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Access to justice

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Ịnweta ikpe ziri ezi bụ ụkpụrụ bụ isi na iwu nke iwu nke na-akọwa otú ụmụ amaala si enwe ohere nhata na usoro iwu na gburugburu ha.[1] Ọtụtụ ọnọdụ nwere atụmatụ na mmemme e mere iji nye ndị mmadụ ọrụ iwu nke nwere ike inwe ihe isi ike inweta ndụmọdụ iwu na nnọchi anya. Enweghị ohere ikpe ziri ezi, ndị mmadụ enweghị ike iji ikike ha mee ihe n'ụzọ zuru ezu, ịma aka ịkpa ókè, ma ọ bụ jide ndị na-eme mkpebi maka omume ha.[2]

Ụzọ mba dị iche iche si enyere ụmụ amaala ha aka inweta ikpe ziri ezi dịgasị iche site na mba. Enwere ike ịbawanye ohere ikpe ziri ezi site na ụlọ ọrụ enyemaka iwu na-enye ndị ogbenye ọrụ iwu n'efu, na site na mmemme pro bono nke ndị ọka iwu afọ ofufo na-enye ọrụ na nnọchiteanya n'ụlọ ikpe, ma ọ bụ site na mmemme ndị ọzọ e mere iji nyere ndị mmadụ aka inweta ngwọta iwu site n'ụlọ ikpe ma ọ bụ ụlọ ọrụ ikpe ziri ezi ndị ọzọ.[3][4][5]

Atụmatụ mba ụwa[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Free Access to Law Movement[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

E hiwere Free Access to Law Movement (FALM) na 1992, na ebumnuche nke inye ohere ntanetị n'efu maka ozi iwu na ihe onwunwe. N'afọ 2002, FALM nakweere Nkwupụta na Free Access to Law. Ihe mgbaru ọsọ nke mmegharị ahụ bụ iji hụ na onye ọ bụla nwere ozi iwu n'efu. Nkwupụta ahụ kwupụtara ozi iwu ọha na eze dị ka ihe nketa nkịtị nke ihe a kpọrọ mmadụ.

Òtù ndị otu FALM, ọkachasị site na Ịntanetị, tinyere aka na mbipụta zuru oke nke ozi iwu mbụ na nke abụọ. Ihe atụ mbụ gụnyere Legal Information Institute na Cornell Law School na Australasian Legal Information Institute, ọrụ nkwonkwo nke Mahadum Teknụzụ Sydney na Mahadum New South Wales. Nke ikpeazụ gụnyere nnabata mbụ nke teknụzụ nke bekee kpọrọ hypertext iji gosipụta iwu dị ka netwọk nke nodes, nke ọ bụla na-anọchite anya ngalaba.[6][7]

N'afọ 2013, ụlọ akwụkwọ Cornell Law School guzobere Journal of Open Access to Law, iji kwalite nnyocha mba ụwa banyere isiokwu nke ohere mepere emepe maka iwu.[8]

Mmalite site na mba[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Japan[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Japan Legal Support Center, nke a na-akpọ JLSC, na-aha mkpirisi na-enye ohere iwu maka ikpe ziri ezi n'ebe ọ bụla na Japan.[9] E hiwere JLSC n'ọnwa Eprel 10, n'afọ 2006, ha wee malite ọrụ ha n'ọnwa Ọktoba 2, 2006.

JLSC nwere ụlọ ọrụ mpaghara iri ise (50) na alaka ụlọ ọrụ iri na otu (11) nke ụlọ ọrụ mpaghara.

Myanmar[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

MyJustice bụ otú European Union na-funded Access to Justice Initiative na-ezube iji ịkwadebe ndị Myanmar na ihe ọmụma, obi ike na ohere iji dozie esemokwu n'ụzọ ziri ezi, n'ụzọ zuru ezu na n'ụzọ kwụ ọtọ.[10] Kemgbe afọ 2015, ha eguzobewo ọtụtụ "ụlọ ikpe ziri ezi" na mba Myanmar iji meziwanye ohere ikpe ziri ezi site n'inye ndụmọdụ iwu n'efu nye ndị nwere obere ego na ndị nọ n'akụkụ, yana itinye aka na ọrụ ndị metụtara iwebata enyemaka iwu na ọzụzụ iwu.[11]

Pakistan[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Access to Justice Initiatives (AJI) bụ ụyọkọ ọrụ nke Sarhad Rural Support Programme (SRSP) na Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, nke ebumnuche ya bụ ịkwalite mmata iwu na inye ụmụ amaala ike na ọkwa azụmaahịa site n'ime ka ha nwee ike ịkwado maka ikike ha ma chọọ ngwọta maka nsogbu iwu ha.[12][13][14]

Nhazi[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Access to Justice Initiatives gụnyere ọrụ ndị a:[15]

  1. Inye ikike iwu
  2. Aitebaar Alternate Dispute Resolution
  3. Aitebaar Awareness Rising
  4. Ime ka Iwu Iwu dị ike na Malakand
  5. Mkpebi Esemokwu Dabere na Obodo

Akụkụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Otu ihe a na-ahụkarị na ọrụ ndị ahụ bụ na ha niile na-ezube ime ka ikike nke obodo ndị nwere nsogbu iji chebe ikike ha na isonye ma jide ụlọ ọrụ ọha na eze.[16] N'ime obodo ndị isi ọdịnala, òtù ọha na eze na-eche ihe ịma aka ihu n'ịkwalite ịnweta ọrụ maka ndị a na-eleghara anya na ndị na-adịghị ike.[17][18]

Ọrụ ndị ahụ na-achọ idozi nsogbu nke njikọ na-adịghị ike n'etiti usoro ikpe ziri ezi na enweghị nkwado iwu a pụrụ ịdabere na ya.[19][20] Ụfọdụ n'ime ọrụ ndị ahụ na-elekwasị anya na ụlọ ọrụ ikpe ziri ezi na-enweghị usoro ka e wee nwee ike iji usoro idozi esemokwu ọzọ dozie esemokwu na ọkwa obodo, ebe ọ na-enye aka ịmepụta nnọkọ maka mkparịta ụka n'etiti usoro iwu na usoro na-akwadoghị.[21] A na-azụ ndị otu obodo dị ka ndị ọka iwu iji dozie ọdịiche dị n'etiti ndị otu ọha mmadụ na ụlọ ọrụ steeti. N'ebe ndị dịpụrụ adịpụ na azụ nke Pakistan, ọha na eze n'ozuzu ha na-ala azụ ịtụkwasị ndị uwe ojii ma ọ bụ ndị ọka iwu obi mana ha na-egosi ọchịchọ dị ukwuu ịtụkwasị ndị ama ama nke obodo ha obi, ndị na-edozi esemokwu site na usoro Jirga.[22][23] A na-agwa ndị ọka iwu na ndị ogbugbo banyere ikike mmadụ, usoro iwu na oke ikike ha n'idozi esemokwu dị mgbagwoju anya.[24][25][26] Nke a na-ahụ na ikike nke ndị sonyere na ya adịghị efu. A chọrọ ka ndị kansụl na-edozi esemokwu nke a kpọrọ Dispute Resolution Councils (DRC’s) n'asụsụ bekee guzobere na nke a na-arụkọ ọrụ na ndị uwe ojii obodo iji hụ na ha doro anya na arụmọrụ.[27][28][29] A zụrụ ọnụ ọgụgụ dị ukwuu nke ụmụnwanyị dị ka ndị ogbugbo na ndị ọka iwu iji mee ka mmemme ahụ nabata ụmụnwanyị.[30][31]

A na-enye enyemaka iwu nye ndị a na-enweghị ike idozi nsogbu ha site na mkparịta ụka, nkwekọrịta, ogbugbo ma ọ bụ usoro ndị ọzọ na-enweghị usoro. Ọtụtụ mgbe, ikpe nke kwesịrị enyemaka iwu na-agụnye nsogbu nke alụmdi na nwunye ụmụaka, alụmdi na nwunye mmanye, obi ọjọọ alụmdi na nwunye, nchekwa ụmụaka, ịpụ ihe nketa, ịkpa ókè wdg.[32][33]

United States[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

N'ihi na ihe nlereanya ọdịnala maka ọrụ nnyefe chọrọ ka a rụọ ọrụ iwu niile n'ụzọ a kapịrị ọnụ, ịnye ọrụ iwu n'ozuzu ya enweghị ike. Ezinụlọ ndị na-erughị eru maka enyemaka iwu mana ha enweghị ike imeli ọrụ iwu n'ụzọ dị mfe na-enweghị ike site na ụdị ọdịnala. Otu akụkọ nke American Bar Association Standing Committee on the Delivery of Legal Services chọpụtara na "n'etiti ezinụlọ ndị nwere ego dị nro, 39% jiri usoro iwu gbalịa idozi nsogbu iwu ha, 23% nwara idozi n'enweghị enyemaka iwu, na 26% emeghị ihe ọ bụla. "[34]

Ngwọta teknụzụ[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

Ndị ọka iwu, ndị na-emepụta ihe, na ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị kọmputa atụlewo ụzọ isi jiri teknụzụ meziwanye ohere ndị na-abụghị ndị ọka iwu inweta ikpe ziri ezi.[35]

Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT's) Institute of Design na Chicago-Kent College of Law jikọrọ aka na nhazigharị ọtụtụ afọ nke ahụmịhe ụlọ ikpe nke ndị na-anọchite anya onwe ha. Akụkọ ha nke afọ 2002 dere nyocha ha banyere usoro enyemaka ugbu a, ịmepụta usoro nhazi ọhụrụ, na atụmatụ maka nhazi usoro ọhụrụ.[36] Akụkọ ahụ na-etinyekwa ọtụtụ atụmatụ echiche, na-echegharị otú usoro ụlọ ikpe nwere ike isi rụọ ọrụ na ndị mmadụ nwere ike ịnweta ya. Ụfọdụ n'ime aro ha gụnyere:

  • "CourtNet", netwọk dị n'ime ụlọ ikpe, iji jikọta ndị ọrụ ikpe na ọha na eze;
  • "Interactive Translator", ngwá ọrụ ngwanrọ nke enwere ike iji mee ihe n'ajụjụ ọnụ na mgbanwe ụlọ ikpe, nwere ike ịsụgharị nkwukọrịta ọnụ na ederede n'asụsụ dị iche iche;
  • "Archetypes", ikpo okwu nchọpụta nke na-egosipụta nsogbu iwu nke ndị ọrụ, na-ahazi ha, ma na-enye ọrụ ntụgharị;
  • "Pursuit Evaluator", ngwá ọrụ ntanetị iji nye ndị nwere ike ịlụ ọgụ ohere ịtụle ma ịchụso ikpe ga-aba uru oge, ego, na mgbalị ha
  • "Complaint Formulator", interface kọmputa iji mee ka ndị na-ese okwu wepụ data site na ọnọdụ nsogbu ha ma chịkọta ya n'ime akwụkwọ iwu dị iche iche;
  • "Informer", ngwanrọ nke na-eji ikpe sample iji nyere ndị na-ese okwu aka ịmepụta ụdị nke ha ma kụziere ha otu esi ede akwụkwọ n'ụzọ ziri ezi; na
  • "Case Tracker", ihe nchekwa mmekọrịta nke akụkọ ihe mere eme nke onye na-ese okwu, nke na-enye oge doro anya na ntụgharị aka na omume ndị gara aga.

Berkman Center na Harvard Law School anọwo na-arụ ọrụ na onye ọka ikpe ụlọ ikpe ụlọ Massachusetts Dina Fein iji mepụta ohere maka ikpe ziri ezi na steeti maka ndị na-ekpe ikpe, ndị na-enweghị ego, ndị na-ese okwu na-amaghị asụsụ Bekee, na ndị nwere nkwarụ.[37]

CodeX, Stanford Center for Legal Informatics, na-akwado ọrụ ndị dị ka Legal.io na Ravel Law, na-ekwu maka itinye aka na ozi iwu iji nweta nsogbu ikpe ziri ezi, ma na-akpọkọta obodo na-eweta ndị na-eme nnyocha, ndị ọka iwu, ndị ọchụnta ego na ndị ọkachamara na nkà na ụzụ ọnụ iji rụọ ọrụ n'akụkụ n'akụkụ iji kwalite ókèala nke teknụzụ iwu.[38]

Ebenside[dezie | dezie ebe o si]

  1. Rashid. Access to Justice (en-US). United Nations and the Rule of Law. Retrieved on 2022-03-21.
  2. Access to Justice. United Nations and the Rule of Law. United Nations. Retrieved on 12 May 2019.
  3. Resource Center for Access to Justice Initiatives. American Bar Association. Retrieved on 12 May 2019.
  4. Pro Bono and Volunteer Programs. Center on Court Access to Justice for All. National Center for State Courts. Archived from the original on 12 May 2019. Retrieved on 12 May 2019.
  5. Necessary Condition: Access to Justice. United States: Institute of Peace. Retrieved on 12 May 2019.
  6. Legal_Information_Institutes.htm
  7. AustLII - Publications: AustLII - Libs Paper. austlii.edu.au. Retrieved on 26 December 2016.
  8. Journal of Open Access to Law. cornell.edu. Retrieved on 26 December 2016.
  9. Japan Legal Support Center|法テラス. www.houterasu.or.jp. Archived from the original on 2022-01-22. Retrieved on 2022-04-20.
  10. About | MyJustice Myanmar. myjusticemyanmar.org. Retrieved on 2020-04-17.
  11. Union Legal Aid Board to provide help for poor people in pilot project. The Myanmar Times (2018-05-07). Archived from the original on 2021-11-29. Retrieved on 2020-04-17.
  12. Kundi. "Call to enhance role of paralegals for protection of human rights", DAWN, 26 July 2016.
  13. Global Legal Empowerment Initiative. Open Society Justice Initiative (2014).
  14. Training in basic laws & alternative dispute resolution concludes. The News International (27 December 2016).
  15. Access to Justice Initiatives. Sarhad Rural Support Programme (2016). Archived from the original on 2017-08-19. Retrieved on 2022-04-21.
  16. (2015) Sarhad Rural Support Programme Annual Review 2014-2015. Islamabad: M.R Printers, Islamabad, 16. 
  17. Legal Empowerment: A platform for resilence, innovation and growth.. WANA Institute (12 June 2014).
  18. Teale (2016-12-01). How to pay for legal empowerment: alternative structures and sources. Open Democracy.
  19. "Conference: Practical steps to protect legal rights of rural communities.", The Express Tribune, 2013-04-30. (in en-US)
  20. "Initiative to strengthen alternative dispute resolution system", DAWN, 25 September 2014.
  21. "Marc-André Franche, Country Director, UNDP in Pakistan visited Swat", Relief Web, 2013-07-08. (in en)
  22. Kundi. "Call to enhance role of paralegals for protection of human rights", DAWN, 2016-07-26.
  23. SRL arranges workshop for capacity building of DRCs representatives. Daily Times (24 December 2016). Archived from the original on 31 December 2016. Retrieved on 21 April 2022.
  24. "DRCs’ members briefed about legal system", DAWN, 2016-12-23.
  25. "Dir nazim assures DRCs of his support", DAWN, 2016-12-24.
  26. "Role of DRCs highlighted", The Nation, 28 December 2016. (in en-US)
  27. "Training for DRC members concludes", DAWN, 27 December 2016.
  28. "Work of Shangla DRCs reviewed", DAWN, 1 January 2016.
  29. "Role of DRCs in people’s access to justice highlighted", DAWN, 30 December 2016.
  30. "Step aside men: Women mediators trained in alternative dispute resolution.", The Express Tribune, 2014-10-04. (in en-US)
  31. "Dispute Resolution Council training workshop ends", Pakistan Observer, 31 December 2016. (in en-US)
  32. Starting a New Story: How Access to Justice Is Untangling Women's Lives in Northern Pakistan. Open Society Foundations (28 May 2014).
  33. Linking Justice to Development in Northern Pakistan. Open Society Foundations (9 June 2014).
  34. Standing Committee on the Delivery of Legal Services - Standing Committee / Delivery of Legal Services. abanet.org. Archived from the original on 14 February 2009. Retrieved on 26 December 2016.
  35. See CodeX Techindex. Stanford Law School, n.d. Web. 16 June 2017. <https://techindex.law.stanford.edu/>.
  36. Charles L. Owen, Edward B. Pedwell, and Ronald W. Staudt, "Access to Justice: Meeting the Needs of Self-Represented Litigants", 2002. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved on 2019-05-12.
  37. Technology and Access to Justice - Berkman Klein Center. harvard.edu. Archived from the original on 5 February 2014. Retrieved on 26 December 2016.
  38. School. CodeX | Stanford Law School. Stanford Law School. Retrieved on May 31, 2016.