọọmentị etiti na US (1920) na Canada (1923) dịka Migratory Bird Treaty nke 1918 si dị.

Okwu na usoro[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A na-ejide okpueze ruby n'ime ụgbụNet anwụrụ ọkụ

Mgba nnụnụ bụ okwu a na-eji na UK na akụkụ ndị ọzọ nke Europe na ụwa. Njikọ nnụnụ bụ okwu a na-eji na US. A na-akpọ mgbalị ndị a haziri ahazi mgbịrịgba ma ọ bụ atụmatụ banding, na òtù ndị na-achịkwa ha bụ ndị na-akpọ ụda ma ọ bụ ndị na'ịgba egwu. (A na-akpọ nnụnụ ka ha na-akpọ ha ụda kama ịkpọ ha) A na-akpọ ndị na-akpọ ma ọ bụ ndị na-akụ nnụnụ, ha na-arụkwa ọrụ na-akụ ma ọ bụ na-akụ ha.

Enwere ike ijide nnụnụ site na iwere ha dị ka ụmụ nnụnụ n'akwụ́, ma ọ bụ dị ka ndị toro eto, e jidere ha na ụgbụ ụfụfụ, ọnyà ndị a na-adọkpụ, ụgbụ ndị na-adọrọ, ụgbụrụ, ma ọ bụghị ụzọ ndị ọzọ. Enwere ike ijide ndị na-eri anụ site n'ọtụtụ ụzọ, gụnyere ọnyà bal-chatri.

Mgbe e jidere nnụnụ, a na-etinye mgbaaka nke nha kwesịrị ekwesị (nke a na-ejikarị aluminum ma ọ bụ ihe ndị ọzọ dị mfe eme) n'ụkwụ nnụnụ ahụ, nwere nọmba pụrụ iche, na adreesị kọntaktị. A na-atụkarị nnụnụ ahụ ma tụọ ya, nyochaa ya maka data metụtara ọrụ mgbịrịgba ahụ, wee hapụ ya. Mgbaaka ndị ahụ dị nnọọ mfe, a na-emekwa ha ka ha ghara inwe mmetụta ọjọọ na nnụnụ - n'ezie, ihe ndabere niile nke iji ụda iji nweta data banyere nnụnụ bụ na nnụisi ndị gbara gburugburu kwesịrị ịkpa àgwà n'ụzọ niile n'otu ụzọ ahụ dị ka ndị na-enweghị mgbaaka. A pụrụ ịmata nnụnụ ndị a kpọtụrụ aha mgbe a nwetaghachiri ha, ma ọ bụ chọta ha nwụrụ anwụ, mgbe e mesịrị.

Mmụta[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ọtụtụ ụlọ ọrụ [12]-akpọ nnụnụ na-enye ngosipụta maka ọha na eze, ebe ndị ọkachamara na-akpọ ụmụ nnụnụ dị ndụ ka ha na-eme ka nzọụkwụ nke usoro ahụ pụta ìhè ma na-aza ajụjụ site n'aka ọha na eze. Ịkụziri ndị nleta banyere usoro ahụ [13]-enyere aka ịgbasa ozi ziri ezi banyere ya na ọha na eze. [14] bụ ezie na ụda nnụnụ dị ndụ abụghị naanị usoro ịkụziri ọha na eze banyere nchekwa nnụnụ, ọ nwere ike ịbụ usoro na-adọrọ mmasị na nke pụrụ iche maka ndị ọbịa.

Ndị na-ahụ maka ịgba mgba na-achịkwa ọrụ ịgba mgbaaka mana n'ihi na enwere ike ịchọta nnụnụ gbara mgbaaka n'ofe mba, enwere ndị otu na-ahụ na a na-agbakọta mgbake na akụkọ. Na UK, British Trust for Ornithology na-ahazi ụda nnụnụ. Na North America U.S. Bird Banding Laboratory na-arụkọ ọrụ na mmemme ndị Canada ma kemgbe 1996, ya na North American Banding Council (NABC) na-arụ ọrụ. Ndị na-achụ nta nnụnụ mmiri nwere ike ịkọ ọnụ ọgụgụ nke nnụnụ ha gburu ma ọ bụ hụ, ma chọpụta nkọwa nke nnụisi ahụ dịka ụdị, afọ, na ebe banding. A na-ahụkarị ìgwè nnụnụ dị ka ihe nrite n'ihi na ha ka dị obere. [15] Union for Bird Ringing (EURING) na-ejikọta data ụda sitere na mmemme mba dị iche iche na Europe. [1] 'Australia, Australian Bird and Bat Banding Scheme na-achịkwa ozi niile nke nnụnụ na ụsụ. ebe SAFRING [16]-ahụ maka ọrụ ụda nnụnụ na South Africa. Ọ bụ Bombay Natural History Society na-achịkwa ụda nnụnụ na India. Nnụnụ na-agba gburugburu na Neotropics na Africa. [17][18]National Center for Bird Conservation (CEMAVE) na-ahazi atụmatụ mba maka ụda nnụnụ na Brazil. [1] [2] [3]

Ihe edeturu[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. Cottam (1956). "Uses of marking animals in ecological studies:marking birds for scientific purposes". Ecology 37 (4): 675–681. DOI:10.2307/1933058. 
  2. Fisher, J. & Peterson, R.T. 1964. The world of birds. Doubleday & Co., Garden City, New York.
  3. Schechter, Frank I. The Historical Foundations of the Law Relating to Trade-Marks. New York: Columbia University Press, 1925. p. 35
  4. Charles Knight (1842) The Penny Magazine of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge: of the society for the diffusion of useful knowledge. Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (Great Britain) v.11 [n.s. v.2] (pp. 277–278)
  5. Haffer, J. (2007). "The development of ornithology in central Europe". Journal of Ornithology 148. DOI:10.1007/s10336-007-0160-2. 
  6. Halley (2018). "Audubon's famous banding experiment: Fact or fiction?". Archives of Natural History 45: 118–121. DOI:10.3366/anh.2018.0487. 
  7. North American Banding Council (2001). The North American Banders' Study Guide. Point Reyes Station, Calif.: North American Banding Council, 3–4. Retrieved on 18 July 2012. 
  8. Preuss, Niels Otto (2001). "Hans Christian Cornelius Mortensen: aspects of his life and of the history of bird ringing". Ardea 89 (1): 1–6. 
  9. Spencer, R. 1985. Marking. In: Campbell. B. & Lack, E. 1985. A dictionary of birds. British Ornithologists' Union. London, pp. 338–341.
  10. Tautin. "The North American Banding Program", EURING Newsletter, December 1988. Retrieved on 21 May 2012.
  11. Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named tautin100
  12. "Banding Demonstrations", Braddock Bay Bird Observatory, 2013-02-26. Retrieved on 2017-10-31. (in en-US)
  13. Pitkin (2006). Mist-netting with the public: A guide for communicating science through bird banding, 29. Retrieved on 31 October 2017. 
  14. A Bird in the Hand is Best. www.birds.cornell.edu. Archived from the original on 27 September 2021. Retrieved on 2017-10-31.
  15. EURING. EURING. Archived from the original on 2014-05-28. Retrieved on 2014-06-02.
  16. Safring. Web.uct.ac.za (2001-10-03). Archived from the original on 2012-07-21. Retrieved on 2014-06-02.
  17. Bird Banding Laboratory. usgs.gov. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved on 24 September 2015.
  18. CEMAVE. Icmbio.gov.br. Archived from the original on 4 January 2012. Retrieved on 2014-06-02.

Ihe odide[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] "Onye ọsụ ụzọ na-agba ịnyịnya". BTO News Nke 122, peeji nke 8. 
  • [Ihe e dere n'ala ala peeji] "Ebe Ringing Registers nke Mahadum Aberdeen Bird-Migration Inquiry". Ịkpọ ụbọ akwara na ịkwaga mba ọzọ 4: 148.
  • Martin-Löf (1961). "Mortality rate calculations on ringed birds with special reference to the Dunlin Calidris alpina". Arkiv för Zoologi 13 (21). 

Njikọ mpụga[dezie | dezie ebe o si]