Ọgbakọ Otú United Nations Fremewok maka Ngbanwe Iru igwe

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Ọgbakọ Ukwu Nke United 22² Nations maka Ngbanwe Ịrụ igwe hiwere nkwekọrịta gburugburu ebe obibi nke mba ụwa iji luso "ntụnye aka dị n ize ndụ nke ụmụ mmadụ na usoro ihu igwe ", n' otu akụkụ Drsite na ịkwado mkpokọta gas griin na ikuku. [1] Mba dị otú narị na iri ịse na anọ bịanyere aka na ya na ogbako Mba ndị nọ n 'Otu United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), nke a na-akpọkarị Nzukọ mba Ụwa, nke emere na Rio de Janeiro site na abali atọ rue abalị iri na anọ nke ọnwa Junn n' afọ otu puku, narị itolu na iri itolu na abụọ. O hiwere isi ụlọ ọrụ Sekteret na Bonn wee malite ọrụ n' ọzụzụ na mgbe ọnwa Maachị gbàrà nkpuru ubọchi iri abụo na otu n' afọ otu puku, nari itolu na iri itolu na anọ. [2] Nkwekọrịta ahụ na- akpọ maka nyoocha sayensị , n' ịnwe nzukọ mgbe nile, ngụkọta uche, mkparịta ụka,na nkwekọrịta nkwenyere na usoro ọdịnihu nke gburugburu ebe obibi ịnabata na ị kwenyere mgbanwe ịrụ ìgwè, iji hụ na iko pụta ìhè oriri enweghị ihe ọ bụla bụ ihe ị maka n' iru iji mee mkpụrụ ụbọchị ka usoro ihe mmepeụzo na akụ ụba na-aga n'ihu n'ụzọ kwesịrị ekwesị. [2] [3]

N' Ihe banyere Kyoto Ptotocol, nke a bịanyere aka na ya n' afọ otú puku, narị itoolu na iri itoolu na asaa, ma rụọ ọrụ malite na afọ puku abụọ na ise rue n' afọ puku abụọ na iri abụọ bụ nke mbụ mmejuputa usoro n'okpuru UNFCCC. Nkwekọrịta Paris dochie Protocol Kyoto, nke malitere na afọ puku abụọ na iri na isii [4]. Malite n' afọ puku abụọ na iri abụọ UNFCCC nwere pati steeti otú narị na iri itolu na asaa . Òtù na-eme mkpebi ya kachasị elu, bụ nzukọ nke Ndị otu (COP), na-ezukọ kwa afọ iji chọpụta ọganihu n'imeso mgbanwe ihu igwe. [5]

Nkwekọrịta ahụ wepụtara ọrụ dị iche iche maka mpaghara atọ nke mba ndị bịanyere aka n'akwụkwọ. Ndị a bụ mba ndị mepere emepe, mba ndị mepere emepe nwere ọrụ ego pụrụ iche na mba ndị nke ka na -emepe emepe . [3] Mba ndị mepere emepe, nke a na-akpọkwa mba Annex 1, nwere steeti iri atọ na asatọ na mbụ, iri na atọ n'ime ha bụ steeti Eastern Europe na mgbanwe ọchịchị onye kwuo uche ya n' akụ na ụba, azum ahịa, yana European Union . Ha niile bụ nke Òtù Na-ahụ Maka Njikọ Akụ na ụba na mmepe (OECD). A na-akpọ mba Annex (1) ka ha nakwere atumatu mba wee mee usoro Nkwekọrịta na mbelata mgbanwe iru igwe site na ịmachi ikuku na ikuku nke ikuku griin ha na ịkọ akụkọ usoro ewepụtara n'ebum n' obi nke ịlaghachi n'otu n'otu ma ọ bụ njikọtaọnụ na ọkwa ikuku nke afọ otu puku na narị itolu na iri itolu ha. [3] Mba ndị mepere emepe nwere ọrụ ego pụrụiche nke na-akpọkwa mba Annex II. Ha gụnyere mba Annex I niile ma ewezuga ndị na-agbanwe na ọchịchị onye kwuo uche ya na akụ n' ụba na ahịa. A na-akpọ mba Annex II ka ha weta ego tọrọ atọ na mgbakwunye ego iji gboo ụgwọ ndị mba ndị ka na-emepe emepe na-enweta na irube isi n'ọrụ ha imepụta ngwaahịa mba nke ihe ọkụkụ ha site na isi mmalite yana mwepụ ha site na sinks maka ikuku griin na-adịghị achịkwa nke Montreal Protocol . . [3] Mba ndị na-emepe emepe ga-ebufe ngwa ahịa ha n'aka ndị odeakwụkwọ UNFCCC. [3] N'ihi na steeti ndị isi bịanyere aka na ya anaghị erube isi na nkwa nke onye ọ bụla, a katọrọ UNFCCC dị ka enweghị ike ịga nke ọma n'ibelata ikuku carbon dioxide kemgbe ejiri hiwe ya. [6]

Nkwekọrịta[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Emepụtara ederede nke ọgbakọ Fremewok n'oge nzukọ nke Kọmitii Mkparịta uka Ọchịchị na New York site na abalị iri atọ n' ọnwa Eprel ruo abalị itoolu nke ọnwa Mee na afọ otu puku, narị itoolu, iri itoolu na abụọ. A nakweere Ọgbakọ a n' abali itoolu na ọnwa Mee n' afọ otu puku, narị itoolu, iri itoolu na abụọ, wee mepee maka mbinye aka na abalị anọ nke ọnwa Junn na afọ otu puku, narị itoolu, iri itoolu na abụọ, nkea abịa nyere aka n' ya site n'aka Otú United Nations conferensi na Evironment na Development (UNCED) na Rio de Janeiro (nke aha ya na-ewu ewu, bụ Mba Ụwa Summit ). N' abalị iri na abụọ nke ọnwa junn na afọ otu puku, narị itoolu na iri itoolu na abụọ, mba otu narị na iri ise na anọ bịanyere aka na UNFCCC, nke na nkwado nke gọọmentị ndị mbinye aka kwadoro iji belata ikuku na ikuku nke ikuku griin na ebumnuche nke "igbochi nnyonye anya dị n' ize ndụ na usoro ihu igwe ụwa". Nkwenye a ga-achọ mbelata nke ukwuu na ikuku ikuku griin haus (lee akụkụ nke ọzọ, "Nkwụsi ike nke mkpokọta gas griin haus" ). [1] Ndị otu a na-ezukọ na ọgbakọ ahụ kwa afọ site na afọ nke otú na ọgbakọ nke Paties (COP) iji chọpụta ọganihu n'imeso mgbanwe ihu igwe . [5]

Nkeji edemede 3 (1) nke ọgbakọ a na-ekwu na ndị otu a kwesịrị ime ihe iji chebe usoro ihu igwe na ndabere nke "ọrụ nkịtị ha dị iche iche na ike dị iche iche", na mba ndị mepere emepe kwesịrị 'ibu ụzọ' n'ịgbasa mgbanwe ihu igwe. . N'okpuru edemede nke anọ ndị otu niile na-ekwe nkwa n'ozuzu ha iji lebara mgbanwe ihu igwe anya site, dịka ọmụmaatụ, mbelata mgbanwe ihu igwe na ime mgbanwe maka mmetụta mgbanwe ihu igwe ga-emesịa. Nkeji edemede 4 (7) kwuru:

Ogologo mba ndị na-emepe emepe ga-emejuputa nkwa ha nke ọma n'okpuru nkwekọrịta ahụ ga-adabere na mmejuputa nke ọma site na mba ndị mepere emepe Parties nke nkwa ha n'okpuru nkwekọrịta nke metụtara akụ ego na ịnyefe nkà na ụzụ ma ga-eburu n'uche na mmepe akụ na ụba na mmekọrịta ọha na eze. na mkpochapụ ịda ogbenye bụ ihe mbụ na ihe kacha mkpa nke mba ndị na-emepe emepe Pati.

Nkwekọrịta Fremewok ahụ na-akọwapụta ebumnobi nke Annex I Paties na-eme ka ikuku na ikuku griin haus guzosie ike ( carbon dioxide na gas ndị ọzọ anthropogenic griin haus anaghị ahazi n'okpuru (Montreal Protocol) na okpuru otú puku, narị itoolu na iri itoolu ka ọ na-erule afọ puku abụọ .

"UNFCCC" bụkwa aha nke United Nations Secreteretna-ahụ maka ịkwado ọrụ nke ọgbakọ ahụ, na ụlọ ọrụ dị na Haus Carstanjen, na UN Campus (nke amaara dị ka Langer Eugen ) na Bonn, Germany . Site na afọ puku abụọ na iri ruo n' afọ puku abụọ na iri na isii onye isi nke odeakwụkwọ bụ Christiana Figueres . Na ọnwa Julaị afọ puku abụọ na iri na isii, Patricia Espinosa meriri Figueres. Ụlọ ọrụ Secretariat, nke agbakwunyere site na nyirịta mbọ nke Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), bu n'obi inweta nkwenye site na nzụkọ na nkparịta ụka nke atụmatụ dị iche iche. Kamgbe ebi nyere aka na nkwekọrịta UNFCCC, ọgbakọ ndị otu (COPs) atụlewo ka a ga-esi mezuo ebumnuche nkwekọrịta ahụ.

Kyoto Protocol[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

  Nzukọ nke mbụ nke ndị otu (COP-1) kpebiri na ebumnuche nke Annex I Parties na-eme ka ikuku ha guzosie ike bụ ụkpụrụ nfesasi na afọ otú puku, narị itoolu na iri itoolu, na afọ puku abụọ nfesasi

bụ "ezughị oke", na nmkparịta ụka ndịọzọọ na nnọkọ ndị ọzọ mere ka ehiwe Kyoto Protocol na afọ otú puku, narị itoolu na iri itoolu na asaa . E kwubiri na Kyoto Protocol wee guzobe ọrụ na-ejikọta iwu n'okpuru iwu mba ụwa, maka mba ndị mepere emepe iji belata ikuku na ikuku griin ha n'ime afọ puku abụọ na asatọ rue na afọ puku abụọ na iri na abụọ [5] Ogbako mgbanwe ihu igwe nke United Nations nke afọ puku abụọ na iri weputara nkwekọrịta na-ekwupụta na okpomoku zuru ụwa ọnụ n'ọdịnihu ga-ejedebe n'okpuru 2. Celsius C (3.6 °F) n'ihe gbasara ọkwa ụlọ ọrụ.

Protocol Kyoto nwere oge nkwa abụọ, nke mbụ sitere na afọ puku abụọ na asatọ ruo na afọ puku abụọ na iri na abụọ. Emeziri ụkpụrụ ahụ na afọ puku abụọ na iri abụọ ka ọ gbasaa nke abụọ maka oge afọ puku abụọ na iri na atọ ruo na afọ puku abụọ na iri abụọ na Ndezigharị Doha. [7]

Otu n'ime ọrụ mbụ UNFCCC tọhapụrụ bụ maka mba ndị bịanyere aka n'akwụkwọ nkwado ka ha guzobe akụrụngwa ikuku griin haus (GHG) na mwepụ na mkpochapụ, nke ejiri mepụta ọkwa benchimak na afọ otú puku, narị itoolu na iri itoolu, maka ịbanye mba Annex I na Protocol Kyoto na maka ntinye aka nke mba ndị ahụ na mbelata GHG. Mba Annex I ga-etinyerịrị ngwa ahịa e mepụtara kwa afọ.

United States of Amerika akwadoghị Kyoto Protocol, ebe Canada katọrọ ya na afọ puku abụọ na iri na abụọ. Ndị ọzọ niile nke Annex I ọzọ kwadoro Protocol Kyoto.

Ndị otu Annex I niile, ewezuga Mba United States of Amerika sonyere na oge nkwado Kyoto nke mbụ. Obodo iri ato na asaa na Mba Annex I na European Union kwenyere na mbuso Kyoto agba nke abụọ. Mba ndị a bụ Australia, ndị niile so na European Union, Belarus, Iceland, Kazakhstan, Norway, Switzerland, na Ukraine. Belarus, Kazakhstan na Ukraine kwuru na ha nwere ike ịpụ na Protocol ma ọ bụ ghara itinye n'ike iwu ndezigharị na ebumnuche nke abụọ. Japan, New Zealand na Rọshịa sonye na agba nke mbụ nke Kyoto mana ha etinyeghị ebumnobi ọhụrụ n'ime oge nkwa nke abụọ. Mba ndị ọzọ mepere emepe na-enweghị ebumnuche agba nke abụọ bụ Canada (nke wepụrụ na Protocol Kyoto na afọ puku abụọ na iri na abụọ na United States.

Mba niile fọdụrụ na-eso na Protocol Kyoto zutere ebumnobi oge mbụ ha chọrọ. [8]

Nkwukọrịta nke mba na mba[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

"Nkwukọrịta mba" bụ ndị akụkụ nke mba ndị kwadoro nkwekọrịta United Nations Fremework Convention na Climate Change (UNFCCC) nyefere. [9] Achọrọ mba ndị mepere emepe ka ha nyefee nkpakorita ụka mba na mba kwa afọ anọ na mba ndị na-emepe emepe kwesịrị ime ya. [10] [11] [12] Ụfọdụ mba ndị dị nta n' imepe emepe n'ime afọ ise rue na afọ iri na ise gara aga, [13] n'ihi oke ike.

Akụkọ nzikọrịta ozi mba na mba adịkarị ọtụtụ narị peeji n'ogologo wee kpuchie usoro obodo iji belata ikuku gas na-ekpo ọkụ yana nkọwa nke adịghị ike na mmetụta ya sitere na mgbanwe ihu igwe. [14] A na-akwado nzikọrịta ozi mba dịka ntuziaka nke ọgbakọ ndị otu na UNFCCC kwadoro. Ntụnye aka (NDC) nke mba dị iche iche bụ ntọala nke nkwekọrịta Paris dị mkpụmkpụ na obere nkọwa mana na-agbaso usoro ahaziri ahazi ma dabere na nyocha teknụzụ sitere n'aka ndị ọkachamara.

Nkwekọrịta Paris[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

 

Mgbapụta carbon dioxide zuru ụwa ọnụ site na ikike (dị ka nke 2015)

Ndị otu a zutere na Durban, South Africa n'afọ puku abụọ na iri na otu wee kwupụta "oke nchegbu" na mbọ a na-eme iji belata okpomoku zuru ụwa ọnụ na-erughị 2 ma ọ bụ 1.5 Celsius C, n'ihe gbasara ụkpụrụ ụlọ ọrụ tupu ụlọ ọrụ, pụtara ezughị oke. Ha kwadoro iwepụta nsonaazụ ekwenyela na ikike iwu n'okpuru Mgbakọ dị n'akụkụ niile.

Na afọ puku abụọ na iri na ise UN Climate Change Conference na Paris n'oge ahụ otu narị na iri itoolu na isii pati kwetara ime ka ikpo ọkụ zuru ụwa ọnụ na-erughị 2. Celsius C, ma gbalịa ịmachi mmụba na 1.5 Celsius C. [15] [7] Nkwekọrịta nke Paris batara na abalị anọ nke Novemba, n' afọ puku abụọ na iri na isii na mba ndị kwadoro Nkwukọrịta na mba ndị ọzọ kwadoro Nkwekọrịta kemgbe.

Ntụnye ekpebiela n'obodo[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

  Na nnọkọ nke iri na itoolu nke Nzukọ nke ndị otu na Warsaw na afọ puku abụọ na iri na atọ , UNFCCC mepụtara usoro maka ntinye aka na-ekpebisi ike nke mba (INDCs) na-aga n'ihu na nnọkọ nke iri abụọ na otu nke Nzukọ nke Paties na Paris (COP21). na afọ puku abụọ na iri na ise . [16] Enyere mba dị iche iche nnwere onwe na mgbanwe iji hụ na mbelata mgbanwe ihu igwe ndị a na atụmatụ imeghari dabara adaba na mba. [17] Mgbanwe a, ọkachasị gbasara ụdị omume a ga-eme, nyere mba ndị ka n' emepe emepe ohere ịhazi atụmatụ ha dabere na mkpa mgbanwe ha na mbelata ha, yana maka mkpa ndị ọzọ.

"Foto ezinụlọ" nke Greenpeace haziri, n'ọnụ ụzọ United Nations, nke nwere ọkọlọtọ na-agụ "Anyị ga-aga n'ihu"

N'ikpeazụ nke COP21, ndị INDC ndị a ghọrọ Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) ka obodo ọ bụla kwadoro Nkwekọrịta Paris, ma ọ bụrụ na edobere NDC ọhụrụ n'aka UNFCCC n'otu oge ahụ. [18] Nzukọ nke iri abụọ na abụọ nke Nzukọ nke Ndị otu (COP22) na Marrakesh lekwasịrị anya na ntinye aka nke mba ndị a na mmejuputa ha, mgbe nkwekọrịta Paris malitere na abalị anọ nke ọnwa Novemba na afọ puku abụọ na iri na isii . [19]

Ihe banyere Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN) kere ntuziaka maka mmejuputa NDC, maka ojiji nke ndị na-eme mkpebi na mba ndị mepere emepe. N'ime ntuziaka a, CDKN chọpụtara ọtụtụ nsogbu mba na-enwekarị na mmejuputa NDC, gụnyere otu esi eme:

  • wulite mmata maka mkpa, na abamuru nke ime ihe n'etiti ndị na-eme ihe, gụnyere ndị isi gọọmentị;
  • isi na itinye mgbanwe ihu igwe n'ime usoro nhazi na mmepe obodo;
  • wuzie njikọ dị n'etiti atụmatụ ọchịchị mba na mba na mgbanwe ihu igwe;
  • wulite ikike iji nyochaa, ịzụlite na nmejuputa atumatu ihu igwe;
  • guzobe iwu maka ịhazi ihe omume gburu gburu NDC na ịkwọ ụgbọ ala mmejuputa ha; na
  • dozie ihe mgbochi akụrụngwa maka ịzụlite na nmejuputa atumatu mgbanwe ihu igwe. [20]

Mkpebi ndị ọzọ[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Na mgbakwunye na Protocol Kyoto (na mmezi ya) na nkwekọrịta Paris, ndị otu na Convention ekwenyela na ha ga-emekwu nkwa n'oge ọgbakọ UNFCCC nke ndị otu. Ndị a gụnyere Bali Action Plan nke afọ puku abụọ na asaa , ya na Copenhagen Accord nke afọ puku abụọ na itoolu , nkwekọrịta Cancún nke afọ puku abụọ na iri abụọ , na Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (puku abụọ na iri na abụọ ).

Atụmatụ mmemme Bali

Dị ka akụkụ nke Bali Action Plan, nakweere na afọ puku abụọ na asaa, mba niile mepere emepe Parties ekwenyela na " quantified emission mmachi na mbelata ebumnobi, na-ahụ na ntunyere nke mgbalị n'etiti ha, na-eburu n'uche ihe d'iche iche n' akpa ha n' ọnọdụ." Ndị otu mba na-emepe emepe kwenyere na "[mba] n'ime usoro mbelata kwesịrị ekwesị nke ọnọdụ mmepe na-adigide, nke teknụzụ na-akwado ma na-enyere aka site na nkà na ụzụ, ego na iwulite ikike, n'ụzọ enwere ike ịlele, nke a na-akọ na nke a pụrụ ịdabere na ya." [21] Mba iri anọ na abụọ mepere emepe enyefela ebumnuche mbelata n'aka ndị odeakwụkwọ UNFCCC, Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; refs with no name must have content dị rụrụ mba iri ise na asaa na-emepe emepe na Group Africa (otu mba dị na United N). Kpọpụta njehie: Invalid <ref> tag; refs with no name must have content

Nkwekọrịta Copenhagen na Cancún

Dị ka akụkụ nke mkparịta ụka nke afọ puku abụọ na itoolu n' afọ puku abụọ na itoolu Copenhagen, ọtụtụ mba mepụtara nkwekọrịta Copenhagen. Nkwekọrịta ahụ kwuru na okpomoku zuru ụwa ọnụ kwesịrị ịbụ n'okpuru 2.0 Celsius C (3.6 °F). [22] Nkwekọrịta ahụ akọwapụtaghị ihe ntọala bụ maka ebumnuche ọnọdụ okpomọkụ ndị a (dịka ọmụmaatụ, gbasara tupu ụlọ ọrụ ma ọ bụ okpomọkụ nke afọ otu puku, narị itoolu na iri itoolu. (di ka UNFCCC si kwuo) , ebumnuche ndị a na-emetụta ọnọdụ okpomọkụ tupu ụlọ ọrụ.

Mba otu narị na iri na anọ kwetara na nkwekọrịta ahụ. Ndị odeakwụkwọ UNFCCC na-ekwu na "Ụfọdụ ndị otu ... kwuru na nzikọrịta ozi ha nye ndị odeakwụkwọ nkọwa gbasara ọdịdị nke nkwekọrịta ahụ na ihe ndị metụtara ya, dabere na nke ha kwenyeworo na [Accord]." Ọgbakọ nke otu dị iche iche anabataghị nkwekọrịta ahụ. Kama, ndị COP "debanyere nkwekọrịta Copenhagen." [22]

Dịka akụkụ nke nkwekọrịta ahụ, ndị otu mba iri na asaa mepere emepe na EU- iri abụọ na na asaa nyefere ebumnuche mbelata, dị ka otu mba iri anọ na ise na-emepe emepe mere. Ụfọdụ mba ndị na-emepe emepe kwuru mkpa ọ dị maka nkwado mba ụwa na atụmatụ ha.

Dịka akụkụ nke nkwekọrịta Cancún, mba ndị mepere emepe na ndị na-emepe emepe nyefere atụmatụ mbelata na UNFCCC. Ejikọtara atụmatụ ndị a na ndị emere dịka akụkụ nke atụmatụ Bali Action Plan.

Mgbapụta Ọsọ-na-efu nke otu United Nations

Na nzukọ kwa afọ nke puku abụọ na iri abụọ na otu (UNFCCC) weputara 'UN Race-to- Zero Emissions Breakthroughs'. Ebum n' uche nke mgbasa ozi a bụ ịgbanwe ngalaba iri abụọ nke akụ na ụba iji nweta ikuku na ikuku griin na efu. Opekatampe iri percent abụọ nke ngalaba ọ bụla kwesịrị ịme usoro akọwapụtara, yana ngalaba iri kwesịrị ịgbanwe tupu COP<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwAQg"> </span>26 na Glasgow. Dị ka ndị nhazi ahụ si kwuo, iri percent abụọ bụ ihe nkwụsịtụ, mgbe nke ahụ gasịrị, akụkụ ahụ dum na-amalite ịgbanwe agbanwe. [23] [24]

Mba ndị na-emepe emepe

Na Berlin, Cancún, na Durban, e kwughachiri mkpa mmepe nke otu mba na-emepe emepe. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, Durban Platform kwadoro na: [25] [...] Ihe na nbawanye nke akụ n'ụba na mkpochapụ nke ubiam bụ nke mbụ ya na ọkacha kacha na ọchịchọ nke ọganiru nke mba Paties nke oganiru n' obodo o n' emepe emepe nke Paties ke na enwemaghiusoro nke opupu nke bụ isi nyere idebe ọganiru ya na nkekorita nke opupu nke ụwa niile geto wee zute ihe atụrụ anya na aka ya na nmepe na otuto.

Ntụgharị asụsụ aticlu (2)[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

 

Ebumnobi kachasị nke ọgbakọ Fremewok bụ "nkwụsi ike nke mkpokọta gas na-ekpo ọkụ na ikuku ọjọọ nke ga-egbochi nnyonye anya dị ize ndụ anthropogenic [ya bụ, mmadụ kpatara] na usoro ihu igwe". [1] Nkeji edemede 2 nke mgbakọ ahụ na-ekwu na nke a "kwesịrị ime n'ime oge zuru ezu iji mee ka usoro ihe ndị dị ndụ na-agbanwe agbanwe na mgbanwe ihu igwe, iji hụ na mmepụta nri agaghị agwu na iji mee ka mmepe akụ na ụba na-aga n'ihu n'ụzọ kwesịrị ekwesị". [1]

Iji mee ka mkpokọta GHG dị na mbara igwe kwụsie ike, ihe ọkụkụ GHG nke mmadụ zuru ụwa ọnụ ga-arị elu wee daa (lee mbelata mgbanwe ihu igwe ). Ọkwa nkwụsi ike dị ala ga-achọ ka ikuku ga-arị elu ma daa na mbụ ma e jiri ya tụnyere ọkwa nkwụsi ike dị elu. [26] Eserese dị n'elu na-egosi mgbanwe a tụrụ anya na mwepụta GHG zuru ụwa ọnụ kwa afọ (atụnyere na CO 2 -dakọrọ) maka ọnọdụ nkwụsi ike dị iche iche. Eserese abụọ ndị ọzọ na-egosi mgbanwe ndị emetụtara na mkpokọta GHG ikuku (na CO 2 -equivalents) yana ọnọdụ okpomọkụ zuru ụwa ọnụ maka ọnọdụ ndị a. A na-ejikọta ọkwa nkwụsi ike dị ala na ogo dị ala nke okpomoku zuru ụwa ọnụ ma e jiri ya tụnyere ọkwa nkwụsi ike dị elu. [26]

Enwere ejighị n'aka maka otú mkpokọta GHG na okpomọkụ zuru ụwa ọnụ ga-esi gbanwee na nzaghachi nke ikuku anthropogenic (lee nzaghachi mgbanwe ihu igwe na mmetụta ihu igwe ). Eserese nke dị iche na-egosi mgbanwe okpomọkụ zuru ụwa ọnụ n'afọ 2100 maka ọtụtụ ọnọdụ ikuku, gụnyere atụmatụ ejighị n'aka.

nnyonye anya anthropogenic dị ize ndụ 

Enwere echiche dịgasị iche iche maka ọkwa mgbanwe ihu igwe dị ize ndụ. Nyocha sayensị nwere ike inye ozi gbasara ihe ize ndụ nke mgbanwe ihu igwe, mana ikpebi ihe ize ndụ dị ize ndụ chọrọ ikpe ikpe bara uru.

Okpomọkụ zuru ụwa ọnụ nke merelarị na-etinye ihe ize ndụ nye ụfọdụ sistemu mmadụ na eke (dịka ọmụmaatụ, coral reefs). Oke okpomoku zuru ụwa ọnụ ga-abawanye ohere nke mmetụta ọjọọ. Dị ka Field et al. (2014), [27] ihe egwu mgbanwe ihu igwe bụ "dị oke egwu" yana 1 ruo 2 Celsius C nke okpomoku zuru ụwa ọnụ, dabere na ọkwa ụlọ ọrụ tupu ụlọ ọrụ. 4 Okpomọkụ Celsius C ga-eduga n'ihe egwu dị elu nke ukwuu, yana mmetụta ndị nwere ike ime gụnyere mfu nke ụdị ndụ dị iche iche yana ibelata nchekwa nri zuru ụwa ọnụ na mpaghara. [27]

Amụma mgbanwe ihu igwe nwere ike ibute ụgwọ ndị metụtara isiokwu 2. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, atumatu siri ike iji chịkwaa ikuku GHG nwere ike ibelata ihe ize ndụ nke mgbanwe ihu igwe ka njọ, mana ọ nwekwara ike ịdị oke ọnụ iji mejuputa ya.

Atụmatụ

Enwere nnukwu ejighị n'aka maka mgbanwe ga-eme n'ọdịnihu na ikuku GHG anthropogenic, oke ikuku GHG, na mgbanwe ihu igwe jikọtara ya. Na-enweghị atumatu mbelata, ịba ụba ume ike na iji mmanụ ọkụ eme ihe nke ukwuu nwere ike ibute okpomoku zuru ụwa ọnụ (na 2100) nke 3.7 ruo 4.8 Celsius C dabere na ọkwa ụlọ ọrụ tupu ụlọ ọrụ (2.5 ruo 7.8 Celsius C gụnyere ejighị n'aka ihu igwe).

Iji nwee ohere nke ịmachi okpomoku zuru ụwa ọnụ (na 2100) ka ọ dị n'okpuru 2 Celsius C, mkpokọta GHG ga-adị mkpa ka amachi ya na gburugburu 450 ppm CO 2 -eq. Ọnọdụ dị ugbu a nke ikuku n' ikuku zuru ụwa ọnụ adịghị ka ọ dabara na ịmachi okpomoku zuru ụwa ọnụ n'okpuru 1.5 ma ọ bụ 2 Celsius C.

Ụkpụrụ ịkpachapụ anya[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'ime mkpebi, a na-atụle ụkpụrụ ịkpachara anya mgbe achọpụtara ihe omume dị ize ndụ, enweghị mgbagha, ma ọ bụ ọdachi, mana nyocha sayensị nke nwere ike imebi ejighị n'aka (Toth et al ., 2001, p. 655–656). [28] Ụkpụrụ ịkpachara anya na-egosi imesi ike na mkpa ọ dị igbochi mmetụta ọjọọ dị otú ahụ.

Ejikọtara ejighị n'aka na njikọ ọ bụla nke ihe kpatara mgbanwe ihu igwe. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, ikuku GHG n'ọdịnihu bụ ihe a na-ejighị n'aka, dịkwa ka mmebi mgbanwe ihu igwe dị. Agbanyeghị, n'ịgbaso ụkpụrụ akpachara anya, ejighị n'aka abụghị ihe kpatara enweghị ọrụ, nke a na-ekwenye na Nkeji edemede 3.3 nke UNFCCC (Toth et al ., 2001, p. 656). [28]

Ndị otu[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ndị otu UNFCCC

  N'ihe dị ka afọ 2015, UNFCCC nwere pati 197 gụnyere mba ndị otu United Nations niile, United Nations General Assembly observer State of Palestine, UN na-abụghị ndị otu Niue na Cook Islands na European Union supranational Union. [29] [30] Holy See abụghị onye otu, kama ọ bụ onye na-ekiri ihe. [30]

Nhazi nke ndị otu na nkwa ha[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

A na-ekewa ndị otu UNFCCC dị ka:

  • Annex I : Enwere akụkụ 43 na UNFCCC depụtara na Annex I nke mgbakọ ahụ, gụnyere European Union. [31] A na-ekewa akụkụ ndị a dị ka mba mepere emepe (mepụtara) yana " akụnụba na mgbanwe " (EITs). 14 EIT bụ akụ na ụba nke Russia na Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ Europe echerebu ( Soviet ).
  • Annex II : N'ime nnọkọ ndị e depụtara na mgbakwunye I nke mgbakọ ahụ, e dekwara 24 na Annex II nke mgbakọ ahụ, gụnyere European Union. Ndị otu a bụ ndị otu Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD): Ndị otu a bụ ndị otu OECD na 1992 ma ewezuga Turkey, yana EU. A na-achọ ka Annex II Parties inye nkwado ego na nka na ụzụ EIT na mba ndị ka na -emepe emepe iji nyere ha aka ibelata ikuku ikuku griin ha (mbelata mgbanwe ihu igwe) na jikwaa mmetụta nke mgbanwe ihu igwe ( mgbanwe mgbanwe ihu igwe ). [32]
  • Mba ndị kacha emepe emepe (LDC): Ndị otu 49 bụ LDCs, a na-enyekwa ha ọkwa pụrụ iche n'okpuru nkwekọrịta ahụ n'ihi oke ikike ha nwere ime mgbanwe na mmetụta nke mgbanwe ihu igwe. [32]
  • Ndị na-abụghị Annex I : Ndị otu UNFCCC edepụtaghị na Annex I nke mgbakọ ahụ bụ mba ndị na-emepe emepe nwere obere ego . [32] Mba ndị na-emepe emepe nwere ike wepụta onwe ha ka ha bụrụ mba Annex I mgbe ha mepụtara nke ọma.

Ndepụta oriri na ọṅụṅụ[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

obodo ndị nọ na Annex I[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Enwere 43 Annex I Paties gụnyere European Union. [31] A na-ekewa mba ndị a dị ka mba mepere emepe na akụ na ụba na mgbanwe. N'ime ndị a, 24 bụ Annex II Paties, gụnyere European Union, na 14 bụ Economy na Transition.

Ndị otu: Annexes, EU, OECD, EITs [33]

Nzukọ nke ndị otu Paties[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

  Nzukọ mgbanwe ihu igwe nke United Nations bụ ọgbakọ ndị a na-eme kwa afọ n'usoro nke UNFCCC. Ha na-eje ozi dị ka nzukọ nzukọ nke UNFCCC Parties ( Conferences of the Parties ) (COP) iji chọpụta ọganihu n'imeso mgbanwe ihu igwe, na malite n'etiti 1990s, iji kparịta usoro Kyoto iji guzobe ọrụ iwu kwadoro maka mba ndị mepere emepe. belata ikuku ikuku ikuku ha. [5] Ebe ọ bụ na 2005 ọgbakọ ndị ahụ na-ejekwa ozi dị ka Nzukọ nke Parties of the Kyoto Protocol (CMP) na ebe ọ bụ na afọ puku abụọ na iri na isii ka ọgbakọ a na-ejekwa ozi dị ka Nzukọ nke Parties na Paris Agreement (CMA).

Emere ọgbakọ mbụ nke (COP1) na afọ otu puku, narị itoolu na iri itoolu na ise na Berlin. Emere ọgbakọ nke 3 (COP3) na Kyoto wee rụpụta ụkpụrụ Kyoto, nke emeziri n'oge ọgbakọ Doha na afọ puku abụọ na iri na abụọ (COP18, CMP 8). Emere ọgbakọ COP21 (CMP11) na Paris wee rụpụta nnabata nke Agreement Paris . Emere COP26 (CMA3) na Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom .

Òtù enyemaka[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Otu enyemaka bụ kọmitii na-enyere ọgbakọ ndị otu a aka. Ndị enyemaka gụnyere: [34]

  • Na-adịgide adịgide:
    • Òtù enyemaka nke ndụmọdụ sayensị na nkà na ụzụ (SBSTA) bụ nke edemede 9 nke mgbakọ ahụ hiwere iji nye ọgbakọ nke ndị otu na, dịka o kwesịrị ekwesị, ndị enyemaka ya ndị ọzọ nwere ozi oge na ndụmọdụ gbasara sayensị na nkà na ụzụ gbasara mgbakọ ahụ. Ọ na-eje ozi dị ka njikọ n'etiti ozi na ntule nyere site ọkachamara isi mmalite (dị ka IPCC) na COP, nke na-elekwasị anya na ịtọ atumatu.
    • Ndị enyemaka nke mmejuputa iwu (SBI) na-eguzobe site na Nkeji edemede 10 nke mgbakọ ahụ iji nyere ọgbakọ nke ndị otu aka aka na nyocha na nyocha nke mmejuputa iwu nke ọma. Ọ na-enye ndụmọdụ gbasara amụma na okwu mmejuputa iwu na COP yana, ọ bụrụ na achọrọ ya, nye ndị otu ndị ọzọ.
  • Nwa oge:
    • Otu Ad hoc na edemede 13 (AG13), na-arụ ọrụ site na 1995 ruo 1998;
    • Otu Ad hoc na iwu Berlin (AGBM), na-arụ ọrụ site na 1995 ruo 1997;
    • Otu Ad Hoc na-arụ ọrụ na nkwa ndị ọzọ maka ndị ọzọ Mgbakwunye n'okpuru Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP), nke ndị otu na-ahụ maka Kyoto kwadoro na 2005 iji tụlee nkwa ndị ọzọ nke mba ndị mepere emepe n'okpuru Protocol Kyoto maka oge gafere 2012; ọ kwụsịrị ọrụ ya na 2012 mgbe CMP nakweere Ndezigharị Doha ; [35]
    • Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action (AWG-LCA), nke e hibere na Bali na 2007 iji duzie mkparita uka banyere nkwekorita mba uwa siri ike banyere mgbanwe ihu igwe;
    • Ad Hoc Working Group na Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP), nke e guzobere na COP 17 na Durban na 2011 "iji mepụta ụkpụrụ, ngwá ọrụ iwu ọzọ ma ọ bụ ihe nkwekọrịta kwadoro na ikike iwu n'okpuru nkwekọrịta dị n'akụkụ niile." [36] ADP kwubiri ọrụ ya na Paris na 5 Disemba 2015. [37]
UN Campus, Bonn, oche nke odeakwụkwọ

Ọrụ n'okpuru UNFCCC bụ onye odeakwụkwọ dị na Bonn, Germany kwadoro ya. E hiwere odeakwụkwọ n'okpuru edemede asatọ nke ọgbakọ ahụ. Ọ bụ onye odeakwụkwọ ukwu na-eduzi ya. Onye odeakwụkwọ ukwu nke ugbu a, Patricia Espinosa, ahọpụtara na abalị iri na asatọ nke ọnwa Mee na afọ puku abụọ na iri na isii.

site n'aka odeakwụkwọ ukwu nke United Nations bụ Ban Ki-moon wee were ọrụ na na abalị iri na asatọ nke ọnwa Julaị n' afọ puku abụọ na iri isii. [38] Ọ nọchiri Christiana Figueres onye ji ọfịs kemgbe afọ puku abụọ na iri . Ndị ode akwụkwọ nchịkwa mbụ bụ Yvo de Boer site na afọ puku abụọ na isii ruo na afọ puku abụọ na iri, Joke Waller-Hunter n' afọ puku abụọ na abụọ ruo na afọ puku abụọ na ise na Michael Zammit Cutajar na afọ otu puku na ise ruo na afọ puku abụọ na abụọ.

Ihe Omume maka ike ihu igwe[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

  Ihe omume maka ike ihu igwe.bụ okwu UNFCCC nakweere n'afọ puku abụọ na iri na ise, inwe aha dị mma maka isiokwu a karịa "Akụkụ 6". Ọ na-ezo aka na Nkeji edemede 6 nke ihe odide mbụ nke ọgbakọ ahụ na afọ otu puku, narị itoolu na iri itoolu na abụọ , na-elekwasị anya n'akụkụ isii dị mkpa: agụmakwụkwọ, ọzụzụ, mmata ọha na eze, ntinye aka ọha na eze, ohere ọhaneze nweta ozi, na nkwado mba ụwa n'okwu ndị a. Achọpụtala mmejuputa mpaghara isii niile dị ka ihe dị mkpa maka onye ọ bụla ịghọta na isonye na idozi nsogbu ndị mgbanwe ihu igwe na-eweta. ACE na-akpọ gọọmentị ka ha zụlite ma mejuputa mmemme mmụta na ọha mmadụ, zụọ ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị, ndị ọrụ aka na njikwa, kwalite ohere ịnweta ozi, na ịkwalite nsonye ọha na eze n'ịgbasa mgbanwe ihu igwe na mmetụta ya. Ọ na-agbakwa mba dị iche iche ume ka ha gbakọọ aka na usoro a, site n'ịgbanwe omume ọma na nkuzi a mụtara na ịkwado ụlọ ọrụ mba. A n' eduzi ọtụtụ ọrụ a site n'ebumnobi dị iche iche nke, ọnụ, a n'ahụta dị ka ihe dị oke mkpa maka imejuputa mgbanwe ihu igwe nke ọma na omume mbelata, yana iji nweta ebumnobi kachasị nke UNFCCC.[39]

Ozi dị gbasara nkwa ndị a[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

[40]Na afọ puku abụọ na iri na anọ, UN na Peru na France kere Global Climate Action Portal NAZCA maka ide na ịlele nkwa ihu igwe niile. [41]

Nkọwa na nyocha[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Nkatọ nke usoro UNFCCC[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ufodu katọrọ nche anwụ na usoro niile nke UNFCCC na Kyoto Protocol a nakweere na ha enwetabeghị ebumnobi ha ekwuru na ibelata ikuku carbon dioxide (onye bụ isi na-ebute oke okpomọkụ zuru ụwa ọnụ na 21st senchuri. [6] N'okwu e nyere n'ụlọ akwụkwọ ya, Todd Stern - onye nnọchiteanya US mgbanwe ihu igwe - kwuputara ihe ịma aka ndị dị na usoro UNFCCC dị ka ndị a: "Mgbanwe ihu igwe abụghị ihe gbasara gburugburu ebe obibi. . . . Ọ na-emetụta ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ akụkụ nile nke akụ na ụba steeti, ya mere ọ n' eme ka mba dị iche iche na-atụ egwu maka uto na mmepe. Nke a bụ okwu gbasara akụ na ụba n'ihi na ọ bụ nke gburugburu ebe obibi." Ọ gara n'ihu kọwaa na United Nations Fremewok Convention on Climate Change bụ òtù dị iche iche na-eche banyere mgbanwe ihu igwe ma nwee ike bụrụ usoro na-adịghị arụ ọrụ maka ịmepụta amụma mba ụwa. N'ihi na usoro a gụnyere ihe karịrị mba otu narị na iri itoolu na n'ihi na a na-achịkwa mkparịta ụka site na nkwenye, obere ìgwè nke mba nwere ike igbochi ọganihu. [42]

Ọdịda iji nweta ọganihu bara uru na iru CO dị irè - ịbelata nkwekọrịta amụma n'etiti ndị otu ahụ n'ime afọ iri na asatọ gara aga emewo ka ụfọdụ mba dị ka United States kwụsị ịkwado nkwekọrịta kachasị mkpa nke UNFCCC - Kyoto Protocol - na nnukwu akụkụ n'ihi na Nkwekọrịta ahụ ekpuchighị mba ndị ka na-emepe emepe bụ nke gụnyere ugbu a nke kachasị ikuku CO . Otú ọ dị, nke a emeghị n'uche ma ọrụ akụkọ ihe mere eme maka mgbanwe ihu igwe kemgbe mmepụta ihe, nke bụ okwu esemokwu na mkparịta ụka, yana ọrụ maka ikuku sitere na oriri na mbubata ngwaahịa. [43] O mekwara ka Canada pụọ na Kyoto Protocol na afọ puku abụọ na iri na otu n'ihi ọchịchọ ịghara ime ka ụmụ amaala ya kwụọ ụgwọ ntaramahụhụ nke g' eme ka ebufe akụ na ụba na Canada. [44] Ma US na Canada na-eleba anya atụmatụ mbelata ihe ọkụkụ afọ ofufo dị n'ime iji gbochie ikuku carbon dioxide na-abụghị Usoro Kyoto. [45]


Echiche a na-eche na enweghi ọganihu emewokwa ka mba ụfọdụ chọọ na ilekwasị anya na ọrụ ndị ọzọ dị oke ọnụ ahịa dị ka ịmepụta nke Climate na Clean Air Coalition iji belata mmetọ ikuku na-adị mkpụmkpụ nke na-achọ ịchịkwa mmetọ ndị dị mkpirikpi dị ka methane, ojii . Carbon na hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), bụ ndị a kwenyere na ha ga aza ihe ruru otu n'ime uzo atọ nke okpomoku zuru ụwa ọnụ ugbu a mana nke iwu ya adịghị emejupụta na mmetụta na mmegide akụ na ụba buru ibu. [46]

Na afọ puku abụọ na iri , Japan kwuru na ọ gaghị edebanye aha ya na ọkwu abụọ nke Kyoto , n'ihi na ọ ga-amachibidoro ya n' abụghị ihu isi ya n'asọmpi akụ na ụba, China, India na Indonesia. [47] Onye isi ala New Zealand nyere ihe ngosi yiri nke ahụ na Nọvemba n' afọ puku abụọ na iri na abụọ. [48] Na ọgbakọ nke afọ puku abụọ na iri na abụọ , mmegide ikpeazụ nke nkeji na ọgbakọ nke Russia, Ukraine, Belarus na Kazakhstan leghaara ndị ọrụ nchịkwa anya, ha egosiwokwa na ha ga ewepụ ma ọ bụ ghara ịkwado nkwekọrịta ahụ. Nrụrụ aka ndị a na-etinyekwu nrụgide na usoro UNFCCC nke ụfọdụ n' ahụ dị ka ihe siri ike ma dị oke ọnụ: na UK naanị, ngalaba mgbanwe ihu igwe ejirila ụgbọ elu puku atọ n'ime afọ abụọ na-ere ihe karịrị £otu ijeri na narị puku atọ (British pounds sterling). [49]

Ọzọkwa, UNFCCC (karịsịa n'oge protocol Kyoto) emeghị ka ịnyefe teknụzụ dị mma gburugburu ebe obibi (SETs) nke bụ usoro eji ebelata adịghị ike nke agbụrụ mmadụ megide mmetụta adịghị mma nke mgbanwe ihu igwe. Otu n'ime ihe ndị a na-ejikarị bụ isi mmalite ume ọhụrụ. UNFCCC kere ahụ "usoro teknụzụ" nke ga-ekesa ihe ndị a na mba ndị ka na-emepe emepe; Otú ọ dị, nkesa a adịchaghị mma yana, ejikọtara ya na mmejọ nke nkwa mbụ ahụ Ediboglu. Effectiveness Analysis of the United Nations Climate Change Regime. university of Aberdeen. university of Aberdeen. Retrieved on 28 February 2018. "Ntụle arụmọrụ nke usoro mgbanwe ihu igwe nke United Nations" . mahadum nke Aberdeen . mahadum nke Aberdeen . eweghachiri 28 Febụwarị 2018 . oge nke Kyoto protocol, na-eduga na ọnụ ọgụgụ nkwenye dị ala maka ntinye aka nke abụọ (nke kpatara na ọ gaghị aga n'ihu).

Tupu 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, magazin <i id="mwAvI">National Geographic</i> gbakwụnyere na nkatọ ahụ, na-ede, sị: "Kemgbe 1992, mgbe mba ụwa kwetara na Rio de Janeiro iji zere 'nnyonye anya anthropogenic dị ize ndụ na usoro ihu igwe,' ha ezutewo ugboro 20. na-enweghị ịkwagharị agịga na ikuku carbon. N'ime oge ahụ, anyị atụkwasịla ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ carbon na ikuku dị ka anyị mere na narị afọ gara aga." [50]

Benchmarking[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Benchmarking bụ ntọala ebumnuche amụma dabere n'ụdị ntụaka ụfọdụ. Ọmụmaatụ nke benchmarking bụ ebumnuche mbụ UNFCCC nke Annex I Parties na-amachi ikuku ikuku griin ha na ọkwa 1990 n'afọ 2000. Goldemberg et al. (1996) kwuru banyere mmetụta akụ na ụba nke ebumnuche a. Ọ bụ ezie na ebumnuche ahụ metụtakwara otu akụkụ Annex I niile, ọnụ ahịa akụ na ụba nke imezu ebumnuche ahụ nwere ike ịdịgasị iche n'etiti ndị otu. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, mba ndị nwere ike ịrụ ọrụ ike dị elu na mbụ nwere ike ịhụ na ọ dị ọnụ ahịa iji mezuo ebumnuche karịa mba ndị nwere obere ike ịrụ ọrụ ike. Site n'echiche a, e nwere ike ile ebumnuche UNFCCC anya ka enweghị oke, ya bụ, ezighi ezi.

A tụlekwara Benchmarking n'ihe gbasara ebumnuche mgbanaka nke mbụ akọwapụtara na Protocol Kyoto (lee echiche na Protocol Kyoto na Protocol Kyoto na mmemme gọọmentị ).

Azụmahịa mba ụwa[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ndị ọkachamara na ndị ọkachamara n'ihe gbasara gburugburu ebe obibi katọrọ isiokwu nke 3(5) nke mgbakọ ahụ, nke na-ekwu na ekwesịrị izere usoro ihu igwe ọ bụla nke ga-egbochi azụmahịa mba ụwa.Àtụ:Citation needed

Ntinye aka nke ndi obodo[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ndị na-ahụ maka ọha na eze n'okpuru UNFCCC ahazila onwe ha n'otu ndị rụrụ arụ, na-ekpuchi ihe dịka 90% nke ụlọ ọrụ niile anabatara. Ụfọdụ otu na-anọpụ iche na-anọghị n'otu ndị a sara mbara, dị ka otu okwukwe ma ọ bụ ndị omeiwu nke mba. [51]

Aha Mbiri Ekwetara kemgbe
Ndị NGO nke azụmahịa na ụlọ ọrụ BINGO 1992
NGO gburugburu ebe obibi ENGO 1992
Ndị ọchịchị ime obodo na ndị ọchịchị obodo LGMA COP1 (1995)
Òtù ụmụ amaala IPO COP7 (2001)
Nyocha na ndị NGO nọọrọ onwe ha RINGO COP9 (2003)
NGO ndị otu ahia TUNGO Tupu COP 14 (2008)
Ụmụ nwanyị na okike WGC Obere oge tupu COP17 (2011)
NGO ndị ntorobịa YOUNGO Archived Obere oge tupu COP17 (2011)
Ndị ọrụ ugbo Ndị ọrụ ugbo (2014)
Aha Mbiri
Ụlọ ọrụ dabere na okwukwe Ndị FBO
Ọzụzụ na Nwube ikike na NGO dị iche iche ECONG
Ndị omeiwu

Àtụ:Portal

  • Sistemụ nlele ihu igwe zuru ụwa ọnụ
  • Ụkpụrụ ihu igwe
  • Ụgwọ ihu igwe
  • Omume onye ọ bụla na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na mgbanwe ihu igwe
  • Ndepụta nke nkwekọrịta gburugburu ebe obibi nke mba ụwa
  • Mkparịta ụka Post–Kyoto Protocol na mpụta ikuku griin haus
  • Nkwekọrịta Mba Ndị Dị n'Otu maka ịlụso ọzara ọgụ
  • Keeling usoro
  • Mpaghara Ndị na-eme ihe nkiri na-abụghị steeti maka ihe omume ihu igwe (NAZCA).

Ntụaka[mezie | dezie ebe o si]

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