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Ọrụ ọha na eze

Shí Wikipedia, njikotá édémédé nke onyobulạ
Ọrụ ọha na eze
industry, type of business
obere ụdị nkeazụmahịa Dezie
Akụkụ nkeama ukwu, tertiary sector of the economy Dezie
Ụlọ ọrụ mmepụta ihemunicipal or urban engineering, energy supply Dezie
mba/obodono value Dezie
mụrụ yaeconomics Dezie

Ụlọ uru na-ahụ maka Ọrụ ọha na eze (na-abụkarị naanị ọrụ) bụ nzukọ na-elekọta akụrụngwa maka ọrụ ọha (na-enyekarị ọrụ site na iji akụrụngwa ahụ). Ọrụ ọha na eze nọ n'okpuru ụdị nchịkwa na iwu ọha na eze site na otu ndị obodo na-achịkwa steeti niile.

Ebumnuche nke ụlọ ọrụ ọha na eze bụ ịnye ngwaahịa na ọrụ ndị a na-ewere dị ka ihe dị mkpa; mmiri, gas, ọkụ eletrik, ekwentị, mkpofu mkpofu, na usoro nkwukọrịta ndị ọzọ na-anọchite anya ọtụtụ n'ime ahịa ọha na eze. Usoro nnyefe eji eme njem eletrik, ma ọ bụ paịpụ gas sitere n'okike, nwere njirimara monopoly sitere n' okike. Otu onye nwere ike ime mgbe [1] chọtara ụzọ kachasị mma iji belata ọnụahịa ya site na akụ na ụba nke oke ruo n'ókè ebe ụlọ ọrụ ndị ọzọ na-enweghị ike ịsọ mpi na ya. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, ọ bụrụ na ọtụtụ ụlọ ọrụ na-enye ọkụ eletrik, ntinye ọzọ nke ụlọ ọrụ ọkụ eletrik ga-eme ka ndị na-azụ ahịa ghara ịdị mma ka ọnụahịa nwere ike ịbawanye. Ọ bụrụ na akụrụngwa adịlarị n'otu mpaghara, a na-enweta uru dị nta site na asọmpi. [2]'ikwu ya n'ụzọ ọzọ, ụlọ ọrụ ndị a na-eji akụ na ụba nke mmepụta mara. [3] bụ ezie na enwere ike ịkọwa na ndị ọrụ ọha na eze, ma ọ bụ ụlọ ọrụ na-anọchite anya gọọmentị, na-ahụ maka ma ọ bụ na-ele anya.

E nwere ọtụtụ ụdị ọrụ ọha na eze dị iche iche. Ụfọdụ, ọkachasị nnukwu ụlọ ọrụ, na-enye ọtụtụ ngwaahịa, dị ka ọkụ eletrik na gas sitere n'okike. Ụlọ ọrụ ndị ọzọ na-ahụ maka otu ngwaahịa, dị ka mmiri. Ọrụ ọha na eze nke oge a nwekwara ike ịnata akụkụ (ma ọ bụ kpamkpam) site na ike dị ọcha na nke a na-eme ka ọ dị ọhụrụ iji mepụta ọkụ eletrik na-adịgide adịgide. N'ime ndị a, turbines ifufe na panel anyanwụ bụ ndị a na-ejikarị eme ihe.

Ma ohere ịntanetị zuru oke kwesịrị ịbụ ihe enyemaka ọha na eze bụ ajụjụ a na-atụle na ịrị elu nke iji ịntanetị eme ihe. Nke a bụ ajụjụ a na-ajụ n'ihi na a na-ewere ọrụ ekwentị dị ka ọrụ ọha na eze. Ebe ọ bụ na enwere ike ịnweta ịntanetị na netwọk dị iche iche weghaara ọrụ ekwentị, ikekwe ọ kwesịrị ịbụ ọrụ ọha na eze. Federal Communications Commission [4] United States na 2015 mere ka nguzo ha n'okwu a doo anya. [5]'ihi na a na-ewere ọrụ ekwentị dị ka ọrụ ọha na eze, Federal Communications Commission mere ka ịnweta ịntanetị dị larịị bụrụ ọrụ ọha na United States.

Nchịkwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'akụkọ ihe mere eme, a na-ewere ọrụ ọha na eze dị ka ihe okike. Ụlọ [6] echiche a na-ekwu na ụzọ kachasị ọnụ ahịa nke ime azụmahịa bụ site na otu ụlọ ọrụ n'ihi na ndị a bụ azụmaahịa nwere nnukwu akụ na ụba na nnukwu ego na ọnụahịa dị elu metụtara iwu na ịrụ ọrụ akụrụngwa, dịka ụlọ ọrụ ike, eriri ekwentị na ụlọ ọrụ ọgwụ mmiri. Otú ọ dị, n'ime ọtụtụ iri afọ gara aga, ọnọdụ nchịkwa ọha na eze ọdịnala emebiwo. [7] ọmụmaatụ, ahịa mmepụta ọkụ eletrik, netwọk nnyefe eletrik, [1] ire ọkụ eletrik na nhọrọ ndị ahịa, [8] nkwukọrịta, ụdị ụfọdụ nke Njem ọha na eze na ọrụ nzipu ozi aghọwo asọmpi na mba ụfọdụ na omume na-aga n'ihu, mwepụ iwu na nkeonwe nke ọrụ ọha na eze. Otú ọ dị, akụrụngwa eji ekesa ọtụtụ ngwaahịa na ọrụ ndị ọrụ anọgidewo na-achịkwa n'ụzọ dị ukwuu.   [citation needed]

Ndị isi na ngalaba ọrụ ọha na eze gụnyere: [9]

  • Generators na-emepụta ma ọ bụ na-anakọta ngwaahịa a kapịrị ọnụ nke ndị ahịa ga-eji mee ihe: dịka ọmụmaatụ, ọkụ eletrik ma ọ bụ mmiri.
  • Ndị na-arụ ọrụ netwọk (ndị na-arụkọ ọrụ na netwọk, ndị na-arụpụta netwọk mpaghara, na ndị na-ahụ maka netwọk nkesa) na-ere ohere ịnweta netwọk ha na ndị na'ọrụ na-ere ahịa, ndị na'inye onye ọrụ ikpeazụ ngwaahịa ahụ.
  • Ndị na-ere ahịa na ndị na-ere ere na-azụta ma na-ere ngwaahịa ahụ n'ezie ma mepụta ngwaahịa ndị ọzọ dị mgbagwoju anya, ọrụ jikọtara ọnụ na ngwaahịa ndị sitere na ya. Dabere na nhazi ngwaahịa, ụlọ ọrụ ndị a nwere ike inye ọrụ na azụmaahịa ihe a pụrụ ịdabere na ya dị ka ọkụ eletrik na ọnụahịa a na-ahụ anya, ma ọ bụ oge dị mkpirikpi na ọnụahịa na-agbanwe agbanwe.
  • Ndị na-enye ọrụ na ndị na-ere ahịa bụ akụkụ ikpeazụ na usoro nnyefe, na-ere ozugbo na onye ahịa ikpeazụ. N'ahịa ụfọdụ, ndị na-ịzụ ahịa ikpeazụ nwere ike ịhọrọ onye na-eweta ọrụ ire ere nke ha.

Ego[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Nsogbu ndị ọrụ ọha na eze na-eche ihu gụnyere:

  • Mpaghara ọrụ: ndị na-achịkwa kwesịrị ịhazi mkpa akụ na ụba nke ụlọ ọrụ na ikpe ziri ezi nke ọha na eze dị mkpa iji hụ na onye ọ bụla nwere ike ịnweta Ọrụ ndị bụ isi.
  • Nnwere Onwe: Ịrụ ọrụ nke ọma na akụ na ụba chọrọ ka a hapụ ahịa ka ha rụọ ọrụ n'onwe ha na obere ntinye aka. Ọnọdụ ndị dị otú ahụ anaghị adịkarị mma maka ụfọdụ ndị na-azụ ahịa nwere ike ịpụ n'ahịa.
  • Ọnụahịa: Ikike chọrọ ka ụmụ amaala niile nweta ọrụ ahụ na ọnụahịa ziri ezi.

Alternative pricing methods include:[Tinye edensibịa]

  • Ọnụ ego mmepụta nkezi: onye ọrụ ahụ na-agbakọ ebe nkwụsịtụ ma setịpụ ọnụahịa hà ka ọnụahịa nkezi. A na-emeri nsogbu nke ikpe ziri ezi ebe ọ bụ na a na-ejere ọtụtụ ahịa ozi. Dị ka ntụpọ ụlọ ọrụ ndị a na-achịkwa enweghị ihe mkpali iji belata ụgwọ.
  • Nchịkwa nke nloghachi: ndị na-achịkwa na-ahapụ ụlọ ọrụ ka ha setịpụ ma kwụọ ụgwọ ọ bụla, ọ bụrụhaala na ọnụego nloghachi na ego etinye anaghị agafe ọnụego ụfọdụ. Usoro a na-agbanwe agbanwe ma na-enye ohere maka nnwere onwe ọnụahịa, na-amanye ndị na-achịkwa ileba anya na ọnụahịa. Ihe na-adịghị mma bụ na usoro a nwere ike iduga n'ịgabiga okwu ókè. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, ọ bụrụ na a setịpụrụ ọnụego nloghachi na pasent ise, mgbe ahụ ụlọ ọrụ ahụ nwere ike ịkwụ ụgwọ ọnụahịa dị elu site na itinye ego karịa ihe dị mkpa n'ezie (ya bụ, 5% nke nde $ 10 karịrị 5% nke nde dollar 6).  
  • Nchịkwa ọnụahịa: ndị na-achịkwa kpọmkwem setịpụrụ oke na ọnụahịa kachasị elu. Usoro a nwere ike ịkpata mfu nke ebe ọrụ. Otu Uru nke usoro a bụ na ọ na-enye ụlọ ọrụ ihe mkpali ịchọ teknụzụ na-ebelata ọnụahịa dị ka atụmatụ iji mụbaa uru.

[10] na-ewere ngwaahịa ndị bara uru dị ka itinye ego kwụsiri ike n'ihi na ha na-enyekarị Ndị nwere òkè ego mgbe niile ma nwee obere mgbanwe. Ọbụ[9] n'oge ọdịda akụ na ụba nke a na-ahụ site na ọnụego ọmụrụ nwa dị ala, ngwaahịa ndị dị otú ahụ na-adọrọ mmasị n'ihi na uru nke dividend na-adịkarị ukwuu karịa nke ngwaahịa ndị ọzọ, yabụ ngalaba ọrụ na-abụkarị akụkụ nke usoro ịzụta na ijide ogologo oge.

Ngwaọrụ chọrọ akụrụngwa dị oke ọnụ nke chọrọ mmezi na dochie anya mgbe niile. N'ihi ya, ụlọ ọrụ ahụ nwere nnukwu ego, na-achọ ịnweta ahịa ego mgbe niile maka ego mpụga. [11] isi obodo nke ụlọ ọrụ nwere ike ịnwe nnukwu ụgwọ, nke na-ekpughe ụlọ ọrụ ahụ n'ihe ize ndụ ọmụrụ nwa. Ọ bụrụ na ọnụego arịgo, ụlọ ọrụ ahụ ga-enye uru dị elu iji dọta Ndị na-etinye ego na bond, na-akwalite mmefu ọmụrụ nwa nke ndị ọrụ. bụrụ na ụgwọ ụlọ ọrụ ahụ na ọmụrụ nwa na-efu ga-adị oke, ọnụego ụgwọ ya ga-akawanye njọ, na-eme ka ọnụahịa nke isi obodo dịkwuo elu ma nwee ike igbochi ohere ịbanye n'ahịa isi obodo.

Site na mba[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Azerbaijan[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

 

Chad[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Colombia[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Turkey[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

United Kingdom na Ireland[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Na United Kingdom na Ireland, steeti, ụlọ ọrụ onwe, na ọrụ ebere na-arụ ọrụ ọha na eze. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, e guzobere Mpaghara Ahụike na England na Wales na 1875 na Ireland na 1878.   [citation needed]

Okwu a nwere ike izo aka na Ọrụ nsị iche iche nke ụlọ ọrụ dị iche na-enye nke ọha na eze na-eji na ndụ kwa ụbọchị, dị ka: mmepụta ọkụ eletrik, ire ọkụ eletrik. [12] Ofgem, Ofwat na Ofcom na-achịkwa ha. Enwere ike itinye ọrụ njem obodo ndị nwere nkwarụ n'ime nkọwa ahụ mgbe ụfọdụ. A na-emekarị ka ha bụrụ ndị nweere onwe ha na UK n'oge afọ 1980.

United States[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ihe mbụ ọha na eze na United States bụ ihe igwe ihe e guzobere na Mother Brook na Dedham, Massachusetts na 1640.

Na US, ụlọ ọrụ ọha na eze na-enye ọrụ na ọkwa ndị ahịa, ma ọ bụ ebe obibi, azụmahịa, ma ọ bụrụ ụlọ ọrụ ndị ahịa. Ndị ọrụ, ndị na-emepụta ike na ndị na-azụ ahịa buru ibu na-azụta ma na-ere ọkụ eletrik buru ibu na ọkwa zuru oke site na netwọk nke ụlọ ọrụ nnyefe mpaghara (RTO) na ndị ọrụ sistemụ onwe ha (ISO) n'ime otu n'ime grid atọ, Eastern Interconnection, Texas Interconnection.   [citation needed]

U.S. utilities na-arụ ọrụ n'akụkọ ihe mere eme na ogo dị elu nke ego na obere ọnụ ọgụgụ mkpuchi ọmụrụ nwa ma e jiri ya tụnyere ụlọ ọrụ mmepụta ihe. Ndị na-etinye ego nabatara njirimara ndị a n'ihi iwu nke ụlọ ọrụ ahụ na nkwenye na enwere obere ihe ize ndụ nke ịda ogbenye n'ihi ọrụ ndị dị mkpa ha na-enye. [13]'ime iri afọ ndị na-adịbeghị anya, ọtụtụ ụlọ ọrụ na-arụ ọrụ dị elu agbaala echiche a aka.

Monopoly vs. asọmpi[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

A na-ewere ọrụ ọha na eze n'akụkọ ihe mere eme dị ka ndị na-achịkwa ihe okike n'ihi na akụrụngwa achọrọ iji mepụta ma nyefee ngwaahịa dịka ọkụ eletrik ma ọ bụ mmiri dị oke ọnụ iji wuo ma lekọta. Ozugbo akụ [14] ka ụlọ ọrụ ike ma ọ bụ eriri nnyefe dị, ọnụahịa nke ịgbakwunye onye ahịa ọzọ dị obere, na duplication nke ụlọ ọrụ ga-abụ mmebi. [15][16]'iwu ya, ụlọ ọrụ ndị ọrụ gọọmentị, ma ọ bụ ma ọ bụrụ na ndị na-etinye ego nwere ya, nke ụlọ ọrụ ndị na-ahụ maka ọrụ ọha na eze na-achịkwa.

N'ime ụlọ ọrụ eletrik, usoro nchịkwa malitere ịgbanwe na 1990s. N'afọ 1996, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) nyere iwu ya nke 888, nke nyere iwu ka ụlọ ọrụ eletrik meghee ohere ịnweta usoro nnyefe ha iji bulie asọmpi ma "na-arụ ọrụ" ọrụ nnyefe ha site na ọrụ ha ndị ọzọ. [17] ahụ kwalite ọrụ nke onye [18]-arụ ọrụ na-arụ onwe ya iji jikwaa ike na-aga na grid eletrik. Mgb[19] e mesịrị, FERC Order No. 889 guzobere usoro ozi eletrọniki a na-akpọ OASIS (usoro ozi na-emeghe ohere n'otu oge) nke ga-enye ndị ọrụ ọhụrụ nke akara nnyefe ohere ịnweta otu ozi ahụ dị na onye nwe netwọk ahụ. Nsonaazụ nke mkpebi nchịkwa ndị a na ndị ọzọ bụ mgbanwe nke ọchịchị ọdịnala na-achịkwa otu nke ndị na-ere ike niile nwere ike ịsọ mpi. [20][21] ọzọ [22] nhazi ụlọ ọrụ, "nhọrọ ndị ahịa", sochiri na steeti 19, na-enye ndị ahịa eletrik na-ere ahịa nhọrọ ndị na-abụghị ndị na-ere ọkụ na-ejere ozi. [1] [2] [3]

Ọdịdị nke onye nwe ya[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ọrụ ọha na eze nwere ike ịbụ nke onwe ma ọ bụ nke ọha na eze. Ọrụ ndị ọha na eze nwere gụnyere ọrụ mmekorita na nke obodo. Ọrụ Obodo nwere ike ịgụnye ókèala ndị na-abụghị obodo ma ọ bụ ọbụna ghara ijere obodo ahụ dum ozi. Ndị ahịa ha na-ejere ozi nwere ụlọ ọrụ na-arụkọ ọrụ ọnụ. A na-ahụkarị ha n'ime ime obodo. Ọrụ ọha na eze na-abụghị uru.   [citation needed] Ndị ọrụ onwe onye, nke a na-akpọkwa ndị ọrụ nke Ndị na-etinye ego, bụ ndị na- itinye ego, [23] [24] [25] ma na-arụ ọrụ maka uru, nke a-akpọkarị ọnụego nloghachi.

Kọmitii na-ahụ maka ọrụ ọha na eze bụ ụlọ ọrụ gọọmentị dị n'otu ikike nke na-achịkwa ọrụ azụmahịa metụtara ụlọ ọrụ eletrik, gas, nkwukọrịta, mmiri, ụgbọ okporo ígwè, ụgbọ okporo ụzọ, na / ma ọ bụ ụlọ ọrụ ụgbọ njem. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, California Public Utilities Commission (ma ọ bụ CPUC) [26] na Public Utility Commission nke Texas na-achịkwa ụlọ ọrụ ndị ọrụ na California na Texas, n'otu n'otu, maka ụmụ amaala ha na ndị na-akwụ ụgwọ (ndị ahịa). Ndị ọrụ ọha [27] eze ndị a (PUCs) na-abụkarị ndị kọmishọna, ndị ndị gọvanọ ha họpụtara, na ndị ọrụ raara onwe ha nye na-etinye iwu na ụkpụrụ, kwado ma ọ bụ jụ mmụba ọnụego, ma nyochaa / kọọ maka ọrụ ndị dị mkpa.

Omume nyocha [28] US na-ekwu na a ga-edozi ọnụego ndị ahịa na-akwụ na ọkwa nke na-eme ka o doo anya na ọrụ ahụ nwere ike inye ọrụ a pụrụ ịdabere na ya na ọnụahịa ezi uche dị na ya.

Kemgbe ọtụtụ afọ, mgbanwe dị iche iche agbanweela ọrụ na nlebara anya nke ọtụtụ ọrụ ọha na eze. Ha na-elekwasị anya na nhazi ihu nke ọnụego na ọrụ gaa na nlekọta nke ahịa asọmpi na itinye n'ọrụ iwu.   [citation needed]

Hụkwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  • Ihe nlereanya ụlọ, ụdị iwu ọha na eze nke a na-ahụkarị na Australia

Edensibia[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. What is a public utility? Definition and meaning (en-US). Market Business News. Retrieved on 2023-04-25.
  2. Public Utility | Encyclopedia.com. www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved on 2021-04-27.
  3. What is a public utility? Definition and meaning (en-US). Market Business News. Retrieved on 2023-04-25.
  4. What is a public utility? Definition and meaning (en-US). Market Business News. Retrieved on 2023-04-25.
  5. What is a public utility? Definition and meaning (en-US). Market Business News. Retrieved on 2023-04-25.
  6. Ulbrich (1991). "Natural Monopoly in Principles Textbooks: A Pedagogical Note.". The Journal of Economic Education 22 (2 (Spring 1991)): 179–182. DOI:10.1080/00220485.1991.10844706. 
  7. Clark (5 November 2019). Electricity customer choice program participation examined (Nov, 15, 2019). Daily Energy Insider. Retrieved on 14 May 2021.
  8. FERC Order 888.
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